In rodent models, obesity and hyperglycemia alter cerebral glucose metabolism and glucose transport into the brain, resulting in disordered cerebral function as well as inappropriate responses to homeostatic and hedonic inputs. Whether similar findings are seen in the human brain remains unclear. In this study, 25 participants (9 healthy participants; 10 obese nondiabetic participants; and 6 poorly controlled, insulin- and metformin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants) underwent 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanning in the occipital lobe to measure the change in intracerebral glucose levels during a 2-hour hyperglycemic clamp (glucose ~220 mg/dl). The change in intracerebral glucose was significantly different across groups after controlling for age and sex, despite similar plasma glucose levels at baseline and during hyperglycemia. Compared with lean participants, brain glucose increments were lower in participants with obesity and T2DM. Furthermore, the change in brain glucose correlated inversely with plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels during hyperglycemia. These data suggest that obesity and poorly controlled T2DM progressively diminish brain glucose responses to hyperglycemia, which has important implications for understanding not only the altered feeding behavior, but also the adverse neurocognitive consequences associated with obesity and T2DM.
Janice J. Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Elizabeth Sanchez Rangel, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Lisa Parikh, Brian B. Koo, Douglas L. Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S. Sherwin
Loss-of-function mutations of GNA11, which encodes G-protein subunit α11 (Gα11), a signaling partner for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2). FHH2 is characterized by hypercalcemia, inappropriately normal or raised parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and normal or low urinary calcium excretion. A mouse model for FHH2 that would facilitate investigations of the in vivo role of Gα11 and the evaluation of calcimimetic drugs, which are CaSR allosteric activators, is not available. We therefore screened DNA from > 10,000 mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for GNA11 mutations and identified a Gα11 variant, Asp195Gly (D195G), which downregulated CaSR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in vitro, consistent with it being a loss-of-function mutation. Treatment with the calcimimetic cinacalcet rectified these signaling responses. In vivo studies showed mutant heterozygous (Gna11+/195G) and homozygous (Gna11195G/195G) mice to be hypercalcemic with normal or increased plasma PTH concentrations and normal urinary calcium excretion. Cinacalcet (30mg/kg orally) significantly reduced plasma albumin–adjusted calcium and PTH concentrations in Gna11+/195G and Gna11195G/195G mice. Thus, our studies have established a mouse model with a germline loss-of-function Gα11 mutation that is representative for FHH2 in humans and demonstrated that cinacalcet can correct the associated abnormalities of plasma calcium and PTH.
Sarah A. Howles, Fadil M. Hannan, Caroline M. Gorvin, Sian E. Piret, Anju Paudyal, Michelle Stewart, Tertius A. Hough, M. Andrew Nesbit, Sara Wells, Stephen D.M. Brown, Roger D. Cox, Rajesh V. Thakker
GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome is caused by ectopic expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas or in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias. Molecular mechanisms leading to ectopic GIPR expression in adrenal tissue are not known. Here we performed molecular analyses on adrenocortical adenomas and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias obtained from 14 patients with GIP-dependent adrenal Cushing’s syndrome and one patient with GIP-dependent aldosteronism. GIPR expression in all adenoma and hyperplasia samples occurred through transcriptional activation of a single allele of the GIPR gene. While no abnormality was detected in proximal GIPR promoter methylation, we identified somatic duplications in chromosome region 19q13.32 containing the GIPR locus in the adrenocortical lesions derived from 3 patients. In 2 adenoma samples, the duplicated 19q13.32 region was rearranged with other chromosome regions, whereas a single tissue sample with hyperplasia had a 19q duplication only. We demonstrated that juxtaposition with cis-acting regulatory sequences such as glucocorticoid response elements in the newly identified genomic environment drives abnormal expression of the translocated GIPR allele in adenoma cells. Altogether, our results provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of GIP-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, occurring through monoallelic transcriptional activation of GIPR driven in some adrenal lesions by structural variations.
