Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a serious disorder characterized by daytime hypercapnia, disordered breathing, and a reduction in chemosensitivity. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a bariatric surgical procedure resulting in weight loss and weight-independent improvements in glucose metabolism, has been observed to substantially improve sleep-disordered breathing. However, it is unclear if the ventilatory effects of VSG are secondary to weight loss or the marked change in metabolic physiology. Using preclinical mouse models, we found that VSG leads to an improvement in the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) and reductions in circulating leptin levels independent of reductions in body mass, fat mass, and caloric intake. In the absence of leptin, VSG continues to improve body mass, fat mass, and glucose tolerance in ob/ob mice but no longer affects HCVR. However, the HCVR of ob/ob mice can be returned to wild-type levels with leptin treatment. These data demonstrate that VSG improves chemosensitivity and ventilatory drive via a leptin-dependent mechanism. Clinically, these data downgrade the relative contribution of physical, mechanical load in the pathogenesis of OHS, and instead point to physiological components of obesity, including alterations in leptin signaling, as key drivers in OHS.
Deanna M. Arble, Alan R. Schwartz, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, Darleen A. Sandoval, Randy J. Seeley
BACKGROUND. Excessive insulin secretion may lead to glucose dysregulation. Our aim was to identify primary (independent of insulin resistance) insulin hypersecretion in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and its role in the progression of dysglycemia. METHODS. In 1,168 adults, insulin secretion rate (ISR) and β cell function were estimated by C-peptide modeling during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an i.v. glucose tolerance test. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. After regressing ISR on insulin sensitivity, subjects in the upper tertile of the distribution of residuals were defined as primary hypersecretors. This approach was applied to a biethnic cohort of 182 obese adolescents, who received an OGTT, a hyperglycemic, and a euglycemic clamp. RESULTS. Adult hypersecretors showed older age, more familial diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, increased fat mass, and worse lipid profile compared with the rest of the cohort, despite virtually identical BMI and insulin sensitivity. Insulin secretion was increased by 53% due to enhanced (+23%) β cell glucose sensitivity. Despite the resulting hyperinsulinemia, glucose tolerance was worse in hypersecretors among both adults and adolescents, coupled with higher indices of liver insulin resistance and increased availability of gluconeogenic substrates. At the 3-year follow-up, adult hypersecretors had increased incidence of impaired glucose tolerance/type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION. Primary insulin hypersecretion, independent of insulin resistance, is associated with a worse clinical and metabolic phenotype in adults and adolescents and predicts deterioration of glucose control over time. FUNDING. The relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (RISC) Study was partly supported by EU grant QLG1-CT-2001-01252.
Domenico Tricò, Andrea Natali, Silva Arslanian, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini
BACKGROUND. Hypophosphatemia can complicate intravenous iron therapy, but no head-to-head trials compared the effects of newer intravenous iron formulations on risks and mediators of hypophosphatemia. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of adults with iron deficiency anemia from February 2016 to January 2017, we compared rates of hypophosphatemia in response to a single FDA-approved course of ferric carboxymaltose (n = 1,000) or ferumoxytol (n = 997). To investigate pathophysiological mediators of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia, we nested within the parent trial a physiological substudy (ferric carboxymaltose, n = 98; ferumoxytol, n = 87) in which we measured fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) at baseline and 1, 2, and 5 weeks later. RESULTS. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was significantly higher in the ferric carboxymaltose versus the ferumoxytol group (<2.0 mg/dl, 50.8% vs. 0.9%; <1.3 mg/dl, 10.0% vs. 0.0%; P < 0.001), and hypophosphatemia persisted through the end of the 5-week study period in 29.1% of ferric carboxymaltose–treated patients versus none of the ferumoxytol-treated patients (P < 0.001). Ferric carboxymaltose, but not ferumoxytol, increased circulating concentrations of biologically active FGF23 (mean within-patient percentage change from baseline to week 2 peak: +302.8 ± 326.2% vs. +10.1 ± 61.0%; P < 0.001), which was significantly associated with contemporaneous hypophosphatemia, renal phosphate wasting, and decreased serum calcitriol and calcium, and increased PTH concentrations. CONCLUSIONS. Ferric carboxymaltose