Glucokinase (GK) is highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); however its role is currently unknown. We found that glucokinase in the PVN acts as part of a glucose sensing mechanism within the PVN that regulates glucose homeostasis by controlling glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release. GLP-1 is released from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral glucose. Here we identify a brain mechanism critical to the release of GLP-1 in response to oral glucose. We show that increasing expression of GK or injection of glucose into the PVN increases GLP-1 release in response to oral glucose. On the contrary decreasing expression of GK or injection of non-metabolisable glucose into the PVN prevents GLP-1 release. Our results demonstrate that glucosensitive GK neurones in the PVN, are critical to the response to oral glucose and subsequent release of GLP-1.
Yue Ma, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Ivan De Backer, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Joyceline Cuenco, Ben Jones, Christopher D. John, Brian Y. H. Lam, Guy A. Rutter, Giles Yeo, Waljit Dhillo, James Gardiner
Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH) is a genetic condition associated with hypocalciuria, hypercalcemia and in some cases inappropriately high levels of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH). FHH is associated with inactivating mutations in CaSR encoding the Ca2+ sensing receptor (CaSR), a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and GNA11 encoding G protein subunit alpha 11 (Gα11), implicating defective GPCR signaling as the root pathophysiology for FHH. However, the downstream mechanism by which CaSR activation inhibits PTH production/secretion is incompletely understood. Here, we show that mice lacking the transient receptor potential canonical channel 1 (TRPC1) develop chronic hypercalcemia, hypocalciuria, and elevated PTH levels mimicking human FHH. Ex vivo and in vitro studies reveal that TRPC1 serves a necessary and sufficient mediator to suppress PTH secretion from parathyroid glands (PTG) downstream of CaSR in response to high extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Gα11 physically interacts with both the N- and C-termini of TRPC1 and enhances CaSR-induced TRPC1 activity in transfected cells. These data identify TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ signaling as an essential component of the cellular apparatus controlling PTH secretion in the PTG downstream of CaSR.
Marta Onopiuk, Bonnie Eby, Vasyl Nesin, Peter Ngo, Megan Lerner, Caroline M. Gorvin, Victoria J. Stokes, Rajesh V. Thakker, Maria Luisa Brandi, Wenhan Chang, Mary Beth Humphrey, Leonidas Tsiokas, Kai Lau
A GLP-2 analogue is used in individuals with intestinal failure at risk for liver disease, yet the hepatic actions of GLP-2 are not understood. Treatment of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with GLP-2 did not modify development of hepatosteatosis or hepatic inflammation. In contrast, Glp2r-/- mice exhibited increased hepatic lipid accumulation, deterioration in glucose tolerance, and upregulation of biomarkers of hepatic inflammation. Both mouse and human liver expressed the canonical GLP-2R, and hepatic Glp2r expression was upregulated in mice with hepatosteatosis. Cell fractionation localized the Glp2r to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and markers of HSC activation and fibrosis were increased in livers from Glp2r-/- mice. Moreover, GLP-2 directly modulated gene expression in isolated HSCs ex vivo. Taken together, these findings define an essential role for the GLP-2R in hepatic adaptation to nutrient excess and unveil a gut hormone-HSC axis, linking GLP-2R signaling to control of hepatic stellate cell activation.
Shai Fuchs, Bernardo Yusta, Laurie L. Baggio, Elodie M. Varin, Dianne Matthews, Daniel J. Drucker
Background: Metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes have been associated with a decrease in insulin pulse frequency and amplitude. We hypothesized that the T-allele at rs7903146 in TCF7L2, previously associated with β–cell dysfunction, would be associated with changes in these insulin pulse characteristics. Methods: 29 nondiabetic subjects (age = 46 ± 2, BMI = 28 ± 1 Kg/M2) participated in this study. Of these, 16 were homozygous for the C allele at rs7903146 and 13 were homozygous for the T allele. Deconvolution of peripheral C-peptide concentrations allowed the reconstruction of portal insulin secretion over time. This data was used for subsequent analyses. Pulse orderliness was assessed by Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and the dispersion of insulin pulses was measured by a Frequency Dispersion Index (FDI) applied to a Fourier Transform of individual insulin secretion rates. Results: During fasting conditions, the CC genotype group exhibited decreased pulse disorderliness compared to the TT genotype group (1.10 ± 0.03 vs. 1.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.03). FDI decreased in response to hyperglycemia in the CC genotype group, perhaps reflecting less entrainment of insulin secretion during fasting.Conclusion: Diabetes-associated variation in TCF7L2 is associated with decreased orderliness and pulse dispersion unchanged by hyperglycemia. Quantification of ApEn and FDI could represent novel markers of β-cell health.
