Neutrophils (PMN) are the first immune responders to infection/injury playing a critical role in clearing invading microbes and promoting tissue repair. However, dysregulated trafficking of PMNs across mucosal surfaces is a pathological hallmark of numerous diseases characterized by persistent or intermittent bursts of mucosal inflammation. The critical final step in PMN trafficking into mucosal lined organs (including the lungs, kidneys, skin and gut) involves transepithelial migration (TEpM). The glycoprotein CD11b/CD18 is the predominant β2 integrin that mediates PMN TEpM. Furthermore, CD11b/CD18 also regulates key PMN inflammatory effector functions that are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic mucosal inflammation including superoxide release and degranulation. Recent studies have shown that terminal Fucose and GlcNAc glycans on CD11b/CD18 can be targeted to reduce PMN trafficking across intestinal epithelium, highlighting the importance of glycosylation in regulating PMN inflammatory function in mucosal settings. Previous studies have also demonstrated that the most abundant terminal glycan on human and murine PMN is sialic acid (Sia). However, the role of Sia in regulating PMN epithelial influx and mucosal inflammatory function is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting sialidase mediated removal of α2-3 linked Sia from CD11b/CD18 inhibits PMN migration across intestinal epithelium in vitro and in vivo. Sialylation was also found to regulate critical PMN inflammatory effector functions including degranulation and superoxide release. Finally, we demonstrate that sialidase inhibition reduces bacterial peptide mediated CD11b/CD18 activation in PMN and blocks downstream intracellular signaling mediated by Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and p38 MAP kinase. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sialylated glycans on CD11b/CD18 represent novel targets for ameliorating PMN mediated tissue damage and reducing inflammation in mucosal inflammatory disorders.
Veronica Azcutia, Matthias Kelm, Dylan Fink, Richard D. Cummings, Asma Nusrat, Charles A. Parkos, Jennifer C. Brazil
Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a fluctuating course of excessive inflammation and apparent neovascularization. Microbial dysbiosis with high density of B. oleronius and increased activity of kallikrein 5, which cleaves cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, are key pathogenic triggers in rosacea. However, how these events are linked to the disease remains unknown. Here, we show that type I interferons produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells represent the pivotal link between dysbiosis, the aberrant immune response, and neovascularization. Compared to other commensal bacteria, B. oleronius is highly susceptible and preferentially killed by cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides leading to enhanced generation of complexes with bacterial DNA. These bacterial DNA-complexes but not DNA-complexes derived from host cells are required for cathelicidin-induced activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I interferon production. Moreover, kallikrein 5 cleaves cathelicidin into peptides with heightened DNA-binding and type I interferon-inducing capacities. In turn, excessive type I interferon expression drives neoangiogenesis via IL22 induction and upregulation of the IL22 receptor on endothelial cells. These findings unravel a novel pathomechanism, which directly links hallmarks of rosacea to the killing of dysbiotic commensal bacteria with induction of a pathogenic type I interferon-driven and IL22-mediated angiogenesis.
Alessio A. Mylonas, Heike C. Hawerkamp, Yichen Wang, Jiaqi Chen, Francesco Messina, Olivier Demaria, Stephan Meller, Bernhard Homey, Jeremy Di Domizio, Lucia Mazzolai, Alain Hovnanian, Michel Gilliet, Curdin Conrad
Newborns are at high risk of developing neonatal sepsis, particularly if born prematurely. This has been linked to divergent requirements the immune system has to fulfill during intrauterine compared to extrauterine life. By transcriptomic analysis of fetal and adult neutrophils we set out to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil maturation and functional adaption during fetal ontogeny. We identified an accumulation of differentially regulated genes within the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway accompanied by constitutive nuclear localization of RelB and increased surface expression of TNFRII in fetal neutrophils as well as elevated levels of LT-α in fetal serum. Furthermore, we found strong upregulation of the negative inflammatory regulator A20 (Tnfaip3) in fetal neutrophils, which was accompanied by a pronounced downregulation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Functionally, overexpressing A20 in Hoxb8 cells led to reduced adhesion of these neutrophil-like cells under flow. Conversely, mice with a neutrophil specific A20 deletion displayed increased inflammation in vivo. Taken together, we have uncovered constitutive activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway with concomitant upregulation of A20 in fetal neutrophils. This offers perfect adaption of neutrophil function during intrauterine fetal life, but also restricts appropriate immune responses particularly in prematurely born infants.
