Aggor et al. report that a gut-specific bacterium can promote oral immunity to Candida albicans. Image credit: Rachel Bailey.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a local and/or systemic inflammatory disease that starts with acinar cell injury and necrosis, which has no effective medical treatment and thus remains a life-threatening condition. Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a natural immunomodulator, has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect; however, the role of IL-37 in AP remains unknown. The serum IL-37 levels of 39 healthy controls and 94 AP patients were measured. Cholecystokinin was applied to induce pancreatic acinar cell injury in vitro. Classical experimental AP models, such as caerulein, L-arginine, and Taurocholic acid sodium salt were included in the in vivo study. A transgenic mouse model with the IL-37 gene and administration of recombinant IL-37 were used to further investigate the function of IL-37 in AP. Pancreas-specific GSDMD knockout mice were used to explore the protective mechanism of IL-37. Our results showed that serum IL-37 levels of human were negatively correlated with the severity of AP. Furthermore, transgenic IL-37 mice and supplementation with recombinant IL-37 could both protect against AP. Mechanistically, IL-37 was able to suppress pyroptosis of injured acinar cells, and specific depletion of GSDMD in the pancreas counteracted the protective effect of IL-37. Our study demonstrates that IL-37 protects against acinar cell pyroptosis in AP.
Nan Ma, Chenchen Yuan, Juanjuan Shi, Qingtian Zhu, Yang Liu, Xiaojie Ma, Baiqiang Li, Weijuan Gong, Jing Xue, Guotao Lu, Weiqin Li, Jieshou Li
Disseminated coccidioidomycosis (DCM) is caused by Coccidioides, pathogenic fungi endemic to the Southwestern United States and Mexico. Illness occurs in approximately 30% of those infected, <1% of whom develop disseminated disease. To address why some individuals allow dissemination, we enrolled DCM patients and performed whole-exome sequencing. In an exploratory set of 67 DCM patients, two had haploinsufficient STAT3 mutations, while defects in β-glucan sensing and response were seen in 34/67 (50.7%) cases. Damaging CLEC7A (n=14) and PLCG2 (n=11) variants were associated with impaired production of β-glucan-stimulated TNF-α from peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared to healthy controls (P<0.005). Using ancestry-matched controls, damaging CLEC7A and PLCG2 variants were over-represented in DCM (P=0.0206, P=0.015, respectively) including CLEC7A Y238* (P=0.0105) and PLCG2 R268W (P=0.0025). A validation cohort of 111 DCM patients confirmed PLCG2 R268W (P=0.0276), CLEC7A I223S (P=0.044), and CLEC7A Y238* (P=0.0656). Stimulation with a DECTIN-1 agonist induced DUOX1/DUOXA1-derived H2O2 in transfected cells. Heterozygous DUOX1 or DUOXA1 variants which impaired H2O2 production were overrepresented in discovery and validation cohorts. Patients with DCM have impaired β-glucan sensing or response affecting TNF-α and H2O2 production. Impaired Coccidioides recognition and decreased cellular response are associated with disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
Amy P. Hsu, Agnieszka Korzeniowska, Cynthia C. Aguilar, Jingwen Gu, Eric Karlins, Andrew J. Oler, Gang Chen, Glennys V. Reynoso, Joie Davis, Alexandria Chaput, Tao Peng, Ling Sun, Justin B. Lack, Derek J. Bays, Ethan R. Stewart, Sarah E. Waldman, Daniel A. Powell, Fariba M. Donovan, Jigar V. Desai, Nima Pouladi, Debra A. Long Priel, Daisuke Yamanaka, Sergio D. Rosenzweig, Julie E. Niemela, Jennifer Stoddard, Alexandra F. Freeman, Christa S. Zerbe, Douglas B. Kuhns, Yves A. Lussier, Kenneth N. Olivier, Richard C. Boucher, Heather D. Hickman, Jeffrey Frelinger, Joshua Fierer, Lisa F. Shubitz, Thomas L. Leto, George R. Thompson III, John N. Galgiani, Michail S. Lionakis, Steven M. Holland
