Lin et al. explore the roles the chloride ion channel and transporters Clc-k1 and Clc-k2 in the thick ascending limb and renal medulla development. The cover image shows immunolabeled thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop from mouse kidney visualized using light-sheet fluorescent microscopy to detect sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter type 2.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are used to treat diabetes and obesity and reduce rates of major cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the identity of GLP-1R-expressing cell types mediating the cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1RA remains incompletely characterized. Herein, we investigated the importance of murine Glp1r expression within endothelial and hematopoietic cells. Mice with targeted inactivation of the Glp1r in Tie2+ cells exhibited reduced levels of Glp1r mRNA transcripts in aorta, liver, spleen, blood and gut. Glp1r expression in bone marrow cells was very low, and not further reduced in Glp1rTie2-/- mice. The GLP-1RA semaglutide reduced the development of atherosclerosis induced by viral PCSK9 expression in both Glp1rTie2+/+ and Glp1rTie2-/- mice. Hepatic Glp1r mRNA transcripts were reduced in Glp1rTie2-/- mice and liver Glp1r expression was localized to γδ T cells. Moreover, semaglutide reduced hepatic Tnf, Abcg1, Tgfb1, Cd3g, Ccl2, and Il2 expression, triglyceride content and collagen accumulation in high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet-fed Glp1rTie2+/+ but not Glp1rTie2-/- mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Tie2+ endothelial or hematopoietic cell GLP-1Rs are dispensable for the anti-atherogenic actions of GLP-1RA, whereas Tie2-targeted GLP-1R+ cells are required for a subset of the anti-inflammatory actions of semaglutide in the liver.
Brent McLean, Chi Kin Wong, Kiran Deep Kaur, Randy J. Seeley, Daniel J. Drucker
Ischemic retinopathies including diabetic retinopathy are major causes of blindness. While neurons and Müller glia are recognized as important regulators of reparative and pathologic angiogenesis, the role of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), such as microglia/macrophages, is unclear, particularly microglia, the resident retinal immune cells. Here we found microglial/macrophage activation in human diabetic retinopathy, especially in neovessels from human neovascular membranes in proliferative retinopathy, including TNF-α expression. There was similar activation in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model of ischemia-induced neovascularization. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are in clinical use for glycemic control in diabetes and are also known to modulate microglia. We investigated the effect of a long-acting GLP-1R agonist, NLY01. Following intravitreal administration, NLY01 selectively localized to MPs in OIR retina. NLY01 modulated MP but not retinal endothelial cell viability, apoptosis, and tube formation in vitro. In OIR, NLY01 treatment inhibited MP infiltration and activation, including microglia/macrophage expression of cytokines in vivo. NLY01 significantly suppressed global induction of retinal inflammatory cytokines, promoted reparative angiogenesis, and suppressed pathologic retinal neovascularization. Collectively, these findings indicate the important role of microglia/macrophages in regulation of retinal vascularization in ischemia and suggest modulation of MPs as a new treatment strategy for ischemic retinopathies.
Lingli Zhou, Zhenhua Xu, Yumin Oh, Rico Gamuyao, Grace Lee, Yangyiran Xie, Hongkwan Cho, Seulki Lee, Elia J. Duh
Medulloblastoma (MB), one of the most malignant brain tumors of childhood, comprises distinct molecular subgroups, with p53 mutant sonic hedgehog (SHH)-activated MB patients having a very severe outcome that is associated with unfavorable histological large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) features. To identify the molecular underpinnings of this phenotype, we analyzed a large cohort of MBs developing in p53-deficient Ptch+/- SHH mice that, unexpectedly, showed LC/A traits that correlated with mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation. Mechanistically, mTORC1 hyperactivation was mediated by a decrease in the p53-dependent expression of mTORC1 negative regulator Tsc2. Ectopic mTORC1 activation in mouse MB cancer stem cells (CSCs) promoted the in vivo acquisition of LC/A features and increased malignancy; accordingly, mTORC1 inhibition in p53-mutant Ptch+/- SHH MBs and CSC-derived MBs resulted in reduced tumor burden and aggressiveness. Most remarkably, mTORC1 hyperactivation was detected only in p53-mutant SHH MB patients’ samples and treatment with rapamycin of a human preclinical model phenocopying this subgroup decreased tumor growth and malignancy. Thus, mTORC1 may act as a specific druggable target for this subset of SHH MB, resulting in the implementation of a stringent risk stratification and in the potentially rapid translation of this precision medicine approach into the clinical setting.
Valentina Conti, Manuela Cominelli, Valentina Pieri, Alberto L. Gallotti, Ilaria Pagano, Matteo Zanella, Stefania Mazzoleni, Flavia Pivetta, Monica Patanè, Giulia M. Scotti, Ignazio S. Piras, Bianca Pollo, Andrea Falini, Alessio Zippo, Antonella Castellano, Roberta Maestro, Pietro L. Poliani, Rossella Galli
Immune cells exhibit low-level, constitutive signaling at rest (tonic signaling). Such tonic signals are required for fundamental processes, including the survival of B lymphocytes, but when elevated by genetic or environmental causes can lead to autoimmunity. Events that control ongoing signal transduction are therefore tightly regulated by submembrane cytoskeletal polymers like filamentous (F)-actin. The actin-binding proteins that underpin the process, however, are poorly described. By investigating patients with ARPC1B-deficiency, we report that ARPC1B-containing ARP2/3 complexes are stimulated by Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) to nucleate the branched actin networks that control tonic signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR). Despite an upregulation of ARPC1A, ARPC1B-deficient cells were not capable of WASP-mediated nucleation by ARP2/3 and this caused the loss of WASP-dependent structures including podosomes in macrophages and lamellipodia in B cells. In the B cell compartment, ARPC1B-deficiency also led to weakening of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton that normally curtails the diffusion of B cell receptors and ultimately resulted in increased tonic lipid signaling, oscillatory calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and phosphorylated Akt. These events contributed to skewing the threshold for B cell activation in response to microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Thus, ARPC1B is critical for ARP2/3 complexes to control steady-state signaling of immune cells.
Gabriella Leung, Yuhuan Zhou, Philip Ostrowski, Sivakami Mylvaganam, Parastoo Boroumand, Daniel J. Mulder, Conghui Guo, Aleixo M. Muise, Spencer Freeman
Angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer, is induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). As a result, anti-VEGF therapy is commonly employed for cancer treatment. Recent studies have found that VEGF expression is also associated with immune suppression in cancer patients. This connection has been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies by evaluating the therapeutic effect of combining anti-angiogenic reagents with immune therapy. However, the mechanisms of how anti-VEGF strategies enhance immune therapy are not fully understood. We and others have shown selective elevation of VEGFR2 expression on tumor-associated myeloid cells in tumor-bearing animals. Here we investigated the function of VEGFR2+ myeloid cells in regulating tumor immunity and found VEGF induces an immunosuppressive phenotype in VEGFR2+ myeloid cells including directly upregulating the expression of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Moreover, we found that VEGF blockade inhibits the immunosuppressive phenotype of VEGFR2+ myeloid cells, increases T cell activation and enhances the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. This study highlights the function of VEGFR2 on myeloid cells and provides mechanistic insight on how VEGF inhibition potentiates immune checkpoint blockade.
Yuqing Zhang, Huocong Huang, Morgan Coleman, Arturas Ziemys, Purva Gopal, Syed M. Kazmi, Rolf A. Brekken
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