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Constantine A. Stratakis, Say Viengchareun, Ronan Chaligné, Lucie Tosca, Vianney Deméocq, Mirella Hage, Annabel Berthon, Fabio R. Faucz, Patrick Hanna, Hadrien-Gaël Boyer, Nicolas Servant, Sylvie Salenave, Gérard Tachdjian, Clovis Adam, Vanessa Benhamo, Eric Clauser, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Jacques Young, Marc Lombès, Isabelle Bourdeau, Dominique Maiter, Antoine Tabarin, Jérôme Bertherat, Hervé Lefebvre, Wouter de Herder, Estelle Louiset, André Lacroix, Philippe Chanson, Jérôme Bouligand, Peter Kamenický
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), remnants of ancestral viral genomic insertions, are known to represent 8% of the human genome and are associated with several pathologies. In particular, the envelope protein of HERV-W family (HERV-W-Env) has been involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Investigations to detect HERV-W-Env in a few other autoimmune diseases were negative, except in type-1 diabetes (T1D). In patients suffering from T1D, HERV-W-Env protein was detected in 70% of sera, and its corresponding RNA was detected in 57% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. While studies on human Langerhans islets evidenced the inhibition of insulin secretion by HERV-W-Env, this endogenous protein was found to be expressed by acinar cells in 75% of human T1D pancreata. An extensive immunohistological analysis further revealed a significant correlation between HERV-W-Env expression and macrophage infiltrates in the exocrine part of human pancreata. Such findings were corroborated by in vivo studies on transgenic mice expressing HERV-W-env gene, which displayed hyperglycemia and decreased levels of insulin, along with immune cell infiltrates in their pancreas. Altogether, these results strongly suggest an involvement of HERV-W-Env in T1D pathogenesis. They also provide potentially novel therapeutic perspectives, since unveiling a pathogenic target in T1D.
Sandrine Levet, Julie Medina, Julie Joanou, Amandine Demolder, Nelly Queruel, Kevin Réant, Matthieu Normand, Marine Seffals, Julie Dimier, Raphaële Germi, Thomas Piofczyk, Jacques Portoukalian, Jean-Louis Touraine, Hervé Perron
Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we investigated proteins that regulate macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and ABCA1-specific CEC (ABCA1 CEC), 2 functional assays that predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). Macrophage CEC and the concentration of HDL particles were markedly reduced in mice deficient in apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) or apolipoprotein E (APOE) but not apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4). ABCA1 CEC was markedly reduced in APOA1-deficient mice but was barely affected in mice deficient in APOE or APOA4. High-resolution size-exclusion chromatography of plasma produced 2 major peaks of ABCA1 CEC activity. The early-eluting peak, which coeluted with HDL, was markedly reduced in APOA1- or APOE-deficient mice. The late-eluting peak was modestly reduced in APOA1-deficient mice but little affected in APOE- or APOA4-deficient mice. Ion-exchange chromatography and shotgun proteomics suggested that plasminogen (PLG) accounted for a substantial fraction of the ABCA1 CEC activity in the peak not associated with HDL. Human PLG promoted cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway, and PLG-dependent efflux was inhibited by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Our observations identify APOA1, APOE, and PLG as key determinants of CEC. Because PLG and Lp(a) associate with human CVD risk, interplay among the proteins might affect atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Nathalie Pamir, Patrick M. Hutchins, Graziella E. Ronsein, Hao Wei, Chongren Tang, Riku Das, Tomas Vaisar, Edward Plow, Volker Schuster, Catherine A. Reardon, Richard Weinberg, David A. Dichek, Santica Marcovina, Godfrey S. Getz, Jay W. Heinecke
Organ-specific patterns of myeloid cells may contribute tissue-specific growth and/or regenerative potentials. The perinatal stage of pancreas development marks a time characterized by maximal proliferation of pancreatic islets, ensuring the maintenance of glucose homeostasis throughout life. Ontogenically distinct CX3CR1+ and CCR2+ macrophage populations have been reported in the adult pancreas, but their functional contribution to islet cell growth at birth remains unknown. Here, we uncovered a temporally restricted requirement for CCR2+ myeloid cells in the perinatal proliferation of the endocrine pancreatic epithelium. CCR2+ macrophages are transiently enriched over CX3CR1+ subsets in the neonatal pancreas through both local expansion and recruitment of immature precursors. Using CCR2-specific depletion models, we show that loss of this myeloid population leads to a striking reduction in β cell proliferation, dysfunctional islet phenotypes, and glucose intolerance in newborns. Replenishment of pancreatic CCR2+ myeloid compartments by adoptive transfer rescues these defects. Gene profiling identifies pancreatic CCR2+ myeloid cells as a prominent source of IGF2, which contributes to IGF1R-mediated islet proliferation. These findings uncover proproliferative functions of CCR2+ myeloid subsets and identify myeloid-dependent regulation of IGF signaling as a local cue supporting pancreatic proliferation.
