Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of calcium-dependent enzymes that are involved in a variety of human disorders, including cancer and autoimmune diseases. Although targeting PAD4 has shown no benefit in sepsis, the role of PAD2 remains unknown. Here, we report that PAD2 is engaged in sepsis and sepsis-induced acute lung injury in both human patients and mice. Pad2–/– or selective inhibition of PAD2 by a small molecule inhibitor increased survival and improved overall outcomes in mouse models of sepsis. Pad2 deficiency decreased neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Importantly, Pad2 deficiency inhibited Caspase-11–dependent pyroptosis in vivo and in vitro. Suppression of PAD2 expression reduced inflammation and increased macrophage bactericidal activity. In contrast to Pad2–/–, Pad4 deficiency enhanced activation of Caspase-11–dependent pyroptosis in BM-derived macrophages and displayed no survival improvement in a mouse sepsis model. Collectively, our findings highlight the potential of PAD2 as an indicative marker and therapeutic target for sepsis.
Yuzi Tian, Shibin Qu, Hasan B. Alam, Aaron M. Williams, Zhenyu Wu, Qiufang Deng, Baihong Pan, Jing Zhou, Baoling Liu, Xiuzhen Duan, Jianjie Ma, Santanu Mondal, Paul R. Thompson, Kathleen A. Stringer, Theodore J. Standiford, Yongqing Li
Loss-of-function variants of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) enhance risk of inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis; however, whether the association between PTPN2 and autoimmune arthritis depends on gut inflammation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that induction of subclinical intestinal inflammation exacerbates development of autoimmune arthritis in SKG mice. Ptpn2-haploinsufficient SKG mice — modeling human carriers of disease-associated variants of PTPN2 — displayed enhanced colitis-induced arthritis and joint accumulation of Tregs expressing RAR-related orphan receptor γT (RORγt) — a gut-enriched Treg subset that can undergo conversion into FoxP3–IL-17+ arthritogenic exTregs. SKG colonic Tregs underwent higher conversion into arthritogenic exTregs when compared with peripheral Tregs, which was exacerbated by haploinsufficiency of Ptpn2. Ptpn2 haploinsufficiency led to selective joint accumulation of RORγt-expressing Tregs expressing the colonic marker G protein–coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) in arthritic mice and selectively enhanced conversion of GPR15+ Tregs into exTregs in vitro and in vivo. Inducible Treg-specific haploinsufficiency of Ptpn2 enhanced colitis-induced SKG arthritis and led to specific joint accumulation of GPR15+ exTregs. Our data validate the SKG model for studies at the interface between intestinal and joint inflammation and suggest that arthritogenic variants of PTPN2 amplify the link between gut inflammation and arthritis through conversion of colonic Tregs into exTregs.
Wan-Chen Hsieh, Mattias N.D. Svensson, Martina Zoccheddu, Michael L. Tremblay, Shimon Sakaguchi, Stephanie M. Stanford, Nunzio Bottini
The ability of HDL to inhibit inflammation in adipocytes and adipose tissue is reduced when HDL contains serum amyloid A (SAA) due to trapping of SAA in HDL by proteoglycans at the adipocyte surface. Since we recently found that the major extracellular matrix proteoglycan produced by hypertrophic adipocytes is versican, whereas activated adipose tissue macrophages produce mainly biglycan, the role of proteoglycans in determining the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL was further investigated. The distribution of versican, biglycan, apolipoprotein A-I (the major apolipoprotein of HDL) and SAA were similar in adipose tissue from obese mice and obese human subjects. Co-localization of SAA-enriched HDL with versican and biglycan at the cell surface of adipocyte and peritoneal macrophages, respectively, was blocked by silencing these proteoglycans, which also restored the anti-inflammatory property of SAA-enriched HDL despite the presence of SAA. Similar to adipocytes, normal HDL exerts its anti-inflammatory function in macrophages by reducing lipid rafts, reactive oxygen species generation and translocation of toll like receptor 4 and NADPH oxidase 2 into lipid rafts, effects that are not observed with SAA-enriched HDL. These findings imply that SAA present in HDL can be trapped by adipocyte-derived versican and macrophage-derived biglycan, thereby blunting HDL’s anti-inflammatory properties.
Chang Yeop Han, Inkyung Kang, Mohamed Omer, Shari Wang, Tomasz Wietecha, Thomas N. Wight, Alan Chait
Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin disorder of unknown etiology that manifests as recurrent, painful lesions. Cutaneous dysbiosis and unresolved inflammation are hallmarks of active HS, but their origin and interplay remain unclear. Our metabolomic profiling of HS skin revealed an abnormal induction of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan catabolism in dermal fibroblasts correlating with the release of KP-inducing cytokines by inflammatory cell infiltrates. Notably, over-activation of the KP in lesional skin was associated with local and systemic depletion in tryptophan. Yet the skin microbiota normally degrades host tryptophan into indoles regulating tissue inflammation via engagement of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR). In HS skin lesions, we detected contextual defects in AHR activation coinciding with impaired production of bacteria-derived AHR agonists and decreased incidence of AHR ligand-producing bacteria in the resident flora. Dysregulation of tryptophan catabolism at the skin-microbiota interface thus provides a mechanism linking the immunological and microbiological features of HS lesions. In addition to revealing metabolic alterations in HS patients, our study suggests that correcting AHR signaling would help restore immune homeostasis in HS skin.
