Cardiac Nav1.5 and Kir2.1–2.3 channels generate Na (INa) and inward rectifier K (IK1) currents, respectively. The functional INa and IK1 interplay is reinforced by the positive and reciprocal modulation between Nav15 and Kir2.1/2.2 channels to strengthen the control of ventricular excitability. Loss-of-function mutations in the SCN5A gene, which encodes Nav1.5 channels, underlie several inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes, including Brugada syndrome (BrS). We investigated whether the presence of BrS-associated mutations alters IK1 density concomitantly with INa density. Results obtained using mouse models of SCN5A haploinsufficiency, and the overexpression of native and mutated Nav1.5 channels in expression systems — rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) — demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trafficking–defective Nav1.5 channels significantly decreased IK1, since they did not positively modulate Kir2.1/2.2 channels. Moreover, Golgi trafficking–defective Nav1.5 mutants produced a dominant negative effect on Kir2.1/2.2 and thus an additional IK1 reduction. Moreover, ER trafficking–defective Nav1.5 channels can be partially rescued by Kir2.1/2.2 channels through an unconventional secretory route that involves Golgi reassembly stacking proteins (GRASPs). Therefore, cardiac excitability would be greatly affected in subjects harboring Nav1.5 mutations with Golgi trafficking defects, since these mutants can concomitantly trap Kir2.1/2.2 channels, thus unexpectedly decreasing IK1 in addition to INa.
Marta Pérez-Hernández, Marcos Matamoros, Silvia Alfayate, Paloma Nieto-Marín, Raquel G. Utrilla, David Tinaquero, Raquel de Andrés, Teresa Crespo, Daniela Ponce-Balbuena, B. Cicero Willis, Eric N. Jiménez-Vazquez, Guadalupe Guerrero-Serna, Andre M. da Rocha, Katherine Campbell, Todd J. Herron, F. Javier Díez-Guerra, Juan Tamargo, José Jalife, Ricardo Caballero, Eva Delpón
AEP is an age-dependent lysosomal asparaginyl endopeptidase that cleaves numerous substrates including tau and α-synuclein and mediates their pathological roles in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanism regulating this critical protease remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that Akt phosphorylates AEP on residue T322 upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and triggers its lysosomal translocation and inactivation. When BDNF levels are reduced in neurodegenerative diseases, AEP T322 phosphorylation is attenuated. Consequently, AEP is activated and translocates into the cytoplasm, where it cleaves both tau and α-synuclein. Remarkably, the unphosphorylated T322A mutant increases tau or α-synuclein cleavage by AEP and augments cell death, whereas phosphorylation mimetic T322E mutant represses these effects. Interestingly, viral injection of T322E into Tau P301S mice antagonizes tau N368 cleavage and tau pathologies, rescuing synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits. By contrast, viral administration of T322A into young α-SNCA mice elicits α-synuclein N103 cleavage and promotes dopaminergic neuronal loss, facilitating motor defects. Therefore, our findings support the notion that BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by suppressing AEP via Akt phosphorylation.
Zhi-Hao Wang, Wanqiang Wu, Seong Su Kang, Xia Liu, Zhiping Wu, Junmin Peng, Shan Ping Yu, Fredric P. Manfredsson, Ivette M. Sandoval, Xuebo Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Keqiang Ye
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology and limited therapeutic options. In this report, we characterize what we believe is a novel CCR10+ epithelial cell population in IPF lungs. There was a significant increase in the percentage of CCR10+ epithelial cells in IPF relative to normal lung explants and their numbers significantly correlated to lung remodeling in humanized NSG mice. Cultured CCR10-enriched IPF epithelial cells promoted IPF lung fibroblast invasion and collagen 1 secretion. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis showed distinct CCR10+ epithelial cell populations enriched for inflammatory and profibrotic transcripts. Consistently, cultured IPF but not normal epithelial cells induced lung remodeling in humanized NSG mice, where the number of CCR10+ IPF, but not normal, epithelial cells correlated with hydroxyproline concentration in the remodeled NSG lungs. A subset of IPF CCR10hi epithelial cells coexpress EphA3 and ephrin A signaling induces the expression of CCR10 by these cells. Finally, EphA3+CCR10hi epithelial cells induce more consistent lung remodeling in NSG mice relative to EphA3–CCR10lo epithelial cells. Our results suggest that targeting epithelial cells, highly expressing CCR10, may be beneficial in IPF.
