Lee et al. report a genotype-phenotype correlation matrix that provides quantifiable probabilities of long-term disease outcomes associated with specific ABCA4 genotypes from a large, age-restricted patient cohort.
Commensal microbes critically regulate skeletal homeostasis, yet the impact of specific microbiota communities on osteoimmune response mechanisms is unknown. To discern osteoimmunomodulatory effects imparted by the commensal oral microbiota that are distinct from the systemic microbiota, osteoimmunology studies were performed in both alveolar bone and non-oral skeletal sites of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) vs. germ-free (GF) mice, and SPF mice subjected to saline vs. chlorhexidine oral rinses. SPF vs. GF mice had reduced cortical/trabecular bone and an enhanced pro-osteoclastic phenotype in alveolar bone. Toll-like receptor signaling and TH17 cells that have known pro-osteoclastic actions were increased in alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. MHC class-II antigen presentation genes, activated dendritic cells, and activated CD4+ T-cells were elevated in alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. These findings were substantiated by in vitro allostimulation studies demonstrating increased activated dendritic cells derived from alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. Chlorhexidine antiseptic rinse depleted the oral, but not gut, bacteriome in SPF mice. Findings from saline- vs. chlorhexidine-treated SPF mice corroborated outcomes from SPF vs. GF mice, which reveals that the commensal oral microbiota imparts osteoimmunomodulatory effects separate from the systemic microbiome.
Jessica D. Hathaway-Schrader, Johannes D. Aartun, Nicole A. Poulides, Megan B. Kuhn, Blakely E. McCormick, Michael E. Chew, Emily Huang, Richard P. Darveau, Caroline Westwater, Chad M. Novince
COPD is a debilitating chronic disease and the third cause of mortality worldwide. It is characterized by airway neutrophilia, promoting tissue injury through release of toxic mediators and proteases. Recently, it has been shown that neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from COPD patient lungs can cause a neutrophil elastase (NE)-dependent COPD-like disease upon transfer to mouse airways. However in vivo preclinical models elucidating the impact of EVs on disease are lacking, delaying opportunities for therapeutic testing. Here, we developed an in vivo preclinical mouse model of lung EV-induced COPD. EVs from in vivo LPS activated mouse neutrophils induced COPD-like disease in naive recipients through an alpha-1 antitrypsin resistant, NE-dependent mechanism. Together, these results show a key pathogenic and mechanistic role for neutrophil-derived EVs in a new mouse model of COPD. Broadly, the in vivo model described herein could be leveraged to develop targeted therapies for severe lung disease.
Camilla Margaroli, Matthew C. Madison, Liliana Viera, Derek W. Russell, Amit Gaggar, Kristopher R. Genschmer, J. Edwin Blalock
Currently, the most effective strategy for dealing with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is delaying the onset of dementia. Severe hypoglycemia is strongly associated with dementia; however, the effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia (RH) on progression of cognitive deficits in diabetic patients with genetic susceptibility to AD remain unclear. Here, we report that insulin-controlled hyperglycemia only slightly aggravated AD-type pathologies and cognitive impairment; however, RH significantly increased neuronal hyperactivity and accelerated the progression of cognitive deficits in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic APP/PS1 mice. GLUT3-mediated neuronal glucose uptake was not significantly altered under hyperglycemia, but was markedly reduced by RH, which induced excessive mitochondrial fission in the hippocampus. Overexpression of GLUT3 specifically in DG area of hippocampus enhanced mitochondrial function and improved cognitive deficits induced by RH. Activation of TRPC6 increased GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake in brain and alleviated RH-induced cognitive deficits, and inactivation of Ca2+/AMPK pathway was responsible for TRPC6-induced GLUT3 inhibition. Taken together, RH impairs brain GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake and further provokes neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting TRPC6 expression, which then accelerates the progression of cognitive deficits in diabetic APP/PS1 mice. Avoiding RH is essential for glycemic control in diabetic patients, and TRPC6/GLUT3 represent potent targets for delaying the onset of dementia in diabetic patients.
Chengkang He, Qiang Li, Yuanting Cui, Peng Gao, WenTao Shu, Qing Zhou, Lijuan Wang, Li Li, Zongshi Lu, Yu Zhao, Huan Ma, Xiaowei Chen, Hongbo Jia, Hongting Zheng, Gangyi Yang, Daoyan Liu, Martin Tepel, Zhiming Zhu
Lung alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells are progenitors for alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells. Although many factors regulate AT2 cell plasticity, the role of mitochondrial calcium (mCa2+) uptake in controlling AT2 cells remains unclear. We previously identified that the microRNA family, miR-302, supports lung epithelial progenitor cell proliferation and less differentiated phenotypes during development. Here we report that a sustained elevation of miR-302 in adult AT2 cells decreases AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation during the Streptococcus pneumoniae induced lung injury repair. We identified that miR-302 targets and represses the expression of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake 1 (MICU1), which regulates mCa2+ uptake through the mCa2+ uniporter channel by acting as a gatekeeper at low cytosolic Ca2+ levels. Our results reveal a marked increase in MICU1 protein expression and decreased mCa2+ uptake during AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation in the adult lung. Deletion of Micu1 in AT2 cells reduces AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation during steady-state tissue maintenance and alveolar epithelial regeneration following bacterial pneumonia. These studies indicate that mCa2+ uptake is extensively modulated during AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation and that MICU1-dependent mCa2+ uniporter channel gating is a prominent mechanism modulating AT2-to-AT1 cell differentiation.
Mir Ali, Xiaoying Zhang, Ryan LaCanna, Dhanendra Tomar, John W. Elrod, Ying Tian
Symmetric, progressive, necrotizing lesions in the brainstem are a defining feature of Leigh syndrome (LS). A mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of these lesions has been elusive. Here, we report that leukocyte proliferation is causally involved in the pathogenesis of LS. Depleting leukocytes with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor disrupts disease progression, including suppression of CNS lesion formation and a substantial extension of survival. Leukocyte depletion rescues diverse symptoms including seizures, respiratory center function, hyperlactemia, and neurologic sequelae. These data reveal a mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of mTOR inhibition. More importantly, these findings dramatically alter our understanding of the pathogenesis of LS, demonstrating that immune involvement is causal in disease. This work has significant implications for the mechanisms of mitochondrial disease and may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.
Julia C. Stokes, Rebecca L. Bornstein, Katerina James, Kyung Yeon Park, Kira A. Spencer, Katie Vo, John C. Snell, Brittany M. Johnson, Philip G. Morgan, Margaret M. Sedensky, Nathan A. Baertsch, Simon C. Johnson
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