BACKGROUND. Beige and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are associated with improved metabolic homeostasis. We recently reported that the β3AR agonist mirabegron induced beige adipose tissue in obese insulin resistant subjects, and this was accompanied by improved glucose metabolism. Here, we evaluated whether pioglitazone treatment, or the combination pioglitazone and mirabegron treatment, was more effective at inducing beige adipose or BAT than mirabegron treatment alone. Both drugs were used at FDA-approved dosages. METHODS. We measured BAT by PET CT scans, beige adipose tissue by immunohistochemistry, and comprehensively characterized glucose and lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity by euglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance tests. Subcutaneous white adipose tissue, muscle fiber type composition and capillary density, lipotoxicity, and systemic inflammation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling, mass spectroscopy, and ELISAs. RESULTS. Treatment with pioglitazone or the combination of pioglitazone and mirabegron increased beige adipose tissue protein marker expression and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, but neither treatment induced BAT in these obese subjects. When the magnitude of the responses to the treatments were evaluated, mirabegron was found to be the most effective at inducing beige adipose tissue. Although monotherapy with either mirabegron or pioglitazone induced adipose beiging, combination treatment resulted in less beiging than either alone. The three treatments also had different effects on muscle fiber type switching and capillary density. CONCLUSION. The addition of pioglitazone to mirabegron treatment does not enhance beiging or increase BAT in obese, insulin-resistant research participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02919176. FUNDING. NIH: DK112282, P20GM103527, and CTSA grant UL1TR001998.
Brian S. Finlin, Hasiyet Memetimin, Beibei Zhu, Amy L. Confides, Hemendra J. Vekaria, Riham H. El Khouli, Zachary R. Johnson, Philip M. Westgate, Jianzhong Chen, Andrew J. Morris, Patrick G. Sullivan, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Philip A. Kern
BACKGROUND Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an incurable disease that causes severe mucocutaneous fragility due to mutations in COL7A1 (encoding type VII collagen [C7]). In this phase I/IIa trial, we evaluated the safety and possible clinical efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in patients with RDEB.METHODS Four adult and two pediatric patients with RDEB were treated with 3 intravenous injections of hUCB-MSCs (1 × 106 to 3 × 106 cells/kg) every 2 weeks and followed up for 8–24 months after treatment. The primary endpoint was safety. Secondary endpoints related to efficacy included clinical parameters, such as disease severity score, wound assessment, itch and pain score, and quality of life. C7 expression levels and inflammatory infiltrates in the skin, as well as serum levels of inflammatory markers and neuropeptides, were also assessed.RESULTS Intravenous hUCB-MSC infusions were well tolerated, without serious adverse events. Improvements in the Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa Severity Score, body surface area involvement, blister counts, pain, pruritus, and quality of life were observed with maximal effects at 56–112 days after treatment. hUCB-MSC administration induced M2 macrophage polarization and reduced mast cell infiltration in RDEB skin. Serum levels of substance P were decreased after therapy. Increased C7 expression was observed at the dermoepidermal junction in 1 of 6 patients at day 56.CONCLUSION To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial of systemic administration of allogeneic hUCB-MSCs in patients with RDEB, demonstrating safety and transient clinical benefits.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04520022.FUNDING This work was supported by Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. and Kangstem Biotech Co. Ltd.
Sang Eun Lee, Seung-Ju Lee, Song-Ee Kim, Kinam Kim, Boyoung Cho, Kyounghwan Roh, Soo-Chan Kim
BACKGROUND Surgery remains the frontline therapy for patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); however, 20%–40% recur. Angiogenesis inhibitors have improved survival in metastatic patients and may result in responses in the neoadjuvant setting. The impact of these agents on the tumor genetic heterogeneity or the immune milieu is largely unknown. This phase II study was designed to evaluate safety, response, and effect on tumor tissue of neoadjuvant pazopanib.METHODS ccRCC patients with localized disease received pazopanib (800 mg daily; median 8 weeks), followed by nephrectomy. Five tumors were examined for mutations by whole exome sequencing from samples collected before therapy and at nephrectomy. These samples underwent RNA sequencing; 17 samples were available for posttreatment assessment.RESULTS Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The overall response rate was 8 of 21 (38%). No patients with progressive disease. At 1-year, response-free survival and overall survival was 83% and 89%, respectively. The most frequent grade 3 toxicity was hypertension (33%, 7 of 21). Sequencing revealed strong concordance between pre- and posttreatment samples within individual tumors, suggesting tumors harbor stable core profiles. However, a reduction in private mutations followed treatment, suggesting a selective process favoring enrichment of driver mutations.CONCLUSION Neoadjuvant pazopanib is safe and active in ccRCC. Future genomic analyses may enable the segregation of driver and passenger mutations. Furthermore, tumor infiltrating immune cells persist during therapy, suggesting that pazopanib can be combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors without dampening the immune response.FUNDING Support was provided by Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline as part of an investigator-initiated study.
