The mTOR pathway is central to most cells. How mTOR is activated in macrophages and modulates macrophage physiology remain poorly understood. The tumor suppressor Folliculin (FLCN) is a GAP for RagC/D, a regulator of mTOR. We show here that LPS potently suppresses FLCN in macrophages, allowing nuclear translocation of the transcription factor TFE3, leading to lysosome biogenesis, cytokine production, and hypersensitivity to inflammatory signals. Nuclear TFE3 additionally activates a transcriptional RagD positive feedback loop that stimulates FLCN-independent canonical mTOR signaling to S6K and increases cellular proliferation. LPS thus simultaneously suppresses the TFE3 arm and activates the S6K arm of mTOR. In vivo, mice lacking myeloid FLCN reveal chronic macrophage activation, leading to profound histiocytic infiltration and tissue disruption, with hallmarks of human histiocytic syndromes like Erdheim-Chester Disease. Our data thus identify a critical FLCN-mTOR-TFE3 axis in myeloid cells, modulated by LPS, that balances mTOR activation and curbs innate immune responses.
Jia Li, Shogo Wada, Lehn K. Weaver, Chhanda Biswas, Edward M. Behrens, Zoltan Arany
Human adipose cells cannot secrete endogenous PPARγ ligands and are dependent on unknown exogenous sources. We postulated that the adipose tissue microvascular endothelial cells (aMVECs) cross-talk with the adipose cells for fatty acid (FA) transport and storage and also may secrete PPARγ ligands. We isolated aMVECs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue and showed that in these cells, but not in (pre)adipocytes from the same donors, exogenous FAs increased cellular PPARγ activation and markedly increased FA transport and the transporters FABP4 and CD36. Importantly, aMVECs only accumulated small lipid droplets and could not be differentiated to adipose cells and are not adipose precursor cells. FA exchange between aMVECs and adipose cells was bidirectional, and FA-induced PPARγ activation in aMVECs was dependent on functional adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein while deleting hormone-sensitive lipase in aMVECs had no effect. aMVECs also released lipids to the medium, which activated PPARγ in reporter cells as well as in adipose cells in coculture experiments, and this positive cross-talk was also dependent on functional ATGL in aMVECs. In sum, aMVECs are highly specialized endothelial cells, cannot be differentiated to adipose cells, are adapted to regulating lipid transport and secreting lipids that activate PPARγ, and thus, regulate adipose cell function.
Silvia Gogg, Annika Nerstedt, Jan Boren, Ulf Smith
The satiety effects and metabolic actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets in obesity for decades. We identified a potentially novel Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl–) current (CaCC) that is induced by CCK in intestinal vagal afferents of nodose neurons. The CaCC subunit Anoctamin 2 (Ano2/TMEM16B) is the dominant contributor to this current. Its expression is reduced, as is CCK current activity in obese mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Reduced expression of TMEM16B in the heterozygote KO of the channel in sensory neurons results in an obese phenotype with a loss of CCK sensitivity in intestinal nodose neurons, a loss of CCK-induced satiety, and metabolic changes, including decreased energy expenditure. The effect on energy expenditure is further supported by evidence in rats showing that CCK enhances sympathetic nerve activity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, and these effects are abrogated by a HFD and vagotomy. Our findings reveal that Ano2/TMEM16B is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in vagal afferents of nodose neurons and a major determinant of CCK-induced satiety, body weight control, and energy expenditure, making it a potential therapeutic target in obesity.
Runping Wang, Yongjun Lu, Michael Z. Cicha, Madhu V. Singh, Christopher J. Benson, Christopher J. Madden, Mark W. Chapleau, François M. Abboud
Anthracyclines are amongst the most effective chemotherapeutics ever developed, but they produce grueling side-effects, serious adverse events and resistance often develops over time. We found that these compounds can be sequestered by secreted cellular Prion protein (PrPC), blocking their cytotoxic activity. This effect was dose-dependent using either cell line-conditioned medium or human serum as a source of PrPC. Genetic depletion of PrPC or inhibition of binding via chelation of ionic copper prevented the interaction and restored cytotoxic activity. This was more pronounced for doxorubicin than its epimer, epirubicin. Investigating the relevance to breast cancer management, we found that the levels of PRNP transcript in pre-treatment tumor biopsies stratified relapse-free survival after neoadjuvant treatment with anthracyclines, particularly amongst doxorubicin-treated patients with residual disease at surgery (p=2.8E-08). These data suggest that local sequestration could mediate treatment resistance. Consistent with this, tumor cell expression of PrPC protein correlated with poorer response to doxorubicin but not epirubicin in an independent cohort analyzed by immunohistochemistry, particularly soluble isoforms released into the extracellular environment by shedding (p=0.015). These findings have important potential clinical implications for frontline regimen decision-making. We suggest there is warranted utility for prognostic PrPC/PRNP assays to guide chemo-sensitization strategies that exploit an understanding of PrPC-anthracycline-copper ion complexes.
