Preterm infants are susceptible to bloodstream infection by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) that can lead to sepsis. High parenteral glucose supplement is commonly used to support their growth and energy expenditure, but may exceed endogenous regulation during infection, causing dysregulated immune response and clinical deterioration. Using a preterm piglet model of neonatal CONS sepsis induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, we demonstrate the delicate interplay between immunity and glucose metabolism to regulate the host infection response. Circulating glucose levels, glycolysis and inflammatory response to infection are closely connected across the states of tolerance, resistance and immunoparalysis. Further, high parenteral glucose provision during infection induces hyperglycemia, elevated glycolysis and inflammation, leading to metabolic acidosis and sepsis, whereas glucose restricted individuals are clinically unaffected with increased gluconeogenesis to maintain moderate hypoglycemia. Finally, standard glucose supply maintaining normoglycemia or pharmacological glycolysis inhibition enhances bacterial clearance and dampens inflammation but fails to prevent sepsis. Our results uncover how blood glucose and glycolysis controls circulating immune responses, in turn determining the clinical fate of CONS infected preterm individuals. This questions the current practice of parenteral glucose supply for preterm infants during infection.
Tik Muk, Anders Brunse, Nicole L. Henriksen, Karoline Aasmul-Olsen, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Inflammation of the esophageal epithelium is a hallmark of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging chronic allergic disease. Herein, we probed human esophageal epithelial cells at single-cell resolution during homeostasis and EoE. During allergic inflammation, the epithelial differentiation program was blocked, leading to loss of KRT6high differentiated populations and expansion of TOP2high proliferating and DSPhigh, SERPINB3high transitioning populations; however, there was stability of the stem cell–enriched PDPNhigh basal epithelial compartment. This differentiation program blockade was associated with dysregulation of transcription factors, including nuclear receptor signalers, in the most differentiated epithelial cells and altered NOTCH-related cell-to-cell communication. Each epithelial population expressed genes with allergic disease risk variants, supporting their functional interplay. The esophageal epithelium differed notably between EoE in histologic remission and controls, indicating that remission is a transitory state poised to relapse. Collectively, our data uncover the dynamic nature of the inflamed human esophageal epithelium and provide a framework to better understand esophageal health and disease.
Mark Rochman, Ting Wen, Michael Kotliar, Phillip J. Dexheimer, Netali Ben-Baruch Morgenstern, Julie M. Caldwell, Hee-Woong Lim, Marc E. Rothenberg
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic autoimmune disease characterized by pathogenic activation of fibroblasts enhanced by local oxidative stress. The tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A1 was identified as a critical promoter of TGF-β signaling in SSc. Oxidative stress is known to functionally inactivate tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we assessed whether oxidation of PTP4A1 modulates its profibrotic action and found that PTP4A1 forms a complex with the kinase SRC in scleroderma fibroblasts, but surprisingly, oxidative stress enhanced rather than reduced PTP4A1’s association with SRC and its profibrotic action. Through structural assessment of the oxo-PTP4A1-SRC complex, we unraveled an unexpected mechanism whereby oxidation of a tyrosine phosphatase promotes its function through modification of its protein complex. Considering the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of SSc and fibrosis, our findings suggest routes for leveraging PTP4A1 oxidation as a potential strategy for developing antifibrotic agents.
Ruiyuan Zhang, Ganesan Senthil Kumar, Uwe Hansen, Martina Zoccheddu, Cristiano Sacchetti, Zachary J. Holmes, Megan C. Lee, Denise Beckmann, Yutao Wen, Zbigniew Mikulski, Shen Yang, Eugenio Santelli, Rebecca Page, Francesco Boin, Wolfgang Peti, Nunzio Bottini
Elucidating how resident enteric bacteria interact with their hosts to promote health or inflammation is of central importance to diarrheal and inflammatory bowel diseases across species. Here, we integrate the microbial and chemical microenvironment of a patient’s ileal mucosa with their clinical phenotype and genotype to identify factors favoring the growth and virulence of Adherent and Invasive E. coli (AIEC) linked to Crohn’s disease. We determine that the ileal niche of AIEC is characterized by inflammation, dysbiosis, coculture of Enterococcus and oxidative stress. We discover that mucosal metabolites support general growth of ileal E. coli, with a selective effect of ethanolamine on AIEC that is augmented by co-metabolism of ileitis-associated amino acids and glutathione, and symbiosis-associated fucose. This metabolic plasticity is facilitated by the eut and pdu microcompartments, amino acid metabolism, γ-glutamyl-cycle and pleotropic stress responses. We link metabolism to virulence, finding that ethanolamine and glutamine enhance AIEC motility, infectivity and pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. We connect use of ethanolamine to intestinal inflammation, and L-fuculose phosphate aldolase (fucA) to symbiosis in AIEC mono-associated IL10-/- mice. Collectively, we establish that AIEC are pathoadapted to utilize mucosal metabolites associated with health and inflammation for growth and virulence, enabling the transition from symbiont to pathogen in a susceptible host.