rapidly increases biologically active FGF23 in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Paralleling hereditary and other acquired syndromes of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, ferric carboxymaltose–induced FGF23 elevation triggers a pathophysiological cascade of renal phosphate wasting, calcitriol deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism that frequently culminates in hypophosphatemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02694978 FUNDING. AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Role of the funding source: This study was supported by AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The academic investigators designed the clinical trial, performed the analyses, and authored the manuscript with input from the coauthors from AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Myles Wolf, Glenn M. Chertow, Iain C. Macdougall, Robert Kaper, Julie Krop, William Strauss
BACKGROUND. Metformin reduces plasma glucose and has been shown to increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. Whether this is a direct action of metformin on GLP-1 release, and whether some of the glucose-lowering effect of metformin occurs due to GLP-1 release, is unknown. The current study investigated metformin-induced GLP-1 secretion and its contribution to the overall glucose-lowering effect of metformin and underlying mechanisms in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS. Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. On 4 separate days, the patients received metformin (1,500 mg) or placebo suspended in a liquid meal, with subsequent i.v. infusion of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39 (Ex9-39) or saline. During 240 minutes, blood was sampled. The direct effect of metformin on GLP-1 secretion was tested ex vivo in human ileal and colonic tissue with and without dorsomorphin-induced inhibiting of the AMPK activity. RESULTS. Metformin increased postprandial GLP-1 secretion compared with placebo (P = 0.014), and the postprandial glucose excursions were significantly smaller after metformin + saline compared with metformin + Ex9-39 (P = 0.004). Ex vivo metformin acutely increased GLP-1 secretion (colonic tissue, P < 0.01; ileal tissue, P < 0.05), but the effect was abolished by inhibition of AMPK activity. CONCLUSIONS. Metformin has a direct and AMPK-dependent effect on GLP-1–secreting L cells and increases postprandial GLP-1 secretion, which seems to contribute to metformin’s glucose-lowering effect and mode of action. TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT02050074 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02050074). FUNDING. This study received grants from the A.P. Møller Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Danish Medical Association research grant, the Australian Research Council, the National Health and Medical Research Council, and Pfizer Inc.
Emilie Bahne, Emily W. L. Sun, Richard L. Young, Morten Hansen, David P. Sonne, Jakob S. Hansen, Ulrich Rohde, Alice P. Liou, Margaret L. Jackson, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven Due, David A. Wattchow, Jens F. Rehfeld, Jens J. Holst, Damien J. Keating, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K. Knop
BACKGROUND. Resting brain connectivity is a crucial component of human behavior demonstrated by disruptions in psychosexual and emotional disorders. Kisspeptin, a recently identified critical reproductive hormone, can alter activity in certain brain structures but its effects on resting brain connectivity and networks in humans remain elusive. METHODS. We determined the effects of kisspeptin on resting brain connectivity (using functional neuroimaging) and behavior (using psychometric analyses) in healthy men, in a randomized double-blinded 2-way placebo-controlled study. RESULTS. Kisspeptin’s modulation of the default mode network (DMN) correlated with increased limbic activity in response to sexual stimuli (globus pallidus r = 0.500, P = 0.005; cingulate r = 0.475, P = 0.009). Furthermore, kisspeptin’s DMN modulation was greater in men with less reward drive (r = –0.489, P = 0.008) and predicted reduced sexual aversion (r = –0.499, P = 0.006), providing key functional significance. Kisspeptin also enhanced key mood connections including between the amygdala-cingulate, hippocampus-cingulate, and hippocampus–globus pallidus (all P < 0.05). Consistent with this, kisspeptin’s enhancement of hippocampus–globus pallidus connectivity predicted increased responses to negative stimuli in limbic structures (including the thalamus and cingulate [all P < 0.01]). CONCLUSION. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unknown role for kisspeptin in the modulation of functional brain connectivity and networks, integrating these with reproductive hormones and behaviors. Our findings that kisspeptin modulates resting brain connectivity to enhance sexual and emotional processing and decrease sexual aversion, provide foundation for kisspeptin-based therapies for associated disorders of body and mind. FUNDING. NIHR, MRC, and Wellcome Trust.
