Dysregulated citrullination, a unique form of posttranslational modification catalyzed by the peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), has been observed in several human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, the physiological roles of PADs in the immune system are still poorly understood. Here, we report that global inhibition of citrullination enhances the differentiation of type 2 helper T (Th2) cells but attenuates the differentiation of Th17 cells, thereby increasing the susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. This effect on Th cells is due to inhibition of PAD2 but not PAD4. Mechanistically, PAD2 directly citrullinates GATA3 and RORγt, 2 key transcription factors determining the fate of differentiating Th cells. Citrullination of R330 of GATA3 weakens its DNA binding ability, whereas citrullination of 4 arginine residues of RORγt strengthens its DNA binding. Finally, PAD2-deficient mice also display altered Th2/Th17 immune response and heightened sensitivity to allergic airway inflammation. Thus, our data highlight the potential and caveat of PAD2 as a therapeutic target of Th cell–mediated diseases.
Bo Sun, Hui-Hsin Chang, Ari Salinger, Beverly Tomita, Mandar Bawadekar, Caitlyn L. Holmes, Miriam A. Shelef, Eranthie Weerapana, Paul R. Thompson, I-Cheng Ho
At diagnosis, most people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) produce measurable levels of endogenous insulin, but the rate at which insulin secretion declines is heterogeneous. To explain this heterogeneity, we sought to identify a composite signature predictive of insulin secretion, using a collaborative assay evaluation and analysis pipeline that incorporated multiple cellular and serum measures reflecting beta cell health and immune system activity. The ability to predict decline in insulin secretion would be useful for patient stratification for clinical trial enrollment or therapeutic selection. Analytes from 12 qualified assays were measured in shared samples from subjects newly diagnosed with T1D. We developed a computational tool to identify a composite panel associated with decline in insulin secretion over 2 years after diagnosis. The tool employs multiple filtering steps to reduce data dimensionality, incorporates error-estimation techniques including cross-validation and sensitivity analysis, and is flexible to assay type, clinical outcome and disease setting. Using this novel analytical tool, we identified a panel of immune markers that, in combination, are highly associated with loss of insulin secretion. The methods used here represent a novel process for identifying combined immune signatures that predict outcomes relevant for complex and heterogeneous diseases like T1D.
Cate Speake, Samuel O. Skinner, Dror Berel, Elizabeth Whalen, Matthew J. Dufort, William Chad Young, Jared M. Odegard, Anne M. Pesenacker, Frans K. Gorus, Eddie A. James, Megan K. Levings, Peter S. Linsley, Eitan M. Akirav, Alberto Pugliese, Martin J. Hessner, Gerald T. Nepom, Raphael Gottardo, S. Alice Long
The transcriptional activator IκBζ is a key regulator of psoriasis, but which cells mediate its pathogenic effect remains unknown. Here we found that IκBζ expression in keratinocytes triggers not only skin lesions, but also systemic inflammation in mouse psoriasis models. Specific depletion of IκBζ in keratinocytes was sufficient to suppress the induction of imiquimod- or IL-36-mediated psoriasis. Moreover, IκBζ ablation in keratinocytes prevented the onset of psoriatic lesions and systemic inflammation in keratinocyte-specific IL-17A transgenic mice. Mechanistically, this psoriasis protection was mediated by the fact that IκBζ deficiency in keratinocytes abrogated the induction of specific pro-inflammatory target genes, including Cxcl5, Cxcl2, Csf2 and Csf3, in response to IL-17A or IL-36. These IκBζ-dependent genes trigger the generation and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes that are needed for skin inflammation. Consequently, our data uncover a surprisingly pivotal role of keratinocytes and keratinocyte-derived IκBζ as key mediators of psoriasis and psoriasis-related systemic inflammation.
Sebastian Lorscheid, Anne Müller, Jessica Löffler, Claudia Resch, Philip Bucher, Florian C. Kurschus, Ari Waisman, Knut Schäkel, Stephan Hailfinger, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff, Daniela Kramer
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathologic T cell-B cell interactions and autoantibody production. Defining the T cell populations that drive B cell responses in SLE may enable design of therapies that specifically target pathologic cell subsets. Here we evaluated the phenotypes of CD4+ T cells in the circulation of 52 SLE patients drawn from multiple cohorts and identified a highly expanded PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cell population. Cytometric, transcriptomic, and functional assays demonstrated that PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cells from SLE patients are T peripheral helper (Tph) cells, a CXCR5- T cell population that stimulates B cell responses via IL-21. The frequency of Tph cells, but not Tfh cells, correlated with both clinical disease activity and the frequency of CD11c+ B cells in SLE patients. PD-1hi CD4+ T cells were found within lupus nephritis kidneys and correlated with B cell numbers in kidney. Both IL-21 neutralization and CRISPR-mediated deletion of MAF abrogated the ability of Tph cells to induce memory B cell differentiation into plasmablasts in vitro. These findings identify Tph cells a highly expanded T cell population in SLE and suggest a key role for Tph cells in stimulating pathologic B cell responses.