Marcello C. Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T. Varghese, James C. Andrews, Robert A. Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Giuseppe De Nicolao, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella
Leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS; LepRbNTS neurons) receive gut signals that synergize with leptin action to suppress food intake. NTS neurons that express preproglucagon (Ppg) (and which produce the food intake-suppressing PPG cleavage product, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1)) represent a subpopulation of mouse LepRbNTS cells. Using Leprcre, Ppgcre, and Ppgflox mouse lines, along with designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs), we examined roles for Ppg in GLP1NTS and LepRbNTS cells for the control of food intake and energy balance. We found that the cre-dependent ablation of NTS Ppgflox early in development or in adult mice failed to alter energy balance, suggesting the importance of pathways independent of NTS GLP1 for the long-term control of food intake. Consistently, while activating GLP1NTS cells decreased food intake, LepRbNTS cells elicited larger and more durable effects. Furthermore, while the ablation of NTS Ppgflox blunted the ability of GLP1NTS neurons to suppress food intake during activation, it did not impact the suppression of food intake by LepRbNTS cells. While Ppg/GLP1-mediated neurotransmission plays a central role in the modest appetite-suppressing effects of GLP1NTS cells, additional pathways engaged by LepRbNTS cells dominate for the suppression of food intake.
Wenwen Cheng, Ermelinda Ndoka, Chelsea R. Hutch, Karen Roelofs, Andrew Mackinnon, Basma Khoury, Irwin J. Magrisso, Ki-Suk Kim, Christopher J. Rhodes, David P. Olson, Randy J. Seeley, Darleen A. Sandoval, Martin G. Myers Jr.
SGLT2 inhibitors are beneficial in halting diabetic kidney disease; complete mechanisms is unknown. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with Sirt3 suppression and aberrant glycolysis. Here, we hypothesized that the SGLT2 inhibitor restores normal kidney histology/function associated with the inhibition of aberrant glycolysis in diabetic kidneys. CD-1 mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes displayed kidney fibrosis associated with the EMT at 4-months after diabetes induction. Empagliflozin intervention for one month restored all changes; adjustment of blood glucose by insulin did not. Empagliflozin normalized suppressed Sirt3 levels and aberrant glycolysis (characterized by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accumulation, hexokinase 2 induction and pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 dimer formation) in diabetic kidneys. Empagliflozin also suppressed the accumulation of glycolysis byproducts in diabetic kidneys. Another SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, demonstrated similar in vivo effects. High-glucose media induced the EMT, which was associated with Sirt3 suppression and aberrant glycolysis induction, in the HK2 proximal tubule cell line; SGLT2 knockdown suppressed the EMT with restoration of all aberrant functions. SGLT2 suppression in tubular cells also inhibited the mesenchymal transition of neighboring endothelial cells. Taken together, SGLT2 inhibitors exhibit renoprotective potential that is partially dependent on the inhibition of glucose reabsorption and subsequent aberrant glycolysis in kidney tubules.
Jinpeng Li, Haijie Liu, Susumu Takagi, Kyoko Nitta, Munehiro Kitada, Swayam Prakash Srivastava, Yuta Takagaki, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Patients with active acromegaly (ACRO) exhibit low hepatocellular lipids (HCL) despite pronounced insulin resistance (IR). This contrasts the strong association of IR with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the general population. Since low HCL in acromegaly might be caused by changes in oxidative substrate metabolism, we investigated mitochondrial activity and plasma metabolomics/lipidomics in active acromegaly. Fifteen ACRO and seventeen healthy controls (CON) matched for age, BMI, gender and body composition underwent 31P/1H-7T-MR-spectroscopy of the liver and skeletal muscle, as well as plasma metabolomic profiling and an oral glucose tolerance test. ACRO showed significant lower HCL but ATP-synthesis rate was significantly increased compared to CON. Furthermore, a decreased ratio of unsaturated to saturated intrahepatocellular fatty acids was found in ACRO. Within assessed plasma lipids, lipidomics, and metabolomics, decreased carnitine species also indicate increased mitochondrial activity. We therefore conclude that excess of growth hormone (GH) in humans counteracts hepatocellular lipid accumulation by increased hepatic ATP-synthesis. This is accompanied by a decreased ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated lipids in hepatocytes and by a metabolomic profile reflecting the increase in mitochondrial activity. Thus, these findings help to better understand GH-regulated antisteatotic pathways and provide a better insight into potential novel therapeutic targets for treating NAFLD.
