Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) are associated with anti-tumor response following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, but a commensurate observation of TLS is absent for immune related adverse events (irAEs) i.e. acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). We hypothesized that TLS-associated inflammatory gene signatures are present in AIN and performed NanoString-based gene expression and multiplex 12-chemokine profiling on paired kidney tissue, urine and plasma specimens of 36 participants who developed acute kidney injury (AKI) on ICI therapy: AIN (18), acute tubular necrosis (9), or HTN nephrosclerosis (9). Increased T and B cell scores, a Th1-CD8+ T cell axis accompanied by interferon-g and TNF superfamily signatures were detected in the ICI-AIN group. TLS signatures were significantly increased in AIN cases and supported by histopathological identification. Furthermore, urinary TLS signature scores correlated with ICI-AIN diagnosis but not paired plasma. Urinary CXCL9 correlated best to tissue CXCL9 expression (rho 0.75, p < 0.001) and the ability to discriminate AIN vs. non-AIN (AUC 0.781, p-value 0.003). For the first time, we report the presence of TLS signatures in irAEs, define distinctive immune signatures, identify chemokine markers distinguishing ICI-AIN from common AKI etiologies and demonstrate that urine chemokine markers may be used as a surrogate for ICI-AIN diagnoses.
Shailbala Singh, James P. Long, Amanda Tchakarov, Yanlan Dong, Cassian Yee, Jamie S. Lin
Elevated circulating dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 is a biomarker for liver disease, but its involvement in gluconeogenesis and in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) progression remains unclear. Here we identified that DPP4 in hepatocytes but not Tie2+ endothelial cells regulates the local bioactivity of incretin hormones and gluconeogenesis. However, the complete absence of DPP4 (Dpp4-/-) in aged mice with metabolic syndrome accelerates liver fibrosis without altering dyslipidemia and steatosis. Analysis of transcripts from the livers of whole body Dpp4-/- displayed enrichment for inflammasome, p53, and senescence programs compared to littermate controls. High-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC)-feeding decreased Dpp4 expression in F4/80+ cells, with only minor changes in immune signaling. Moreover, in a lean mouse model of severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt -/-) mice fed with HFHC diet, we observed a 4-fold increase in circulating DPP4, disassociating its release from obesity. Lastly, we evaluated DPP4 levels in patients with hepatitis C infection with dysglycemia (HOMA-IR > 2) who underwent direct antiviral treatment (with or without ribavirin). DPP4 protein levels decreased with viral clearance, and DPP4 activity levels were reduced at longer-term follow-up in ribavirin-treated patients, although metabolic factors did not improve. These data suggest elevations in DPP4 during HCV infection are not primarily regulated by metabolic disturbances.
Natasha A. Trzaskalski, Branka Vulesevic, My-Anh Nguyen, Natasha Jeraj, Evgenia Fadzeyeva, Nadya M. Morrow, Cassandra A.A. Locatelli, Nicole Travis, Antonio A. Hanson, Julia R.C. Nunes, Conor O'Dwyer, Jelske N. Van der Veen, Ilka Lorenzen-Schmidt, Rick Seymour, Serena M. Pulente, Andrew C. Clément, Angela M. Crawley, René L. Jacobs, Mary-Anne Doyle, Curtis L. Cooper, Kyoung-Han Kim, Morgan D. Fullerton, Erin E. Mulvihill
Ciprofloxacin use may be associated with adverse aortic events. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of ciprofloxacin on the progression of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is not well understood. Using an in vitro microphysiological model, we treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) derived from patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)- or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV)-associated TAAs with ciprofloxacin. TAA C57/BL6 mouse models were utilized to verify the effects of ciprofloxacin exposure. In the microphysiological model, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and RNA sequencing showed that ciprofloxacin exposure was associated with a downregulated contractile phenotype, an upregulated inflammatory reaction, and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the normal HASMCs derived from the non-diseased aorta. Ciprofloxacin induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the HASMCs and further increased apoptosis by activating the ERK1/2 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These adverse effects appeared to be more severe in the HASMCs derived from BAV- and TAV-associated TAAs than in the normal HASMCs when the ciprofloxacin concentration exceeded 100 µg/mL. In the aortic walls of the TAA-induced mice, ECM degradation and apoptosis were aggravated after ciprofloxacin exposure. Therefore, ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with BAV- or TAV-associated TAAs.
Bitao Xiang, Mieradilijiang Abudupataer, Gang Liu, Xiaonan Zhou, Dingqian Liu, Shichao Zhu, Yang Ming, Xiujie Yin, Shiqiang Yan, Yongxin Sun, Hao Lai, Chunsheng Wang, Jun Li, Kai Zhu
Severe lung damage in COVID-19 involves complex interactions between diverse populations of immune and stromal cells. In this study, we used a spatial transcriptomics approach to delineate the cells, pathways and genes present across the spectrum of histopathological damage in COVID-19 lung tissue. We applied correlation network-based approaches to deconvolve gene expression data from 46 areas of interest covering >62,000 cells within well preserved lung samples from three patients. Despite substantial inter-patient heterogeneity, we discovered evidence for a common immune cell signaling circuit in areas of severe tissue that involves crosstalk between cytotoxic lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory macrophages. Expression of IFNG by cytotoxic lymphocytes was associated with induction of chemokines including CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 which are known to promote the recruitment of CXCR3+ immune cells. The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members BAFF (TNFSF13B) and TRAIL (TNFSF10) were found to be consistently upregulated in the areas with severe tissue damage. We used published spatial and single cell SARS-CoV-2 datasets to confirm our findings in the lung tissue from additional cohorts of COVID-19 patients. The resulting model of severe COVID-19 immune-mediated tissue pathology may inform future therapeutic strategies.
Amy R. Cross, Carlos E. de Andrea, María Villalba-Esparza, Manuel F. Landecho, Lucia Cerundolo, Praveen Weeratunga, Rachel E. Etherington, Laura Denney, Graham Ogg, Ling-Pei Ho, Ian S.D. Roberts, Joanna Hester, Paul Klenerman, Ignacio Melero, Stephen N. Sansom, Fadi Issa
Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) exert a critical role in sensing and maintaining vascular integrity. These cells abundantly express the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a large endocytic and signaling receptor that recognizes numerous ligands including ApoE-rich lipoproteins, proteases, and protease-inhibitor complexes. We observed the spontaneous formation of aneurysms in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of both male and female mice in which LRP1 was genetically deleted in v SMC (smLRP1-/- mice). Quantitative proteomics revealed elevated abundance of several proteins in smLRP1-/- mice that are known to be induced by angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated signaling, suggesting that this pathway is dysregulated. Administration of losartan, an AngII type I receptor antagonist, or an angiotensinogen antisense oligonucleotide to reduce plasma angiotensinogen concentrations restored the normal SMA phenotype in smLRP1-/- mice and prevented aneurysm formation. Additionally, employing a vascular injury model, we noted excessive vascular remodeling and neointima formation in smLRP1-/- mice that was restored by losartan administration. Together, these findings reveal that LRP1 regulates vascular integrity and remodeling of the SMA by attenuating excessive AngII-mediated signaling.
Jackie M. Zhang, Dianaly T. Au, Hisashi Sawada, Michael K. Franklin, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Deborah A. Howatt, Pengjun Wang, Brittany O. Aicher, Brian Hampton, Mary Migliorini, Fenge Ni, Adam E. Mullick, Mashhood M. Wani, Areck A. Ucuzian, Hong S. Lu, Selen C. Muratoglu, Alan Daugherty, Dudley K. Strickland
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