David M. Habiel, Milena S. Espindola, Isabelle C. Jones, Ana Lucia Coelho, Barry Stripp, Cory M. Hogaboam
MicroRNAs (miRs) posttranscriptionally regulate mRNA and its translation into protein, and are considered master controllers of genes modulating normal physiology and disease. There is growing interest in how miRs change with drug treatment, and leveraging this for precision guided therapy. Here we contrast 2 closely related therapies, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 or type 9 (PDE5-I, PDE9-I), given to mice subjected to sustained cardiac pressure overload (PO). Both inhibitors augment cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to activate protein kinase G, with PDE5-I regulating nitric oxide (NO) and PDE9-I natriuretic peptide–dependent signaling. While both produced strong phenotypic improvement of PO pathobiology, they surprisingly showed binary differences in miR profiles; PDE5-I broadly reduces more than 120 miRs, including nearly half those increased by PO, whereas PDE9-I has minimal impact on any miR (P < 0.0001). The disparity evolves after pre-miR processing and is organ specific. Lastly, even enhancing NO-coupled cGMP by different methods leads to altered miR regulation. Thus, seemingly similar therapeutic interventions can be barcoded by profound differences in miR signatures, and reversing disease-associated miR changes is not required for therapy success.
Kristen M. Kokkonen-Simon, Amir Saberi, Taishi Nakamura, Mark J. Ranek, Guangshuo Zhu, Djahida Bedja, Michaela Kuhn, Marc K. Halushka, Dong Ik Lee, David A. Kass
BACKGROUND. The red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with health outcomes. Whether non-RDW risk information is contained in RBC sizes is unknown. This study evaluated the association of the percentage of extreme macrocytic RBCs (%Macro, RBC volume > 120 fl) and microcytic RBCs (%Micro, RBC volume < 60 fl) and the RDW–size distribution (RDW-sd) with mortality and morbidity. METHODS. Patients (females, n = 165,770; males, n = 100,210) at Intermountain Healthcare were studied if they had a hematology panel between May 2014 and September 2016. Adjusted sex-specific associations of %Macro/%Micro and RDW-sd with mortality and 33 morbidities were evaluated. RESULTS. Among females with fourth-quartile values of %Macro quartile and %Micro (referred to throughout as 4/4), there was an average of 7.2 morbidities versus 2.9 in the lowest risk (LR1) categories, 1/1, 1/2, 2/1, and 2/2 (P < 0.001). Among males, those in the 4/4 category had 8.0 morbidities, while those in the LR1 had 3.4 (P < 0.001). Cox regressions found %Macro/%Micro (4/4 vs. LR1, females: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.97 [95% CI = 1.53, 2.54]; males: HR = 2.17 [CI = 1.72, 2.73]), RDW-sd (quartile 4 vs. 1, females: HR = 1.33 [CI = 1.04, 1.69]; males: HR = 1.41 [CI = 1.10, 1.80]), and RDW (quartile 4 vs. 1, females: HR = 1.59 [CI = 1.26, 2.00]; males: HR = 1.23 [CI = 0.99, 1.52]) independently predicted mortality. Limitations include that the observational design did not reveal causality and unknown confounders may be unmeasured. CONCLUSIONS. Concomitantly elevated %Macro and %Micro predicted the highest mortality risk and the greatest number of morbidities, revealing predictive ability of RBC volume beyond what is measured clinically. Mechanistic investigations are needed to explain the biological basis of these observations. FUNDING. This study was supported by internal Intermountain Heart Institute funds and in-kind support from Sysmex America Inc.