Ina Rohwedder, Lou Martha Wackerbarth, Kristina Heinig, Annamaria Ballweg, Johannes Altstätter, Myriam Ripphahn, Claudia Nussbaum, Melanie Salvermoser, Susanne Bierschenk, Tobias Straub, Matthias Gunzer, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, Thomas Kolben, Christian Schulz, Averil Ma, Barbara Walzog, Matthias Heinig, Markus Sperandio
The molecular mediators of cell death and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have yet to be fully elucidated. Caspase-8 is a critical regulator of several cell death and inflammatory pathways; however, its role in AD pathogenesis has not yet been examined in detail. In the absence of Caspase-8, mice are embryonic lethal due to excessive RIPK3-dependent necroptosis. Compound RIPK3 and Caspase-8 mutants rescue embryonic lethality, which we leveraged to examine the roles of these pathways in an amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated mouse model of AD. We find that combined deletion of Caspase-8 and RIPK3, but not RIPK3 alone, leads to diminished Aβ deposition and microgliosis in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD. Despite its well-known role in cell death, Caspase-8 does not appear to impact cell loss in the 5xFAD model. In contrast, we found that Caspase-8 is a critical regulator of Aβ-driven inflammasome gene expression and IL-1β release. Interestingly, loss of RIPK3 had only a modest effect on disease progression suggesting that inhibition of necroptosis or RIPK3-mediated cytokine pathways are not critical during mid stages of Aβ amyloidosis. These findings suggest that therapeutics targeting Caspase-8 may represent a novel strategy to limit Aꞵ amyloidosis and neuroinflammation in AD.
Sushanth Kumar, Sakar Budhathoki, Christopher B. Oliveira, August D. Kahle, O. Yipkin Calhan, John R. Lukens, Christopher D. Deppmann
Although air pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with acute and chronic lung inflammation, the etiology of PM2.5-induced airway inflammation remains poorly understood. Here we report that PM2.5 triggered airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and neutrophilic inflammation with concomitant increases in Th1 and Th17 responses and epithelial cell apoptosis. We found that γδ T cells promoted neutrophilic inflammation and AHR through IL-17A. Unexpectedly, we found that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells played a protective role in PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation. Specifically, PM2.5 activated a suppressive CD4– iNKT cell subset that coexpressed Tim-1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Activation of this suppressive subset was mediated by Tim-1 recognition of phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. The suppressive iNKT subset inhibited γδ T cell expansion and intrinsic IL-17A production, and the inhibitory effects of iNKT cells on the cytokine-producing capacity of γδ T cells were mediated in part by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling. Taken together, our findings underscore a pathogenic role for IL-17A–producing γδ T cells in PM2.5-elicited inflammation and identify PD-L1+Tim-1+CD4– iNKT cells as a protective subset that prevents PM2.5-induced AHR and neutrophilia by inhibiting γδ T cell function.