Shiying Zhang, Xochitl C, Morgan, Belgin Dogan, Francois-Pierre Martin, Susan R. Strickler, Akihiko Oka, Jeremy Herzog, Bo Liu, Scot E. Dowd, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthieu Pichaud, Esra I. Dogan, Jack Satsangi, Randy Longman, Rhonda Yantiss, Lukas A. Mueller, Ellen Scherl, R. Balfour Sartor, Kenneth W. Simpson
Immunoproteasomes regulate the degradation of ubiquitin-coupled proteins and generate peptides that are preferentially presented by MHC class I. Mutations in immunoproteasome subunits lead to immunoproteasome dysfunction, which causes proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) characterized by nodular erythema and partial lipodystrophy. It remains unclear, however, how immunoproteasome dysfunction leads to inflammatory symptoms. Here, we established mice harboring a mutation in Psmb8 (Psmb8-KI mice) and addressed this question. Psmb8-KI mice showed higher susceptibility to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation (IMS). Blockade of IL-6 or TNF-α partially suppressed IMS in both control and Psmb8-KI mice, but there was still more residual inflammation in the Psmb8-KI mice than in the control mice. DNA microarray analysis showed that treatment of J774 cells with proteasome inhibitors increased the expression of the Cxcl9 and Cxcl10 genes. Deficiency in Cxcr3, the gene encoding the receptor of CXCL9 and CXCL10, in control mice did not change IMS susceptibility, while deficiency in Cxcr3 in Psmb8-KI mice ameliorated IMS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that this mutation in Psmb8 leads to hyperactivation of the CXCR3 pathway, which is responsible for the increased susceptibility of Psmb8-KI mice to IMS. These data suggest the CXCR3/CXCL10 axis as a new molecular target for treating PRAAS.
Yuki Sasaki, Hideki Arimochi, Kunihiro Otsuka, Hiroyuki Kondo, Shin-ichi Tsukumo, Koji Yasutomo
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic illness characterized by dysregulated immune cascades in the intestines, in which the Th17 immune response plays an important role. We demonstrated that mice with intestinal epithelium–specific deletion of Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) developed Th17-dependent colonic inflammation. In the absence of KLF5, there was aberrant cellular localization of phosphorylated STAT3, an essential mediator of the Th17-associated cytokine, IL-22, which is required for epithelial tissue regeneration. In contrast, mitigation of IL-17A with anti–IL-17A neutralizing antibody attenuated colitis in Klf5-deficient mice. There was also a considerable shift in the colonic microbiota of Klf5-deficient mice that phenocopied human IBD. Notably, the inflammatory response due to Klf5 deletion was alleviated by antibiotic treatment, implicating the role of microbiota in pathogenesis. Finally, human colitic tissues had reduced KLF5 levels when compared with healthy tissues. Together, these findings demonstrated the importance of KLF5 in protecting the intestinal epithelium against Th17-mediated immune and inflammatory responses. The mice described herein may serve as a potential model for human IBD.
Jason Shieh, Timothy H. Chu, Yang Liu, Julie Kim, Ainara Ruiz de Sabando, Soma Kobayashi, Sui Y. Zee, Brian S. Sheridan, Agnieszka B. Bialkowska, Vincent W. Yang
Mutation of the TET2 DNA-hydroxymethylase has been associated with a number of immune pathologies. The disparity in phenotype and clinical presentation among these pathologies leads to questions regarding the role of TET2 mutation in promoting disease evolution in different immune cell types. Here we show that, in primary mast cells, Tet2 expression is induced in response to chronic and acute activation signals. In TET2-deficient mast cells, chronic activation via the oncogenic KITD816V allele associated with mastocytosis, selects for a specific epigenetic signature characterized by hypermethylated DNA regions (HMR) at immune response genes. H3K27ac and transcription factor binding is consistent with priming or more open chromatin at both HMR and non-HMR in proximity to immune genes in these cells, and this signature coincides with increased pathological inflammation signals. HMR are also associated with a subset of immune genes that are direct targets of TET2 and repressed in TET2-deficient cells. Repression of these genes results in immune tolerance to acute stimulation that can be rescued with vitamin C treatment or reiterated with a Tet inhibitor. Overall, our data support a model where TET2 plays a direct role in preventing immune tolerance in chronically activated mast cells, supporting TET2 as a viable target to reprogram the innate immune response for innovative therapies.