Alexander N. Comninos, Lysia Demetriou, Matthew B. Wall, Amar J. Shah, Sophie A. Clarke, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Alexander Nesbitt, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Julia K. Prague, Ali Abbara, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Lisa Yang, Victoria Salem, Gurjinder M. Nijher, Channa N. Jayasena, Mark Tanner, Paul Bassett, Amrish Mehta, John McGonigle, Eugenii A. Rabiner, Stephen R. Bloom, Waljit S. Dhillo
Defects in genes mediating thyroid hormone biosynthesis result in dyshormonogenic congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Here, we report homozygous truncating mutations in SLC26A7 in 6 unrelated families with goitrous CH and show that goitrous hypothyroidism also occurs in Slc26a7-null mice. In both species, the gene is expressed predominantly in the thyroid gland, and loss of function is associated with impaired availability of iodine for thyroid hormone synthesis, partially corrected in mice by iodine supplementation. SLC26A7 is a member of the same transporter family as SLC26A4 (pendrin), an anion exchanger with affinity for iodide and chloride (among others), whose gene mutations cause congenital deafness and dyshormonogenic goiter. However, in contrast to pendrin, SLC26A7 does not mediate cellular iodide efflux and hearing in affected individuals is normal. We delineate a hitherto unrecognized role for SLC26A7 in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, for which the mechanism remains unclear.
Hakan Cangul, Xiao-Hui Liao, Erik Schoenmakers, Jukka Kero, Sharon Barone, Panudda Srichomkwun, Hideyuki Iwayama, Eva G. Serra, Halil Saglam, Erdal Eren, Omer Tarim, Adeline K. Nicholas, Ilona Zvetkova, Carl A. Anderson, Fiona E. Karet Frankl, Kristien Boelaert, Marja Ojaniemi, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Konrad Patyra, Christoffer Löf, E. Dillwyn Williams, UK10K Consortium, Manoocher Soleimani, Timothy Barrett, Eamonn R. Maher, V. Krishna Chatterjee, Samuel Refetoff, Nadia Schoenmakers
Pituitary corticotroph somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5) signals to inhibit adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. As ACTH deficiency results in attenuated adrenal cortisol production and an impaired stress response, we sought to clarify the role of SSTR5 in modifying the hypothalamic/pituitary/adrenal (HPA) axis. We generated Tg HP5 mice overexpressing SSTR5 in pituitary corticotrophs that produce the ACTH precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Basal ACTH and corticosterone were similar in HP5 and WT mice, while HP5 mice showed attenuated ACTH and corticosterone responses to corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). HP5 mice exhibited attenuated corticosterone responses upon a restraint stress test and inflammatory stress following LPS injection, as well as increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior on open field and forced swim tests. Pituitary corticotroph CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1) mRNA expression and ACTH responses to CRH were also attenuated in HP5 mice. In AtT20 cells stably overexpressing SSTR5, CRHR1 expression and cAMP response to CRH were reduced, whereas both were increased after SSTR5 KO. In elucidating mechanisms for these observations, we show that SSTR5-induced miR-449c suppresses both CRHR1 expression and function. We conclude that corticotroph SSTR5 attenuates HPA axis responses via CRHR1 downregulation, suggesting a role for SSTR5 in the pathogenesis of secondary adrenal insufficiency.