Christopher G. Wood, James E. Ferguson III, Joel S. Parker, Dominic T. Moore, Jennifer G. Whisenant, Susan J. Maygarden, Eric M. Wallen, William Y. Kim, Mathew I. Milowsky, Kathryn E. Beckermann, Nancy B. Davis, Scott M. Haake, Jose A. Karam, Dante S. Bortone, Benjamin G. Vincent, Thomas Powles, W. Kimryn Rathmell
Background: Baseline expression of FCRL5, a marker of naïve and memory B cells, was shown to predict response to rituximab (RTX) in rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated baseline expression of FCRL5 as a potential biomarker of clinical response to RTX in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Methods: A previously validated RT-qPCR-based platform was used to assess FCRL5 expression in patients with GPA/MPA (RAVE trial, NCT00104299). Results: Baseline FCRL5 expression was significantly higher in patients achieving complete response (CR) at 6, 12, and 18 months, independent of other clinical and serological variables, among those randomized to RTX but not CYC/AZA. Patients with baseline FCRL5 expression ≥ 0.01 expression units (termed FCRL5hi) exhibited significantly higher CR rates at 6, 12, and 18 months as compared to FCRL5low subjects (84% vs 57% p=0.016, 68% vs 40% p=0.02 and 68% vs 29% p=0.0009, respectively). Conclusion: Our data taken together suggest that FCRL5 is a biomarker of B cell lineage associated with increased achievement and maintenance of complete remission among patients treated with RTX and warrant further investigation in a prospective manner.
Kasia Owczarczyk, Matthew D. Cascino, Cecile Holweg, Gaik W. Tew, Ward Ortmann, Timothy W. Behrens, Thomas Schindler, Carol A. Langford, E. William St. Clair, Peter A. Merkel, Robert Spiera, Philip Seo, Cees G.M. Kallenberg, Ulrich Specks, Noha Lim, John H. Stone, Paul Brunetta, Marco Prunotto
BACKGROUND. The circadian system entrains behavioral and physiological rhythms to environmental cycles and modern lifestyles disrupt this entrainment. We investigated a timed exercise intervention to phase shift the internal circadian rhythm. METHODS. In fifty-two young, sedentary adults, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured before and after five days of morning (10h after DLMO; n = 26) or evening (20h after DLMO; n = 26) exercise. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in DLMO before and after exercise. RESULTS. Morning exercise induced phase advance shifts (0.62 ± 0.18h) that were significantly greater than phase shifts from evening exercise (-0.02 ± 0.18h; P = 0.01). Chronotype also influenced the effect of timed exercise. For later chronotypes, both morning and evening exercise induced phase advances (0.54 ± 0.29h and 0.46 ±0.25h, respectively). In contrast, earlier chronotypes had phase advances from morning exercise (0.49 ± 0.25h), but phase delays from evening exercise (-0.41 ± 0.29h). CONCLUSION. Late chronotypes, who experience the most severe circadian misalignment, may benefit from phase advances induced by exercise in the morning or evening, but evening exercise may exacerbate circadian misalignment in early chronotypes. Thus, personalized exercise timing prescription based on chronotype could alleviate circadian misalignment in young adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT # NCT04097886.FUNDING. National Institutes of Health grants UL1TR001998 and TL1TR001997, the Barnstable Brown Diabetes and Obesity Center, the Pediatric Exercise Physiology Laboratory Endowment, the Arvle and Ellen Turner Thacker Research Fund, and the University of Kentucky.