Adrian P. Wiegmans, Jodi M. Saunus, Sunyoung Ham, Richard J. Lobb, Jamie R. Kutasovic, Andrew J. Dalley, Mariska Miranda, Caroline Atkinson, Simote T. Foliaki, Kaltin Ferguson, Colleen Niland, Cameron N. Johnstone, Victoria Lewis, Steven Collins, Sunil R. Lakhani, Fares Al-Ejeh, Andreas Möller
Airway mucin secretion is necessary for ciliary clearance of inhaled particles and pathogens, but can be detrimental in pathologies such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Exocytosis in mammals requires a Munc18 scaffolding protein, and airway secretory cells express all three Munc18 isoforms. Using conditional airway epithelial deletant mice, we found that Munc18a has the major role in baseline mucin secretion, Munc18b has the major role in stimulated mucin secretion, and Munc18c does not function in mucin secretion. In an allergic asthma model, Munc18b deletion reduced airway mucus occlusion and airflow resistance. In a cystic fibrosis model, Munc18b deletion reduced airway mucus occlusion and emphysema. Munc18b deficiency in the airway epithelium did not result in any abnormalities of lung structure, particle clearance, inflammation, or bacterial infection. Our results show that regulated secretion in a polarized epithelial cell may involve more than one exocytic machine at the apical plasma membrane, and that the protective roles of mucin secretion can be preserved while therapeutically targeting its pathologic roles.
Ana M. Jaramillo, Lucia Piccotti, Walter V. Velasco, Anna Sofia Huerta Delgado, Zoulikha Azzegagh, Felicity S. Chung, Usman I. Nazeer, Junaid Farooq, Joshua M. Brenner, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Brenton L. Scott, Christopher M. Evans, Roberto Adachi, Alan R. Burns, Silvia M. Kreda, Michael J. Tuvim, Burton F. Dickey
RNA binding proteins represent an emerging class of proteins with a role in cardiac dysfunction. We show that activation of the RNA binding protein Human antigen R (HuR) is increased in the failing human heart. To determine the functional role of HuR in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, we created an inducible cardiomyocyte-specific HuR deletion mouse, and showed that HuR deletion reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis while preserving cardiac function in a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model of pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy. Assessment of HuR-dependent changes in global gene expression suggests that the mechanistic basis for this protection occurs through a reduction in fibrotic signaling, specifically through a reduction in transforming growth factor beta (Tgfb) expression. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of HuR at a clinically relevant time point following the initial development of pathological hypertrophy post-TAC also yielded a significant reduction in pathological progression, as marked by a reduction in hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis, and preserved function. In summary, this study demonstrates a functional role for HuR in the progression of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and establishes HuR inhibition as a viable therapeutic approach for pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Lisa C. Green, Sarah R. Anthony, Samuel Slone, Lindsey Lanzillotta, Michelle L. Nieman, Xiaoqing Wu, Nathan Robbins, Shannon M. Jones, Sudeshna Roy, A. Phillip Owens III, Jeffrey Aube, Liang Xu, John N. Lorenz, Burns C. Blaxall, Jack Rubinstein, Joshua B. Benoit, Michael Tranter
Abnormal activation of neddylation modification and dysregulated energy metabolism are frequently seen in many types of cancer cells. Whether and how neddylation modification affects cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of neddylation modification, induces mitochondrial fission-to-fusion conversion in breast cancer cells via inhibiting ubiquitylation and degradation of fusion-promoting protein mitofusin (MFN1) by SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase and blocking the mitochondrial translocation of fusion-inhibiting protein DRP1. Importantly, MLN4924-induced mitochondrial fusion is independent of cell cycle progression, but confers cellular survival. The Mass-Spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and mitochondrial functional assays reveal that MLN4924 inhibits TCA cycle, but promotes mitochondrial OXPHOS. MLN4924 also increases glycolysis by activating PKM2 via promoting its tetramerization. Biologically, MLN4924 coupled with OXPHOS inhibitor metformin, or glycolysis inhibitor shikonin, significantly inhibits cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Together, our study links neddylation modification and energy metabolism, and provides sound strategies for effective combinational cancer therapies.