Paul Fellinger, Peter Wolf, Lorenz Pfleger, Patrik Krumpolec, Martin Krssak, Kristaps Klavins, Stefan Wolfsberger, Alexander Micko, Patricia Carey, Bettina Gürtl, Greisa Vila, Wolfgang Raber, Clemens Fürnsinn, Thomas Scherer, Siegfried Trattnig, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Krebs, Yvonne Winhofer
SNAP23 is the ubiquitous SNAP25 isoform that mediates secretion in non-neuronal cells, similar to SNAP25 in neurons. However, some secretory cells like pancreatic islet β cells contain an abundance of both SNAP25 and SNAP23, where SNAP23 is believed to play a redundant role to SNAP25. We show that SNAP23, when depleted in mouse β cells in vivo and human β cells (normal and type 2 diabetes [T2D] patients) in vitro, paradoxically increased biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion corresponding to increased exocytosis of predocked and newcomer insulin granules. Such effects on T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats improved glucose homeostasis that was superior to conventional treatment with sulfonylurea glybenclamide. SNAP23, although fusion competent in slower secretory cells, in the context of β cells acts as a weak partial fusion agonist or inhibitory SNARE. Here, SNAP23 depletion promotes SNAP25 to bind calcium channels more quickly and longer where granule fusion occurs to increase exocytosis efficiency. β Cell SNAP23 antagonism is a strategy to treat diabetes.
Tao Liang, Tairan Qin, Fei Kang, Youhou Kang, Li Xie, Dan Zhu, Subhankar Dolai, Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Robert K. Baker, Daorong Feng, Eva Tuduri, Claes-Goran Ostenson, Timothy J. Kieffer, Kate Banks, Jeffrey E. Pessin, Herbert Y. Gaisano
Successful reproduction is a fundamental physiological process that relies on the integration of sensory cues of attraction with appropriate emotions and behaviors and the reproductive axis. However, the factors responsible for this integration remain largely unexplored. Using functional neuroimaging, hormonal, and psychometric analyses, we demonstrate that the reproductive hormone kisspeptin enhances brain activity in response to olfactory and visual cues of attraction in men. Furthermore, the brain regions enhanced by kisspeptin correspond to areas within the olfactory and limbic systems that govern sexual behavior and perception of beauty as well as overlap with its endogenous expression pattern. Of key functional and behavioral significance, we observed that kisspeptin was most effective in men with lower sexual quality-of-life scores. As such, our results reveal a previously undescribed attraction pathway in humans activated by kisspeptin and identify kisspeptin signaling as a new therapeutic target for related reproductive and psychosexual disorders.
Lisa Yang, Lysia Demetriou, Matthew B. Wall, Edouard G.A. Mills, David Zargaran, Mark Sykes, Julia K. Prague, Ali Abbara, Bryn M. Owen, Paul A. Bassett, Eugenii A. Rabiner, Alexander N. Comninos, Waljit S. Dhillo
Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common and significant complication related to immunosuppressive agents required to prevent organ or cell transplant rejection. To elucidate the effects of 2 commonly used agents, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (SIR), on islet function and test whether these effects could be reversed or prevented, we investigated human islets transplanted into immunodeficient mice treated with TAC or SIR at clinically relevant levels. Both TAC and SIR impaired insulin secretion in fasted and/or stimulated conditions. Treatment with TAC or SIR increased amyloid deposition and islet macrophages, disrupted insulin granule formation, and induced broad transcriptional dysregulation related to peptide processing, ion/calcium flux, and the extracellular matrix; however, it did not affect regulation of β cell mass. Interestingly, these β cell abnormalities reversed after withdrawal of drug treatment. Furthermore, cotreatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist completely prevented TAC-induced β cell dysfunction and partially prevented SIR-induced β cell dysfunction. These results highlight the importance of both calcineurin and mTOR signaling in normal human β cell function in vivo and suggest that modulation of these pathways may prevent or ameliorate PTDM.
Chunhua Dai, John T. Walker, Alena Shostak, Ana Padgett, Erick Spears, Scott Wisniewski, Greg Poffenberger, Radhika Aramandla, E. Danielle Dean, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Alvin C. Powers
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