Kristin Mussar, Stephanie Pardike, Tobias M. Hohl, Gary Hardiman, Vincenzo Cirulli, Laura Crisa
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) represents the major cause for the current obesity epidemic, but the mechanism underlying DIO is unclear. β-Adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) play a major role in sympathetic nervous system–mediated (SNS-mediated) diet-induced energy expenditure (EE). Rbc express abundant β-ARs; however, a potential role for rbc in DIO remains untested. Here, we demonstrated that high-fat, high-caloric diet (HFD) feeding increased both EE and blood O2 content, and the HFD-induced increases in blood O2 level and in body weight gain were negatively correlated. Deficiency of β-ARs in rbc reduced glycolysis and ATP levels, diminished HFD-induced increases in both blood O2 content and EE, and resulted in DIO. Importantly, specific activation of cAMP signaling in rbc promoted HFD-induced EE and reduced HFD-induced tissue hypoxia independent of obesity. Both HFD and pharmacological activation cAMP signaling in rbc led to increased glycolysis and ATP levels. These results identify a previously unknown role for rbc β-ARs in mediating the SNS action on HFD-induced EE by increasing O2 supply, and they demonstrate that HFD-induced EE is limited by blood O2 availability and can be augenmented by increased O2 supply.
Eun Ran Kim, Shengjie Fan, Dmitry Akhmedov, Kaiqi Sun, Hoyong Lim, William O’Brien, Yuanzhong Xu, Leandra R. Mangieri, Yaming Zhu, Cheng-Chi Lee, Yeonseok Chung, Yang Xia, Yong Xu, Feng Li, Kai Sun, Rebecca Berdeaux, Qingchun Tong
BACKGROUND. Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention. METHODS. We measured visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes and intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by MRI, and whole body glucose disposal (WBGD) and MVR (using contrast-enhanced ultrasound) responses to a euglycemic insulin clamp in lean (n = 25) and abdominally obese men (n = 52). Abdominally obese men were randomized to dietary weight loss intervention or habitual diet. RESULTS. Obesity-associated increases in VAT, SAT, and IHL, along with the decrease in MVR, contributed independently to insulin resistance. Moreover, a dietary weight loss intervention reduced insulin resistance, and mediation analyses showed that decreased IHL and insulin-induced MVR, but not decreased VAT or SAT volumes, independently contributed to improved insulin resistance seen with weight loss. CONCLUSION. Quantifying the mutually independent contributions of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment reveals distinct targets for treating obesity-associated insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01675401. FUNDING. Funding was from the Top Institute Food and Nutrition.
Yvo H.A.M. Kusters, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, M. Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op ’t Roodt, Peter J. Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P. Mensink, Eugene J. Barrett, Coen D.A. Stehouwer
Pancreatitis is more frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the underlying cause is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ongoing β cell stress and apoptosis in T2DM induces ductal tree proliferation, particularly the pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment, and thus potentially obstructs exocrine outflow, a well-established cause of pancreatitis. PDG replication was increased 2-fold in human pancreas from individuals with T2DM, and was associated with increased pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), lesions associated with pancreatic inflammation and with the potential to obstruct pancreatic outflow. Increased PDG replication in the prediabetic human-IAPP-transgenic (HIP) rat model of T2DM was concordant with increased β cell stress but preceded metabolic derangement. Moreover, the most abundantly expressed chemokines released by the islets in response to β cell stress in T2DM, CXCL1, -4, and -10, induced proliferation in human pancreatic ductal epithelium. Also, the diabetes medications reported as potential modifiers for the risk of pancreatitis in T2DM modulated PDG proliferation accordingly. We conclude that chronic stimulation and proliferation of the PDG compartment in response to islet inflammation in T2DM is a potentially novel mechanism that serves as a link to the increased risk for pancreatitis in T2DM and may potentially be modified by currently available diabetes therapy.
Belinda Schludi, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Chiara Montemurro, Tatyana Gurlo, Aleksey V. Matveyenko, David Kirakossian, David W. Dawson, Sarah M. Dry, Peter C. Butler, Alexandra E. Butler
β Cells are formed in embryonic life by differentiation of endocrine progenitors and expand by replication during neonatal life, followed by transition into functional maturity. In this study, we addressed the potential contribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in pancreatic β cell development and maturation. We show that NPY expression is restricted from the progenitor populations during pancreatic development and marks functionally immature β cells in fetal and neonatal mice and humans. NPY expression is epigenetically downregulated in β cells upon maturation. Neonatal β cells that express NPY are more replicative, and knockdown of NPY expression in neonatal mouse islets reduces replication and enhances insulin secretion in response to high glucose. These data show that NPY expression likely promotes replication and contributes to impaired glucose responsiveness in neonatal β cells. We show that NPY expression reemerges in β cells in mice fed with high-fat diet as well as in diabetes in mice and humans, establishing a potential new mechanism to explain impaired β cell maturity in diabetes. Together, these studies highlight the contribution of NPY in the regulation of β cell differentiation and have potential applications for β cell supplementation for diabetes therapy.
Pope Rodnoi, Mohan Rajkumar, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Senta K. Georgia, Alexandra E. Butler, Sangeeta Dhawan
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