Christina Li-Ping Thio, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Jo-Chiao Wang, Po-Yu Chi, Ya-Lin Chang, Yu-Tse Ting, Shih-Yu Chen, Ya-Jen Chang
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which consist of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), are unique forms of dietary fat with various health benefits. GPR84 acts as a receptor for MCFAs (especially C10:0 and C12:0); however, GPR84 is still considered an orphan receptor, and the nutritional signaling of endogenous and dietary MCFAs via GPR84 remains unclear. Here, we showed that endogenous MCFA-mediated GPR84-signaling protected hepatic functions from diet-induced lipotoxicity. Under high-fat diet (HFD) conditions, GPR84-deficient mice exhibited non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the progression of hepatic fibrosis but not steatosis. With markedly increased hepatic MCFA levels under HFD, GPR84 suppressed lipotoxicity-induced macrophage over-activation. Thus, GPR84 is an immunomodulating receptor that suppresses excessive dietary fat intake-induced toxicity by sensing increases in MCFAs. Additionally, administering MCTs, MCFAs (C10:0 or C12:0, but not C8:0), or GPR84 agonists effectively impreoved NASH in mouse models. Exogenous GPR84 stimulation is therefore a potential strategy for treating NASH.
Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Hazuki Nonaka, Akari Nishida, Yuki Masujima, Daisuke Takahashi, Takako Ikeda, Akiharu Uwamizu, Miyako Tanaka, Motoyuki Kohjima, Miki Igarashi, Hironori Katoh, Tomohiro Tanaka, Asuka Inoue, Takayoshi Suganami, Koji Hase, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Junken Aoki, Ikuo Kimura
Elevated circulating dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 is a biomarker for liver disease, but its involvement in gluconeogenesis and in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) progression remains unclear. Here we identified that DPP4 in hepatocytes but not Tie2+ endothelial cells regulates the local bioactivity of incretin hormones and gluconeogenesis. However, the complete absence of DPP4 (Dpp4-/-) in aged mice with metabolic syndrome accelerates liver fibrosis without altering dyslipidemia and steatosis. Analysis of transcripts from the livers of whole body Dpp4-/- displayed enrichment for inflammasome, p53, and senescence programs compared to littermate controls. High-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC)-feeding decreased Dpp4 expression in F4/80+ cells, with only minor changes in immune signaling. Moreover, in a lean mouse model of severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt -/-) mice fed with HFHC diet, we observed a 4-fold increase in circulating DPP4, disassociating its release from obesity. Lastly, we evaluated DPP4 levels in patients with hepatitis C infection with dysglycemia (HOMA-IR > 2) who underwent direct antiviral treatment (with or without ribavirin). DPP4 protein levels decreased with viral clearance, and DPP4 activity levels were reduced at longer-term follow-up in ribavirin-treated patients, although metabolic factors did not improve. These data suggest elevations in DPP4 during HCV infection are not primarily regulated by metabolic disturbances.
Natasha A. Trzaskalski, Branka Vulesevic, My-Anh Nguyen, Natasha Jeraj, Evgenia Fadzeyeva, Nadya M. Morrow, Cassandra A.A. Locatelli, Nicole Travis, Antonio A. Hanson, Julia R.C. Nunes, Conor O'Dwyer, Jelske N. Van der Veen, Ilka Lorenzen-Schmidt, Rick Seymour, Serena M. Pulente, Andrew C. Clément, Angela M. Crawley, René L. Jacobs, Mary-Anne Doyle, Curtis L. Cooper, Kyoung-Han Kim, Morgan D. Fullerton, Erin E. Mulvihill
Severe lung damage in COVID-19 involves complex interactions between diverse populations of immune and stromal cells. In this study, we used a spatial transcriptomics approach to delineate the cells, pathways and genes present across the spectrum of histopathological damage in COVID-19 lung tissue. We applied correlation network-based approaches to deconvolve gene expression data from 46 areas of interest covering >62,000 cells within well preserved lung samples from three patients. Despite substantial inter-patient heterogeneity, we discovered evidence for a common immune cell signaling circuit in areas of severe tissue that involves crosstalk between cytotoxic lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory macrophages. Expression of IFNG by cytotoxic lymphocytes was associated with induction of chemokines including CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 which are known to promote the recruitment of CXCR3+ immune cells. The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members BAFF (TNFSF13B) and TRAIL (TNFSF10) were found to be consistently upregulated in the areas with severe tissue damage. We used published spatial and single cell SARS-CoV-2 datasets to confirm our findings in the lung tissue from additional cohorts of COVID-19 patients. The resulting model of severe COVID-19 immune-mediated tissue pathology may inform future therapeutic strategies.