Benjamin D. Horne, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Sterling T. Bennett, Joseph Boone Muhlestein, Kurt R. Jensen, Diane Marshall, Tami L. Bair, Heidi T. May, John F. Carlquist, Matthew Hegewald, Stacey Knight, Viet T. Le, T. Jared Bunch, Donald L. Lappé, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Kirk U. Knowlton
Site-1 protease (S1P), encoded by MBTPS1, is a serine protease in the Golgi. S1P regulates lipogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, and lysosome biogenesis in mice and in cultured cells. However, how S1P differentially regulates these diverse functions in humans has been unclear. In addition, no human disease with S1P deficiency has been identified. Here, we report a pediatric patient with an amorphic and a severely hypomorphic mutation in MBTPS1. The unique combination of these mutations results in a frequency of functional MBTPS1 transcripts of approximately 1%, a finding that is associated with skeletal dysplasia and elevated blood lysosomal enzymes. We found that the residually expressed S1P is sufficient for lipid homeostasis but not for ER and lysosomal functions, especially in chondrocytes. The defective S1P function specifically impairs activation of the ER stress transducer BBF2H7, leading to ER retention of collagen in chondrocytes. S1P deficiency also causes abnormal secretion of lysosomal enzymes due to partial impairment of mannose-6-phosphate–dependent delivery to lysosomes. Collectively, these abnormalities lead to apoptosis of chondrocytes and lysosomal enzyme–mediated degradation of the bone matrix. Correction of an MBTPS1 variant or reduction of ER stress mitigated collagen-trafficking defects. These results define a new congenital human skeletal disorder and, more importantly, reveal that S1P is particularly required for skeletal development in humans. Our findings may also lead to new therapies for other genetic skeletal diseases, as ER dysfunction is common in these disorders.
Yuji Kondo, Jianxin Fu, Hua Wang, Christopher Hoover, J. Michael McDaniel, Richard Steet, Debabrata Patra, Jianhua Song, Laura Pollard, Sara Cathey, Tadayuki Yago, Graham Wiley, Susan Macwana, Joel Guthridge, Samuel McGee, Shibo Li, Courtney Griffin, Koichi Furukawa, Judith A. James, Changgeng Ruan, Rodger P. McEver, Klaas J. Wierenga, Patrick M. Gaffney, Lijun Xia
T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against B cell antigens are being investigated as cellular immunotherapies. Similar approaches designed to target T cell malignancies have been hampered by the critical issue of T-on-T cytotoxicity, whereby fratricide or self-destruction of healthy T cells prohibits cell product manufacture. To date, there have been no reports of T cells engineered to target the definitive T cell marker, CD3 (3CAR). Recent improvements in gene editing now provide access to efficient disruption of such molecules on T cells, and this has provided a route to generation of 3CAR, CD3-specific CAR T cells. T cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector incorporating an anti-CD3ε CAR derived from OKT3, either before or after TALEN-mediated disruption of the endogenous TCRαβ/CD3 complex. Only transduction after disrupting assembly of TCRαβ/CD3 yielded viable 3CAR T cells, and these cultures were found to undergo self-enrichment for 3CAR+TCR–CD3– T cells without any further processing. Specific cytotoxicity against CD3ε was demonstrated against primary T cells and against childhood T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). 3CAR T cells mediated potent antileukemic effects in a human/murine chimeric model, supporting the application of cellular immunotherapy strategies against T cell malignancies. 3CAR provides a bridging strategy to achieve T cell eradication and leukemic remission ahead of conditioned allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Jane Rasaiyaah, Christos Georgiadis, Roland Preece, Ulrike Mock, Waseem Qasim
Sepsis causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients, although the pathophysiology remains unclear. The receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3), a cardinal regulator of necroptosis, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease. In mice subjected to polymicrobial sepsis, we demonstrate that RIPK3 promotes sepsis-induced AKI. Utilizing genetic deletion and biochemical approaches in vitro and in vivo, we identify a potentially novel pathway by which RIPK3 aggravates kidney tubular injury independently of the classical mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein–dependent (MLKL-dependent) necroptosis pathway. In kidney tubular epithelial cells, we show that RIPK3 promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction involving upregulation of NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) and inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and –III, and that RIPK3 and NOX4 are critical for kidney tubular injury in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RIPK3 is required for increased mitochondrial translocation of NOX4 in response to proinflammatory stimuli, by a mechanism involving protein-protein interactions. Finally, we observed elevated urinary and plasma RIPK3 levels in human patients with sepsis-induced AKI, representing potential markers of this condition. In conclusion, we identify a pathway by which RIPK3 promotes kidney tubular injury via mitochondrial dysfunction, independently of MLKL, which may represent a promising therapeutic target in sepsis-induced AKI.