Qiyin Zhou, Hua Li, Yuanyuan Li, Mingjia Tan, Shaohua Fan, Cong Cao, Feilong Meng, Ling Zhu, Lili Zhao, Min-Xin Guan, Hongchuan Jin, Yi Sun
Exercise and heart disease both induce cardiac remodeling, but only disease causes fibrosis and compromises heart function. The cardioprotective benefits of exercise have been attributed to changes in cardiomyocyte physiology, but the impact of exercise on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) is unknown. Here, RNA-sequencing reveals rapid divergence of CF transcriptional programs during exercise and disease. Among the differentially expressed programs, NRF2-dependent antioxidant genes — including metallothioneins (Mt1 and Mt2) — are induced in CFs during exercise and suppressed by TGF-β/p38 signaling in disease. In vivo, mice lacking Mt1/2 exhibit signs of cardiac dysfunction in exercise, including cardiac fibrosis, vascular rarefaction, and functional decline. Mechanistically, exogenous MTs derived from fibroblasts are taken up by cultured cardiomyocytes, reducing oxidative damage–dependent cell death. Importantly, suppression of MT expression is conserved in human heart failure. Taken together, this study defines the acute transcriptional response of CFs to exercise and disease and reveals a cardioprotective mechanism that is lost in disease.
Janet K. Lighthouse, Ryan M. Burke, Lissette S. Velasquez, Ronald A. Dirkx Jr., Alessandro Aiezza II, Christine S. Moravec, Jeffrey D. Alexis, Alex Rosenberg, Eric M. Small
Arterial stiffening is a consequence of aging and a cholesterol-independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffening and CVD show a sex bias, with men more susceptible than premenopausal women. How arterial stiffness and sex interact at a molecular level to confer risk of CVD is not well understood. Here, we used the sexual dimorphism in LDLR-null mice to show that the protective effect of female sex on atherosclerosis is linked to reduced aortic stiffness and reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) by lesional macrophages. Deletion of MMP12 in LDLR-null mice attenuated the male sex bias for both arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis, and these effects occurred despite high serum cholesterol. Mechanistically, we found that oxidized LDL stimulates secretion of MMP12 in human as well as mouse macrophages. Estrogen antagonizes this effect by downregulating MMP12 expression. Our data support cholesterol-independent causal relationships between estrogen, oxidized LDL–induced secretion of macrophage MMP12, and arterial stiffness that protect against atherosclerosis in females and emphasize that reduced MMP12 functionality can confer atheroprotection to males.
Shu-lin Liu, Anamika Bajpai, Elizabeth A. Hawthorne, Yongho Bae, Paola Castagnino, James Monslow, Ellen Puré, Kara L. Spiller, Richard K. Assoian
Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TRIP11, encoding the golgin GMAP-210, cause the lethal human chondrodysplasia achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A). We now find that a homozygous splice-site mutation of the lamin B receptor (LBR) gene results in the same phenotype. Intrigued by the genetic heterogeneity, we compared GMAP-210– and LBR-deficient primary cells to unravel how particular mutations in LBR cause a phenocopy of ACG1A. We could exclude a regulatory interaction between LBR and GMAP-210 in patients’ cells. However, we discovered a common disruption of Golgi apparatus architecture that was accompanied by decreased secretory trafficking in both cases. Deficiency of Golgi-dependent glycan processing indicated a similar downstream effect of the disease-causing mutations upon Golgi function. Unexpectedly, our results thus point to a common pathogenic mechanism in GMAP-210– and LBR-related diseases attributable to defective secretory trafficking at the Golgi apparatus.
Anika Wehrle, Tomasz M. Witkos, Judith C. Schneider, Anselm Hoppmann, Sidney Behringer, Anna Köttgen, Mariet Elting, Jürgen Spranger, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch
No posts were found with this tag.