Laure Guenin-Macé, Jean-David Morel, Jean-Marc Doisne, Angèle Schiavo, Lysiane Boulet, Véronique Mayau, Pedro Goncalves, Sabine Duchatelet, Alain Hovnanian, Vincent Bondet, Darragh Duffy, Marie-Noëlle Ungeheuer, Maïa Delage, Aude Nassif, James P. Di Santo, Caroline Demangel
We determined that renal proximal tubular (PT) NFκB essential modulator (NEMO) plays a direct and critical role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) utilizing using mice lacking renal PT NEMO and by targeted renal PT NEMO inhibition with mesoscale nanoparticle encapsulated NEMO binding peptide (MNP NBP). We subjected renal PT NEMO deficient mice, wild type (WT) mice and C57BL/6 mice to sham surgery or 30 min renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). C57BL/6 mice received NBP MNP or empty MNP before renal IR injury. Mice treated with MNP NBP and mice deficient in renal PT NEMO were protected against ischemic AKI with decreased renal tubular necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis compared to control MNP treated or WT mice, respectively. Recombinant peptidylarginine deiminase type-4 (rPAD4) targets kidney PT NEMO to exacerbate ischemic AKI as exogenous rPAD4 exacerbated renal IR injury in WT mice but not in renal proximal tubule NEMO deficient mice. Furthermore, rPAD4 upregulated proinflammatory cytokine mRNA and NFκB activation in freshly isolated renal proximal tubules from WT mice but not from PT NEMO deficient mice. Taken together, our studies suggest that renal PT NEMO plays a critical role in ischemic AKI by promoting renal tubular inflammation, apoptosis as well as necrosis.
Sang Jun Han, Ryan M. williams, Mihwa Kim, Daniel A. Heller, Vivette D'Agati, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, H. Thomas Lee
Macrophages are a primary immune cell involved in inflammation, and their cell plasticity allows for transition from an inflammatory to a reparative phenotype and is critical for normal tissue repair following injury. Evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in establishing macrophage phenotype and function during normal and pathologic wound repair. Here, we find in human and murine wound macrophages that cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin E2 (COX-2/PGE2) is elevated in diabetes and regulates downstream macrophage-mediated inflammation and host defense. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of human wound tissue, we identify increased NF-κB–mediated inflammation in diabetic wounds and show increased COX-2/PGE2 in diabetic macrophages. Further, we identify that COX-2/PGE2 production in wound macrophages requires epigenetic regulation of 2 key enzymes in the cytosolic phospholipase A2/COX-2/PGE2 (cPLA2/COX-2/PGE2) pathway. We demonstrate that TGF-β–induced miRNA29b increases COX-2/PGE2 production via inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3b–mediated hypermethylation of the Cox-2 promoter. Further, we find mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) upregulates cPLA2 expression and drives COX-2/PGE2. Inhibition of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway genetically (Cox2fl/fl Lyz2Cre+) or with a macrophage-specific nanotherapy targeting COX-2 in tissue macrophages reverses the inflammatory macrophage phenotype and improves diabetic tissue repair. Our results indicate the epigenetically regulated PGE2 pathway controls wound macrophage function, and cell-targeted manipulation of this pathway is feasible to improve diabetic wound repair.
Frank M. Davis, Lam C. Tsoi, Rachael Wasikowski, Aaron denDekker, Amrita Joshi, Carol Wilke, Hongping Deng, Sonya Wolf, Andrea Obi, Steven Huang, Allison C. Billi, Scott Robinson, Jay Lipinski, William J. Melvin, Christopher O. Audu, Stephan Weidinger, Steven L. Kunkel, Andrew Smith, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Bethany B. Moore, Katherine A. Gallagher
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a consequence of autoimmune β cell destruction, but the role of lipids in this process is unknown. We previously reported that activation of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) modulates polarization of macrophages (MΦ). Hydrolysis of the sn-2 substituent of glycerophospholipids by iPLA2β can lead to the generation of oxidized lipids (eicosanoids), pro- and antiinflammatory, which can initiate and amplify immune responses triggering β cell death. As MΦ are early triggers of immune responses in islets, we examined the impact of iPLA2β-derived lipids (iDLs) in spontaneous-T1D prone nonobese diabetic mice (NOD), in the context of MΦ production and plasma abundances of eicosanoids and sphingolipids. We find that (a) MΦNOD exhibit a proinflammatory lipid landscape during the prediabetic phase; (b) early inhibition or genetic reduction of iPLA2β reduces production of select proinflammatory lipids, promotes antiinflammatory MΦ phenotype, and reduces T1D incidence; (c) such lipid changes are reflected in NOD plasma during the prediabetic phase and at T1D onset; and (d) importantly, similar lipid signatures are evidenced in plasma of human subjects at high risk for developing T1D. These findings suggest that iDLs contribute to T1D onset and identify select lipids that could be targeted for therapeutics and, in conjunction with autoantibodies, serve as early biomarkers of pre-T1D.