Angara Sureshbabu, Edwin Patino, Kevin C. Ma, Kristian Laursen, Eli J. Finkelsztein, Oleh Akchurin, Thangamani Muthukumar, Stefan W. Ryter, Lorraine Gudas, Augustine M. K. Choi, Mary E. Choi
The macrophage is a major phagocytic cell type, and its impaired function is a primary cause of immune paralysis, organ injury, and death in sepsis. An incomplete understanding of the endogenous molecules that regulate macrophage bactericidal activity is a major barrier for developing effective therapies for sepsis. Using an in vitro killing assay, we report here that the endogenous purine ATP augments the killing of sepsis-causing bacteria by macrophages through P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs). Using newly developed transgenic mice expressing a bioluminescent ATP probe on the cell surface, we found that extracellular ATP levels increase during sepsis, indicating that ATP may contribute to bacterial killing in vivo. Studies with P2X4R-deficient mice subjected to sepsis confirm the role of extracellular ATP acting on P2X4Rs in killing bacteria and protecting against organ injury and death. Results with adoptive transfer of macrophages, myeloid-specific P2X4R-deficient mice, and P2rx4 tdTomato reporter mice indicate that macrophages are essential for the antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and organ protective effects of P2X4Rs in sepsis. Pharmacological targeting of P2X4Rs with the allosteric activator ivermectin protects against bacterial dissemination and mortality in sepsis. We propose that P2X4Rs represent a promising target for drug development to control bacterial growth in sepsis and other infections.
Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H. Németh, Ildikó Szabó, Daryl L. Davies, Zoltán V. Varga, János Pálóczi, Simonetta Falzoni, Francesco Di Virgilio, Rieko Muramatsu, Toshihide Yamashita, Pál Pacher, György Haskó
In response to collagen stimulation, platelets use a coordinated system of fluid entry to undergo membrane ballooning, procoagulant spreading, and microvesiculation. We hypothesized that water entry was mediated by the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aimed to determine its role in the platelet procoagulant response and thrombosis. We established that human and mouse platelets express AQP1 and localize to internal tubular membrane structures. However, deletion of AQP1 had minimal effects on collagen-induced platelet granule secretion, aggregation, or membrane ballooning. Conversely, procoagulant spreading, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine exposure, and clot formation time were significantly diminished. Furthermore, in vivo thrombus formation after FeCl3 injury to carotid arteries was also markedly suppressed in AQP1-null mice, but hemostasis after tail bleeding remained normal. The mechanism involves an AQP1-mediated rapid membrane stretching during procoagulant spreading but not ballooning, leading to calcium entry through mechanosensitive cation channels and a full procoagulant response. We conclude that AQP1 is a major regulator of the platelet procoagulant response, able to modulate coagulation after injury or pathologic stimuli without affecting other platelet functional responses or normal hemostasis. Clinically effective AQP1 inhibitors may therefore represent a novel class of antiprocoagulant antithrombotics.
Ejaife O. Agbani, Christopher M. Williams, Yong Li, Marion T.J. van den Bosch, Samantha F. Moore, Adele Mauroux, Lorna Hodgson, Alan S. Verkman, Ingeborg Hers, Alastair W. Poole
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