Alexandra V. Bocharnikov, Joshua Keegan, Vanessa S. Wacleche, Ye Cao, Chamith Y. Fonseka, Guoxing Wang, Eric Muise, Kelvin X. Zhang, Arnon Arazi, Gregory Keras, Zhihan J. Li, Yujie Qu, Michael F. Gurish, Michelle Petri, Jill P. Buyon, Chaim Putterman, David Wofsy, Judith A. James, Joel M. Guthridge, Betty Diamond, Jennifer H. Anolik, Matthew F. Mackey, Stephen E. Alves, Peter A. Nigrovic, Karen H. Costenbader, Michael B. Brenner, James A. Lederer, Deepak A. Rao
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial to balance protective immunity and autoimmune inflammatory processes. Expression of CD83 is a well-established marker for mature DCs although its physiological role is still not completely understood. Using a DC-specific CD83 conditional KO mouse (CD83ΔDC) we provide new insights into the function of CD83 within this cell type. Interestingly, CD83-deficient DCs produced drastically increased IL-2 levels and displayed higher expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD25 and OX40L, which causes superior induction of antigen-specific T cell responses and compromises Treg suppressive functions. This also directly translates into accelerated immune responses in vivo. Upon Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes infection, CD83ΔDC mice cleared both pathogens more efficiently, and CD83-deficient DCs expressed increased IL-12 levels after bacterial encounter. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, autoimmune inflammation was dramatically aggravated in CD83ΔDC mice, while resolution of inflammation was strongly reduced. This phenotype was associated with increased cell influx into the CNS accompanied by elevated Th17 cell numbers. Concomitantly, CD83ΔDC mice had reduced Treg numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs. In summary, we show that CD83 ablation on DCs results in enhanced immune responses by dysregulating tolerance mechanisms and thereby impairing resolution of inflammation, which also demonstrates high clinical relevance.
Andreas B. Wild, Lena Krzyzak, Katrin Peckert, Lena Stich, Christine Kuhnt, Alina Butterhof, Christine Seitz, Jochen Mattner, Niklas Grüner, Maximilian Gänsbauer, Martin Purtak, Didier Soulat, Thomas H. Winkler, Lars Nitschke, Elisabeth Zinser, Alexander Steinkasserer
Autoimmune diseases resulting from MHC class II-restricted autoantigen-specific T cell immunity include the systemic inflammatory autoimmune conditions, rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis. While currently treated with broad-acting immunosuppressive drugs, a preferable strategy is to regulate antigen-specific effector T cells (Teff) to restore tolerance, by exploiting dendritic cell (DC) antigen presentation. We targeted draining lymph node (dLN) phagocytic DCs using liposomes encapsulating 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and antigenic peptide, to elucidate mechanisms of tolerance employed by DCs and responding T cells under resting and immunized conditions. PD-L1 expression was upregulated in dLN of immunized relative to naïve mice. Subcutaneous administration of liposomes encapsulating OVA323-339 and calcitriol targeted dLN PD-L1hi DCs of immunized mice and reduced their MHC class II expression. OVA323-339-calcitriol liposomes suppressed expansion, differentiation and function of Teff and induced Foxp3+ and IL-10+ peripheral (p)Treg in an antigen-specific manner, which was dependent on PD-L1. Peptide-calcitriol liposomes modulated CD40 expression by human DCs, and promoted Treg induction in vitro. Liposomes encapsulating calcitriol and disease-associated peptides suppressed the severity of rheumatoid arthritis and Goodpasture’s vasculitis models with suppression of antigen-specific memory T cell differentiation and function. Accordingly, peptide-calcitriol liposomes leverage DC PD-L1 for antigen-specific T cell regulation and induce antigen-specific tolerance in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
Ryan Galea, Hendrik Nel, Meghna Talekar, Xiao Liu, Joshua D. Ooi, Megan Huynh, Sara Hadjigol, Kate J. Robson, Yi Tian Ting, Suzanne Cole, Karyn Cochlin, Shannon Hitchcock, Bijun Zeng, Suman Yekollu, Martine Boks, Natalie Goh, Helen Roberts, Jamie Rossjohn, Hugh H. Reid, Ben J. Boyd, Ravi Malaviya, David J. Shealy, Daniel G. Baker, Loui Madakamutil, A. Richard Kitching, Brendan J. O’Sullivan, Ranjeny Thomas
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening pulmonary complication associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and stem cell transplant. Little is known about the pathophysiology of DAH, and no targeted therapy is currently available. Pristane treatment in mice induces systemic autoimmunity and lung hemorrhage that recapitulates hallmark pathologic features of human DAH. Using this experimental model, we performed high-dimensional analysis of lung immune cells in DAH by mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing. We found a large influx of myeloid cells to the lungs in DAH and defined the gene expression profile of infiltrating monocytes. Bone marrow–derived inflammatory monocytes actively migrated to the lungs and homed adjacent to blood vessels. Using 3 models of monocyte deficiency and complementary transfer studies, we established a central role of inflammatory monocytes in the development of DAH. We further found that the myeloid transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 is essential to the development of both DAH and type I interferon–dependent autoimmunity. These findings collectively reveal monocytes as a potential treatment target in DAH.