Alexander J. Nelson, Daniel J. Stephenson, Robert N. Bone, Christopher L. Cardona, Margaret A. Park, Ying G. Tusing, Xiaoyong Lei, George Kokotos, Christina L. Graves, Clayton E. Mathews, Joanna Kramer, Martin J. Hessner, Charles E. Chalfant, Sasanka Ramanadham
Airway mucociliary clearance (MCC) is the main mechanism of lung defense keeping airways free of infection and mucus obstruction. Airway surface liquid volume, ciliary beating, and mucus are central for proper MCC and critically regulated by sodium absorption and anion secretion. Impaired MCC is a key feature of muco-obstructive diseases. The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa.3.1, encoded by Kcnn4, participates in ion secretion, and studies showed that its activation increases Na+ absorption in airway epithelia, suggesting that KCa3.1-induced hyperpolarization was sufficient to drive Na+ absorption. However, its role in airway epithelium is not fully understood. We aimed to elucidate the role of KCa3.1 in MCC using a genetically engineered mouse. KCa3.1 inhibition reduced Na+ absorption in mouse and human airway epithelium. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of Kcnn4 enhanced cilia beating frequency and MCC ex vivo and in vivo. Kcnn4 silencing in the Scnn1b-transgenic mouse (Scnn1btg/+), a model of muco-obstructive lung disease triggered by increased epithelial Na+ absorption, improved MCC, reduced Na+ absorption, and did not change the amount of mucus but did reduce mucus adhesion, neutrophil infiltration, and emphysema. Our data support that KCa3.1 inhibition attenuated muco-obstructive disease in the Scnn1btg/+ mice. K+ channel modulation may be a therapeutic strategy to treat muco-obstructive lung diseases.
Génesis Vega, Anita Guequén, Amber R. Philp, Ambra Gianotti, Llilian Arzola, Manuel Villalón, Olga Zegarra-Moran, Luis J.V. Galietta, Marcus A. Mall, Carlos A. Flores
Chronic inflammation is associated with physical frailty and functional decline in older adults; however, the molecular mechanisms of this linkage are not understood. A mouse model of chronic inflammation showed reduced motor function and partial denervation at the neuromuscular junction. Metabolomic profiling of these mice and further validation in frail human subjects showed significant dysregulation in the tryptophan degradation pathway, including decreased tryptophan and serotonin, and increased levels of some neurotoxic kynurenines. In humans, kynurenine strongly correlated with age, frailty status, TNF-αR1 and IL-6, weaker grip strength, and slower walking speed. To study the effects of elevated neurotoxic kynurenines on motor neuronal cell viability and axonal degeneration, we used motor neuronal cells treated with 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid and observed neurite degeneration in a dose-dependent manner and potentiation of toxicity between 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid. These results suggest that kynurenines mediate neuromuscular dysfunction associated with chronic inflammation and aging.
Reyhan Westbrook, Tae Chung, Jacqueline Lovett, Chris Ward, Humberto Joca, Huanle Yang, Mohammed Khadeer, Jing Tian, Qian-Li Xue, Anne Le, Luigi Ferrucci, Ruin Moaddel, Rafa de Cabo, Ahmet Hoke, Jeremy Walston, Peter M. Abadir
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) can occur after hematopoietic cell transplant in patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies or inborn errors. Although CD4 T helper (Th) cells play a major role in aGVHD, the mechanisms by which they contribute, particularly within the intestines, have remained elusive. We have identified a novel subset of Th cells that accumulated in the intestines and produced the serine protease granzyme A (GrA). GrA+ Th cells were distinct from other Th lineages and exhibited a non-cytolytic phenotype. In vitro, GrA+ Th cells differentiated in the presence of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-21 and were transcriptionally unique from cells cultured with either IL-4 or the IL-6/IL-21 combination alone. In vivo, both STAT3 and STAT6 were required for GrA+ Th cell differentiation and played roles in maintenance of the lineage identity. Importantly, GrA+ Th cells promoted aGVHD-associated morbidity and mortality and contributed to crypt destruction within intestines but were not required for the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect. Our data indicate that GrA+ Th cells represent a distinct Th subset and are critical mediators of aGVHD.
Sungtae Park, Brad Griesenauer, Hua Jiang, Djamilatou Adom, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Srishti Chakravorty, Majid Kazemian, Tanbeena Imam, Rajneesh Srivastava, Tristan A. Hayes, Julian Pardo, Sarath Chandra Janga, Sophie Paczesny, Mark H. Kaplan, Matthew R. Olson
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