Amy R. Cross, Carlos E. de Andrea, María Villalba-Esparza, Manuel F. Landecho, Lucia Cerundolo, Praveen Weeratunga, Rachel E. Etherington, Laura Denney, Graham Ogg, Ling-Pei Ho, Ian S.D. Roberts, Joanna Hester, Paul Klenerman, Ignacio Melero, Stephen N. Sansom, Fadi Issa
Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is a severe complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) control cellular adaptation to hypoxia and are considered promising therapeutic targets in IBD. However, their relevance in the pathogenesis of CAC remains elusive. We induced CAC in Phd1–/–, Phd2+/–, Phd3–/–, and WT mice with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Phd1–/– mice were protected against chronic colitis and displayed diminished CAC growth compared with WT mice. In Phd3–/– mice, colitis activity and CAC growth remained unaltered. In Phd2+/– mice, colitis activity was unaffected, but CAC growth was aggravated. Mechanistically, Phd2 deficiency (i) increased the number of tumor-associated macrophages in AOM/DSS-induced tumors, (ii) promoted the expression of EGFR ligand epiregulin in macrophages, and (iii) augmented the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 signaling, which at least in part contributed to aggravated tumor cell proliferation in colitis-associated tumors. Consistently, Phd2 deficiency in hematopoietic (Vav:Cre-Phd2fl/fl) but not in intestinal epithelial cells (Villin:Cre-Phd2fl/fl) increased CAC growth. In conclusion, the 3 different PHD isoenzymes have distinct and nonredundant effects, promoting (PHD1), diminishing (PHD2), or neutral (PHD3), on CAC growth.
Kilian B. Kennel, Julius Burmeister, Praveen Radhakrishnan, Nathalia A. Giese, Thomas Giese, Martin Salfenmoser, Jasper M. Gebhardt, Moritz J. Strowitzki, Cormac T. Taylor, Ben Wielockx, Martin Schneider, Jonathan M. Harnoss
Recent studies have shown that cellular metabolism is tightly linked to the regulation of immune cells. Here, we show that activation of cholesterol metabolism, involving cholesterol uptake, synthesis, and autophagy/lipophagy, is integral to innate immune responses in macrophages. In particular, cholesterol accumulation within endosomes and lysosomes is a hallmark of the cellular cholesterol dynamics elicited by Toll-like receptor 4 activation and is required for amplification of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88) signaling. Mechanistically, Myd88 binds cholesterol via its CLR recognition/interaction amino acid consensus domain, which promotes the protein’s self-oligomerization. Moreover, a novel supramolecular compound, polyrotaxane (PRX), inhibited Myd88‑dependent inflammatory macrophage activation by decreasing endolysosomal cholesterol via promotion of cholesterol trafficking and efflux. PRX activated liver X receptor, which led to upregulation of ATP binding cassette transporter A1, thereby promoting cholesterol efflux. PRX also inhibited atherogenesis in Ldlr–/– mice. In humans, cholesterol levels in circulating monocytes correlated positively with the severity of atherosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that dynamic changes in cholesterol metabolism are mechanistically linked to Myd88‑dependent inflammatory programs in macrophages and support the notion that cellular cholesterol metabolism is integral to innate activation of macrophages and is a potential therapeutic and diagnostic target for inflammatory diseases.
Sumio Hayakawa, Atsushi Tamura, Nikita Nikiforov, Hiroyuki Koike, Fujimi Kudo, Yinglan Cheng, Takuro Miyazaki, Marina Kubekina, Tatiana V. Kirichenko, Alexander N. Orekhov, Nobuhiko Yui, Ichiro Manabe, Yumiko Oishi
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