In this issue, Mehrpouya-Bahrami et al. uncover a key role for STAT4 in multiple neutrophil functions and innate immune responses. The cover art depicts the production of neutrophiI extracellular traps. Image credit: Cristina Risi.
Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are controlled by anterograde regulatory pathways involving more than one thousand nuclear-encoded proteins. Transcriptional networks controlling the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that histone demethylase LSD1 knockout from adult mouse liver (LSD1-LKO) reduces the expression of one-third of all nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and decreases mitochondrial biogenesis and function. LSD1-modulated histone methylation epigenetically regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Furthermore, LSD1 regulates gene expression and protein methylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1), which controls the final step of NAD+ synthesis and limits NAD+ availability in nucleus. Lsd1 knockout reduces NAD+-dependent SIRT1 and SIRT7 deacetylase activity, leading to hyperacetylation and hypofunctioning of GABPβ and PGC-1α, the major transcriptional factor/cofactor for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Despite the reduced mitochondrial function in liver, LSD1-LKO mice are protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance, partially due to induction of hepatokine FGF21. Thus, LSD1 orchestrates a core regulatory network involving epigenetic modifications and NAD+ synthesis to control mitochondrial function and hepatokine production.
Yang Cao, Lingyi Tang, Kang Du, Kitt Paraiso, Qiushi Sun, Zhengxia Liu, Xiaolong Ye, Yuan Fang, Fang Yuan, Yu-Han Chen, Yumay Chen, Xiaorong Wang, Clinton Yu, Ira L. Blitz, Ping H. Wang, Lan Huang, Haibo Cheng, Xiang Lu, Ken W.Y Cho, Marcus Seldin, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
Vascular injury has emerged as a complication contributing to morbidity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the glycocalyx, a protective layer of glycoconjugates that lines the vascular lumen and regulates key endothelial cell functions. During critical illness as in the case of sepsis, enzymes degrade the glycocalyx, releasing fragments with pathologic activities into circulation and thereby exacerbate disease. Here, we analyzed levels of circulating glycosaminoglycans in 46 patients with COVID-19 ranging from moderate to severe clinical severity and measured activities of corresponding degradative enzymes. This report provides evidence that the glycocalyx becomes significantly damaged in COVID-19 patients and corresponds with severity of disease. Circulating HA fragments and hyaluronidase, two signatures of glycocalyx injury, strongly associate with sequential organ failure assessment scores and with increased inflammatory cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells exposed to COVID-19 milieu show dysregulated HA biosynthesis and degradation leading to production of pathological HA fragments which are released into circulation. Finally, we show that HA fragments present at high levels in COVID-19 patient plasma can directly induce endothelial barrier dysfunction in ROCK- and CD44-dependent manner, indicating a role for HA in the vascular pathology of COVID-19.
Kimberly A. Queisser, Rebecca A. Mellema, Elizabeth A. Middleton, Irina Portier, Bhanu Kanth Manne, Frederik Denorme, Ellen J. Beswick, Matthew T. Rondina, Robert A. Campbell, Aaron C. Petrey
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening cytokine storm complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) driven by IFNγ. SJIA and MAS are associated with an unexplained emerging lung disease (SJIA-LD), with our recent work supporting pulmonary activation of IFNγ pathways pathologically linking SJIA-LD and MAS. Our objective was to mechanistically define the novel observation of pulmonary inflammation in the TLR9 mouse model of MAS. In acute MAS, lungs exhibit mild but diffuse CD4-predominant, perivascular interstitial inflammation with elevated IFNγ, IFN-induced chemokines, and AMΦ expression of IFNγ-induced genes. Single-cell RNA-sequencing confirmed IFN-driven transcriptional changes across lung cell types with myeloid expansion and detection of MAS-specific macrophage populations. Systemic MAS resolution was associated with increased AMΦ and interstitial lymphocytic infiltration. AMΦ transcriptomic analysis confirmed IFNγ-induced proinflammatory polarization during acute MAS, which switches towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype after systemic MAS resolution. Interestingly, recurrent MAS led to increased alveolar inflammation and lung injury, and reset AMΦ polarization towards a proinflammatory state. Furthermore, in mice bearing macrophages insensitive to IFNγ, both systemic feature of MAS and pulmonary inflammation were attenuated. These findings demonstrate that experimental MAS induces IFNγ-driven pulmonary inflammation replicating key features of SJIA-LD, and provides a model system for testing novel treatments directed towards SJIA-LD.
Denny K. Gao, Nathan Salomonis, Maggie Henderlight, Christopher Woods, Kairavee Thakkar, Alexei A. Grom, Sherry Thornton, Michael B. Jordan, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Grant S. Schulert
The mechanism controlling long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) is not well understood. Here, we investigated how the LCFA transporter CD36 regulates this process. By using tissue-specific knockout mouse models, we show that CD36 in both adipocytes and endothelial cells mediates both LCFA deposition into and release from AT. We demonstrate the role of adipocytic and endothelial CD36 in promoting tumor growth and chemoresistance conferred by AT-derived LCFA. We show that dynamic cysteine S-acylation of CD36 in adipocytes, endothelial cells, and cancer cells mediates intercellular LCFA transport. We demonstrate that lipolysis induction in adipocytes triggers CD36 de-acylation and deglycosylation, as well as its dissociation from interacting proteins, prohibitin-1 (PHB), and annexin 2 (ANX2). Our data indicate that lipolysis triggers caveolar endocytosis and translocation of CD36 from the cell membrane to lipid droplets. This study suggests a mechanism for both outside-in and inside-out cellular LCFA transport regulated by CD36 S- acylation and its interactions with PHB and ANX2.
Alexes C. Daquinag, Zhanguo Gao, Cale Fussell, Linnet Immaraj, Renata Pasqualini, Wadih Arap, Askar M. Akimzhanov, Maria Febbraio, Mikhail G. Kolonin
Immunotherapies are needed in the clinic that effectively suppress beta cell autoimmunity and reestablish long-term self-tolerance in type 1 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that nondepleting αCD4 and αCD8α antibodies establish rapid and indefinite remission in recent-onset diabetic NOD mice. Diabetes reversal by coreceptor therapy (CoRT) is induced by suppression of pathogenic effector T cells (Teff) and the selective egress of T cells from the pancreatic lymph nodes and islets that remain free of infiltration long-term. Here, we defined CoRT-induced events regulating early Teff function and pancreatic residency, and long-term tolerance. TCR-driven gene expression controlling autoreactive Teff expansion and proinflammatory activity was suppressed by CoRT, and islet T cell egress was sphingosine-1 phosphate-dependent. In both murine and human T cells, CoRT upregulated the Foxo1 transcriptional axis, which in turn was required for suppression and efficient pancreatic egress of Teff. Interestingly, long-term tolerance induced in late-preclinical NOD mice was marked by reseeding of the pancreas by a reduced CD8+ Teff pool exhibiting an exhausted phenotype. Notably, PD-1 blockade, which rescues exhausted Teff, resulted in diabetes onset in protected animals. These findings demonstrate that CoRT has distinct intrinsic effects on Teff that impact events early in induction and later in maintenance of self-tolerance.
Matthew Clark, Charles J. Kroger, Qi Ke, Rui Zhang, Karen Statum, J. Justin Milner, Aaron J. Martin, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.