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease associated with the decay of pulmonary function leading to a fatal outcome. As an essential epigenetic regulator of DNA methylation, the involvement of Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) in fibroblast activation remains largely undefined in pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we found that growth factor–β1(TGF-β1)-mediated upregulation of UHRF1 repressed Beclin1 via its promoter methylation induction which finally results in fibroblast activation and lung fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of UHRF1 significantly arrested fibroblast proliferation and reactivated Beclin 1 in lung fibroblasts. Henceforth, intravenous administration of UHRF1 siRNA-loaded liposomes significantly protected mice against experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Accordingly, our data suggested that UHRF1 might be a novel potential therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
Demin Cheng, Yue Wang, Ziwei Li, Haojie Xiong, Wenqing Sun, Sichuan Xi, Siyun Zhou, Yi Liu, Chunhui Ni
Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities at birth, but it is not clear which of those defects arise from a transient developmental excess of thyroid hormone, and which depend on pregnancy stage, antithyroid drug choice, or unwanted subsequent fetal hypothyroidism. To address this issue we studied a mouse model of comprehensive developmental thyrotoxicosis secondary to a lack of type 3 deiodinase (DIO3). Dio3-/- mice exhibit reduced neonatal viability on most genetic backgrounds and perinatal lethality on a C57BL/6 background. Dio3-/- mice exhibit severe growth retardation during the neonatal period and cartilage loss. Mice surviving after birth manifest brain and cranial dysmorphisms, severe hydrocephalus, choanal atresia, and cleft palate. These abnormalities are noticeable in C57BL/6J Dio3-/- mice at fetal stages, in addition to a thyrotoxic heart with septal defects and thin ventricular walls. Our findings stress the protecting role of DIO3 during development and support the hypothesis that human congenital abnormalities associated with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are caused by transient thyrotoxicosis before clinical intervention. Our results also suggest thyroid hormone involvement in the etiology of idiopathic pathologies including cleft palate, choanal atresia, Chiari malformations, Kaschin-Beck disease, and Temple and other cranio-encephalic and heart syndromes.
M. Elena Martinez, Ilka Pinz, Marilena Preda, Christine R. Norton, Thomas Gridley, Arturo Hernandez
Primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD) are a group of disorders characterized by immune dysregulation, presenting with a wide range of clinical disease including autoimmunity, autoinflammation, or lymphoproliferation. Autosomal dominant germline gain-of-function (GOF) variants in STAT3 result in a PIRD with a broad clinical spectrum. Studies in patients have documented a decreased frequency of FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and an increased frequency of Th17 cells in some patients with active disease. However, the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in STAT3 GOF syndrome remain largely unknown, and treatment is challenging. We developed a knock-in mouse model harboring a de novo pathogenic human STAT3 variant (p.G421R) and found these mice developed T cell dysregulation, lymphoproliferation and CD4+ Th1 cell skewing. Surprisingly, Treg cell numbers, phenotype, and function remained largely intact, however mice had a selective deficiency in the generation of iTreg cells. In parallel, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing on T cells from STAT3 GOF patients. We demonstrate only minor changes in the Treg cell transcriptional signature and an expanded, effector CD8+ T cell population. Together, these findings suggest Treg cells are not the primary driver of disease and highlight the importance of preclinical models in the study of disease mechanisms in rare PIRD.
Erica G. Schmitt, Kelsey A. Toth, Samuel I. Risma, Ana Kolicheski, Nermina Saucier, Rafael J. Feliciano Berríos, Zev J. Greenberg, Jennifer W. Leiding, Jack J. Bleesing, Akaluck Thatayatikom, Laura G. Schuettpelz, John R. Edwards, Tiphanie P. Vogel, Megan A. Cooper
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