J. Matthew Thomas, Philip A. Kern, Heather M. Bush, Kristen J. McQuerry, W. Scott Black, Jody L. Clasey, Julie S. Pendergast
BACKGROUND. The cytokine IL-7 is critical for T cell development and function. We performed a Phase Ib study in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to evaluate how blockade of IL-7 would affect immune cells and relevant clinical responses. METHODS. Thirty-seven subjects with T1D received s.c. RN168, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the IL -7 receptor α (IL7Rα) in a dose-escalating study. RESULTS. Between 90% and 100% IL-7R occupancy and near-complete inhibition of pSTAT5 was observed at doses of RN168 1 mg/kg every other week (Q2wk) and greater. There was a significant decline in CD4+ and CD8+ effector and central memory T cells and CD4+ naive cells, but there were fewer effects on CD8+ naive T cells. The ratios of Tregs to CD4+ or CD8+ effector and central memory T cells versus baseline were increased. RNA sequencing analysis showed downmodulation of genes associated with activation, survival, and differentiation of T cells. Expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was reduced. The majority of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were mild and not treatment related. Four subjects became anti–EBV IgG+ after RN168, and 2 had symptoms of active infection. The immunologic response to tetanus toxoid was preserved at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg Q2wk but reduced at higher doses. CONCLUSIONS. This trial shows that, at dosages of 1–3 mg/kg, RN168 selectively inhibits the survival and activity of memory T cells while preserving naive T cells and Tregs. These immunologic effects may serve to eliminate pathologic T cells in autoimmune diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT02038764. FUNDING. Pfizer Inc.
Kevan C. Herold, Samantha L. Bucktrout, Xiao Wang, Bruce W. Bode, Stephen E. Gitelman, Peter A. Gottlieb, Jing Hughes, Tenshang Joh, Janet B. McGill, Jeremy H. Pettus, Shobha Potluri, Desmond Schatz, Megan Shannon, Chandrasekhar Udata, Gilbert Wong, Matteo Levisetti, Bishu J. Ganguly, Pamela D. Garzone, the RN168 Working Group
BACKGROUND IL-33, found in high levels in participants with allergic disorders, is thought to mediate allergic reactions. Etokimab, an anti–IL-33 biologic, has previously demonstrated a good safety profile and favorable pharmacodynamic properties in many clinical studies.METHODS In this 6-week placebo-controlled phase 2a study, we evaluated the safety and the ability of a single dose of etokimab to desensitize peanut-allergic adults. Participants received either etokimab (n = 15) or blinded placebo (n = 5). Clinical tests included oral food challenges and skin prick tests at days 15 and 45. Blood samples were collected for IgE levels and measurement of ex vivo peanut-stimulated T cell cytokine production.RESULTS Efficacy measurements for active vs. placebo participants at the day 15 and 45 food challenge (tolerating a cumulative 275 mg of peanut protein, which was the food challenge outcome defined in this paper) demonstrated, respectively, 73% vs. 0% (P = 0.008) to 57% vs. 0% (ns). The etokimab group had fewer adverse events compared with placebo. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and ST2 levels in CD4+ T cells were reduced in the active vs. placebo arm upon peanut-induced T cell activation (P = 0.036 for IL-13 and IL-9 at day 15), and peanut-specific IgE was reduced in active vs. placebo (P = 0.014 at day 15).CONCLUSION The phase 2a results suggest etokimab is safe and well tolerated and that a single dose of etokimab could have the potential to desensitize peanut-allergic participants and possibly reduce atopy-related adverse events.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02920021.FUNDING This work was supported by NIH grant R01AI140134, AnaptysBio, the Hartman Vaccine Fund, and the Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University.
Sharon Chinthrajah, Shu Cao, Cherie Liu, Shu-Chen Lyu, Sayantani B. Sindher, Andrew Long, Vanitha Sampath, Daniel Petroni, Marco Londei, Kari C. Nadeau
Inflammation may play a role in the link between high salt intake and its deleterious consequences. However, it is unknown whether salt can induce proinflammatory priming of monocytes and macrophages in humans. We investigated the effects of salt on monocytes and macrophages in vitro and in vivo by performing a randomized crossover trial in which 11 healthy human subjects adhered to a 2-week low-salt and high-salt diet. We demonstrate that salt increases monocyte expression of CCR2, a chemokine receptor that mediates monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases. In line with this, we show a salt-induced increase of plasma MCP-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and skin macrophage density after high-salt diet. Macrophages demonstrate signs of an increased proinflammatory phenotype after salt exposure, as represented by boosted LPS-induced cytokine secretion of IL-6, TNF, and IL-10 in vitro, and by increased HLA-DR expression and decreased CD206 expression on skin macrophages after high-salt diet. Taken together, our data open up the possibility for inflammatory monocyte and macrophage responses as potential contributors to the deleterious effects of high salt intake.