Riccardo Rigo, Rabie Chelbi, Julie Agopian, Sebastien Letard, Aurélien Griffon, Hussein Ghamlouch, Julien Vernerey, Vasileios Ladopoulos, Edwige Voisset, Paulo De Sepulveda, Geoffrey Guittard, Jacques A. Nunès, Ghislain Bidaut, Berthold Göttgens, Michael Weber, Olivier A. Bernard, Patrice Dubreuil, Erinn Soucie
Wound repair following acute injury requires a coordinated inflammatory response. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling is important for regulating the inflammatory response post- skin injury. IFN kappa (IFNκ), a type I IFN, has recently been found to drive skin inflammation in lupus and psoriasis; however, the role of IFNκ in the context of normal or dysregulated wound healing is unclear. Here, we found that Infκ expression is upregulated in keratinocytes early post-injury and is essential for normal tissue repair. Under diabetic conditions, IFNκ was decreased in wound keratinocytes, and early inflammation was impaired. Further, we found that the histone methyltransferase MLL1 is upregulated early following injury and regulates Infκ expression in diabetic wound keratinocytes via an H3K4me3 mediated mechanism. Using a series of in vivo studies with a genetically engineered mouse model (Mll1fl/fl K14cre-) and human wound tissues from patients with T2D, we demonstrate that MLL1 controls wound keratinocyte-mediated Infκ and MLL1 is decreased in T2D keratinocytes. Importantly, we find the administration of IFNκ early following injury improves diabetic tissue repair through increasing early inflammation, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization. These findings have significant implications for understanding the complex role type I interferons play in keratinocytes in normal and diabetic wound healing. Additionally, they suggest IFNκ may be a viable therapeutic target to improve diabetic wound repair.
Sonya J. Wolf, Christopher O. Audu, Amrita Joshi, Aaron D. denDekker, William J. Melvin, Frank M. Davis, Xianying Xing, Rachael Wasikowski, Lam Tsoi, Steven Kunkel, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Mary X. O'Riordan, J. Michelle Kahlenberg, Katherine A. Gallagher
Identifying predictive biomarkers at early stages of early inflammatory arthritis is crucial for starting appropriate therapies to avoid poor outcomes. Monocytes and macrophages, largely associated with arthritis, are contributors and sensors of inflammation through epigenetic modifications. In this study, we investigated associations between clinical features and DNA methylation in blood and synovial fluid (SF) monocytes in a prospective cohort of early inflammatory arthritis patients. Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) blood monocyte DNA methylation profiles exhibited significant alterations in comparison with those from healthy donors. We identified additional differences both in blood and SF monocytes after comparing UA patients grouped by their future outcomes, good versus poor. Patient profiles in subsequent visits revealed a reversion towards a healthy level in both groups, those requiring disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and those that remitted spontaneously. Changes in disease activity between visits also impacted DNA methylation, partially concomitant in the SF of UA and in blood monocytes of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Epigenetic similarities between arthritis types allow a common prediction of disease activity. Our results constitute a resource of DNA methylation-based biomarkers of poor prognosis, disease activity and treatment efficacy in early untreated UA patients for the personalized clinical management of early inflammatory arthritis patients.
Carlos de la Calle-Fabregat, Javier Rodríguez-Ubreva, Laura Ciudad, Julio Ramírez, Raquel Celis, Ana B. Azuaga, Andrea Cuervo, Eduard Graell, Carolina Pérez-García, César Díaz-Torné, Georgina Salvador, José A. Gómez-Puerta, Isabel Haro, Raimon Sanmartí, Juan D. Cañete, Esteban Ballestar
The intensity and longevity of inflammatory responses to inhaled allergens is determined largely by the balance between effector and regulatory immune responses, but the mechanisms that determine the relative magnitudes of these opposing forces remain poorly understood. We have found that the type of adjuvant used during allergic sensitization has a profound effect on both the nature and longevity of the pulmonary inflammation triggered by subsequent reexposure to that same provoking allergen. TLR ligand adjuvants and house dust extracts primed immune responses characterized by a mixed neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation that was suppressed by multiple daily allergen challenges. During TLR ligand–mediated allergic sensitization, mice displayed transient airway neutrophilia, which triggered the release of TGF-β into the airway. This neutrophil-dependent production of TGF-β during sensitization had a delayed, suppressive effect on eosinophilic responses to subsequent allergen challenge. Neutrophil depletion during sensitization did not affect numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs but increased proportions of Gata3+CD4+ T cells, which, upon their transfer to recipient mice, triggered stronger eosinophilic inflammation. Thus, a neutrophil/TGF-β axis acts during TLR-mediated allergic sensitization to fine-tune the phenotype of developing allergen-specific CD4+ T cells and limit their pathogenicity, suggesting a novel immunotherapeutic approach to control eosinophilia in asthma.
Gregory S. Whitehead, Seddon Y. Thomas, Keiko Nakano, Derek J. Royer, Catherine G. Burke, Hideki Nakano, Donald N. Cook
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