Pui Y. Lee, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Yuelong Huang, Anaïs Levescot, Qiang Wang, Kevin Wei, Pierre Cunin, Yi Li, James A. Lederer, Haoyang Zhuang, Shuhong Han, Edy Y. Kim, Westley H. Reeves, Peter A. Nigrovic
The treatment of most autoimmune diseases still relies on systemic immunosuppression and is associated with severe side effects. The development of drugs that more specifically abrogate pathogenic pathways is therefore most desirable. In nature, such specificity is exemplified, e.g., by the soft tick–derived biotherapeutic Coversin, which locally suppresses immune responses by inhibiting complement factor 5 (C5) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). C5a, a proteolytic fragment of C5, and LTB4 are critical drivers of skin inflammation in pemphigoid diseases (PDs), a group of autoimmune blistering skin diseases. Here, we demonstrate that both Coversin and its mutated form L-Coversin, which inhibits LTB4 only, dose dependently attenuate disease in a model of bullous pemphigoid–like epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (BP-like EBA). Coversin, however, reduces disease more effectively than L-Coversin, indicating that inhibition of C5 and LTB4 synergize in their suppressing effects in this model. Further supporting the therapeutic potential of Coversin in humans, we found that C5a and LTB4 are both present in the blister fluid of patients with BP in quantities inducing the recruitment of granulocytes and that the number of cells expressing their receptors, C5aR1 and BLT1, respectively, is increased in perilesional skin. Collectively, our results highlight Coversin and possibly L-Coversin as potential therapeutics for PDs.
Tanya Sezin, Sripriya Murthy, Claudia Attah, Malte Seutter, Maike M. Holtsche, Christoph M. Hammers, Enno Schmidt, Fibi Meshrkey, Sadegh Mousavi, Detlef Zillikens, Miles A. Nunn, Christian D. Sadik
Chronic inflammation causes target organ damage in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. The factors that allow this protracted response are poorly understood. We analyzed the transcriptional regulation of PPP2R2B (B55ß), a molecule necessary for the termination of the immune response, in patients with autoimmune diseases. Altered expression of B55ß conditioned resistance to cytokine withdrawal-induced death (CWID) in patients with autoimmune diseases. The impaired upregulation of B55ß was caused by inflammation-driven hypermethylation of specific cytosines located within a regulatory element of PPP2R2B preventing CTCF binding. This phenotype could be induced in healthy T cells by exposure to TNF-α. Our results reveal a gene whose expression is affected by an acquired defect, through an epigenetic mechanism, in the setting of systemic autoimmunity. Because failure to remove activated T cells through CWID could contribute to autoimmune pathology, this mechanism illustrates a vicious cycle through which autoimmune inflammation contributes to its own perpetuation.
Iris K. Madera-Salcedo, Beatriz E. Sánchez-Hernández, Yevgeniya Svyryd, Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Noé Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María Isabel Trejo-Zambrano, H. Benjamín García-González, Gabriela Hernández-Molina, Osvaldo M. Mutchinick, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Florencia Rosetti, José C. Crispín
Th1 and Th17 are important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and they depend on glycolysis as a source of energy. T cell antigen receptor signaling phosphorylates a serine/threonine kinase, calcium/calmodulin–dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), and promotes glycolysis. Based on these findings we hypothesized that CaMK4 promotes glycolysis. Camk4-deficient CD4+ T cells and cells treated with a CaMK4 inhibitor had less glycolysis compared with their counterparts. Pull-down of CaMK4 and mass spectrometry identified pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM), the final rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, as a binding partner. Coimmunoprecipitation and Western blotting showed that CaMK4 interacts directly with PKM2. Camk4-deficient CD4+ T cells displayed decreased pyruvate kinase activity. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of PKM2 reduced glycolysis and in vitro differentiation to Th1 and Th17 cells, while PKM2 overexpression restored Th17 cell differentiation. Treatment with a PKM2 inhibitor ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and CD4+ T cells treated with PKM2 inhibitor or Pkm2-shRNA caused limited disease activity in an adoptive cell transfer model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Our data demonstrate that CaMK4 binds to PKM2 and promotes its activity, which is requisite for Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro and in vivo. PKM2 represents a therapeutic target for T cell–dependent autoimmune diseases.
Michihito Kono, Kayaho Maeda, Irina Stocton-Gavanescu, Wenliang Pan, Masataka Umeda, Eri Katsuyama, Catalina Burbano, Seo Yeon K. Orite, Milena Vukelic, Maria G. Tsokos, Nobuya Yoshida, George C. Tsokos
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