Eliane F.E. Wenstedt, Sanne G.S. Verberk, Jeffrey Kroon, Annette E. Neele, Jeroen Baardman, Nike Claessen, Özge T. Pasaoglu, Emma Rademaker, Esmee M. Schrooten, Rosa D. Wouda, Menno P.J. de Winther, Jan Aten, Liffert Vogt, Jan Van den Bossche
Background: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are elevated in glioblastoma (GBM) patient circulation, present in tumor tissue, and associated with poor prognosis. While low-dose chemotherapy reduces MDSCs in preclinical models, the use of this strategy to reduce MDSCs in GBM patients has yet to be evaluated. Methods: A phase 0/1 dose-escalation clinical trial was conducted in recurrent glioblastoma patients treated 5-7 days prior to surgery with low-dose chemotherapy via capecitabine followed by concomitant low-dose capecitabine and bevacizumab. Clinical outcomes, including progression-free and overall survival, were measured, along with safety and toxicity profiles. Over the treatment time course, circulating MDSC levels were measured by multi-parameter flow cytometry, and tumor tissue immune profiles were assessed via mass cytometry time-of-flight. Results: A total of 11 patients were enrolled across escalating dose cohorts of 150, 300, and 450 mg bid. No serious adverse events related to the drug combination were observed. Compared to pre-treatment baseline, circulating MDSCs were found to be higher after surgery in the 150 mg treatment arm and lower in the 300 mg and 450 mg treatment arms. Increased cytotoxic immune infiltration was observed after low-dose capecitabine compared to untreated GBM patients in the 300 mg and 450 mg treatment arms. Conclusions: Low-dose, metronomic capecitabine in combination with bevacizumab is well tolerated in GBM patients and was associated with a reduction in circulating MDSC levels and an increase in cytotoxic immune infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. Trial registration: NCT02669173
David M. Peereboom, Tyler J. Alban, Mathew M. Grabowski, Alvaro G. Alvarado, Balint Otvos, Defne Bayik, Gustavo Roversi, Mary McGraw, Pengjing Huang, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Harley I. Kornblum, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Justin D. Lathia
Background: Hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (‘statins’) are prescribed to millions of people. Statins are anti-inflammatory independent of their cholesterol-reducing effects. To date, most reports on the immune effects of statins have assayed a narrow array of variables and have focused on cell lines, rodent models, or patient cohorts. We sought to define the effect of rosuvastatin on the ‘immunome’ of healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects. Methods: Prospective study of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day x 28 days) in 18 statin-naïve adults with low density lipoprotein-cholesterol <130 mg/dL. A panel of >180 immune/biochemical/endocrinologic variables was measured at baseline, and days 14, 28, and 42 (14 days after drug withdrawal). Drug effect was evaluated using linear mixed effects models. Potential interactions between drug and baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were evaluated. Results: A wide array of immune measures changed (nominal p<0.05) during rosuvastatin treatment, although the changes were modest in magnitude and few met a false discovery rate of 0.05. Among changes noted were a concordant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, TNFα) and peripheral blood neutrophil frequency, and a decline in activated T regulatory cell frequency. Several drug effects were significantly modified by baseline hsCRP, and some did not resolve after drug withdrawal. Among other unexpected rosuvastatin effects were changes in erythrocyte indices, glucose-regulatory hormones, CD8+ T cells, and haptoglobin. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin induces modest changes in immunologic and metabolic measures in normocholesterolemic subjects, with several effects dependent upon baseline CRP. Future, larger studies are warranted to validate these changes and their physiological significance.
Peer W. F. Karmaus, Min Shi, Shira Perl, Angélique Biancotto, Julián Candia, Foo Cheung, Yuri Kotliarov, Neal Young, Michael B. Fessler
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