Masaaki Yamamoto, Anat Ben-Shlomo, Hiraku Kameda, Hidenori Fukuoka, Nan Deng, Yan Ding, Shlomo Melmed
Offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of developing metabolic disease, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We recruited 608 GDM and 626 control offspring from the Danish National Birth Cohort, aged between 9 and 16 years. DNA methylation profiles were measured in peripheral blood of 93 GDM offspring and 95 controls using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Pyrosequencing was performed for validation/replication of putative GDM-associated, differentially methylated CpGs in additional 905 offspring (462 GDM, 444 control offspring). We identified 76 differentially methylated CpGs in GDM offspring compared with controls in the discovery cohort (FDR, P < 0.05). Adjusting for offspring BMI did not affect the association between methylation levels and GDM status for any of the 76 CpGs. Most of these epigenetic changes were due to confounding by maternal prepregnancy BMI; however, 13 methylation changes were independently associated with maternal GDM. Three prepregnancy BMI–associated CpGs (cg00992687 and cg09452568 of ESM1 and cg14328641 of MS4A3) were validated in the replication cohort, while cg09109411 (PDE6A) was found to be associated with GDM status. The identified methylation changes may reflect developmental programming of organ disease mechanisms and/or may serve as disease biomarkers.
Line Hjort, David Martino, Louise Groth Grunnet, Haroon Naeem, Jovana Maksimovic, Anders Henrik Olsson, Cuilin Zhang, Charlotte Ling, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Richard Saffery, Allan Arthur Vaag
Metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is incurable and FDA-approved kinase inhibitors that include oncogenic RET as a target do not result in complete responses. Association studies of human MTCs and murine models suggest that the CDK/RB pathway may be an alternative target. The objective of this study was to determine if CDKs represent therapeutic targets for MTC and to define mechanisms of activity. Using human MTC cells that are either sensitive or resistant to vandetanib, we demonstrate that palbociclib (CDK4/6 inhibitor) is not cytotoxic to MTC cells but that they are highly sensitive to dinaciclib (CDK1/2/5/9 inhibitor) accompanied by reduced CDK9 and RET protein and mRNA levels. CDK9 protein was highly expressed in 83 of 83 human MTCs and array–comparative genomic hybridization had copy number gain in 11 of 30 tumors. RNA sequencing demonstrated that RNA polymerase II–dependent transcription was markedly reduced by dinaciclib. The CDK7 inhibitor THZ1 also demonstrated high potency and reduced RET and CDK9 levels. ChIP-sequencing using H3K27Ac antibody identified a superenhancer in intron 1 of RET. Finally, combined inhibition of dinaciclib with a RET kinase inhibitor was synergistic. In summary, we have identified what we believe is a novel mechanism of RET transcription regulation that potentially can be exploited to improve RET therapeutic targeting.
Anisley Valenciaga, Motoyasu Saji, Lianbo Yu, Xiaoli Zhang, Ceimoani Bumrah, Ayse S. Yilmaz, Christina M. Knippler, Wayne Miles, Thomas J. Giordano, Gilbert J. Cote, Matthew D. Ringel
Although the cause of hypertension among individuals with obesity and insulin resistance is unknown, increased plasma insulin, acting in the kidney to increase sodium reabsorption, has been proposed as a potential mechanism. Insulin may also stimulate glucose uptake, but the contributions of tubular insulin signaling to sodium or glucose transport in the setting of insulin resistance is unknown. To directly study the role of insulin signaling in the kidney, we generated inducible renal tubule–specific insulin receptor–KO mice and used high-fat feeding and mineralocorticoids to model obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin receptor deletion did not alter blood pressure or sodium excretion in mice on a high-fat diet alone, but it mildly attenuated the increase in blood pressure with mineralocorticoid supplementation. Under these conditions, KO mice developed profound glucosuria. Insulin receptor deletion significantly reduced SGLT2 expression and increased urinary glucose excretion and urine flow. These data demonstrate a direct role for insulin receptor–stimulated sodium and glucose transport and a functional interaction of insulin signaling with mineralocorticoids in vivo. These studies uncover a potential mechanistic link between preserved insulin sensitivity and renal glucose handling in obesity and insulin resistance.
Jonathan M. Nizar, Blythe D. Shepard, Vianna T. Vo, Vivek Bhalla
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