Cachexia is a debilitating skeletal muscle wasting condition for which we currently lack effective treatments. In the context of cancer, certain chemotherapeutics cause DNA damage and cellular senescence. Senescent cells exhibit chronic activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a known mediator of the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and skeletal muscle atrophy. Thus, targeting NF-κB represents a logical therapeutic strategy to alleviate unintended consequences of genotoxic drugs. Herein, we show that treatment with the IKK/NF-κB inhibitor SR12343 during a course of chemotherapy reduces markers of cellular senescence and the SASP in liver, skeletal muscle, and circulation and, correspondingly, attenuates features of skeletal muscle pathology. Lastly, we demonstrate SR12343 mitigates chemotherapy-induced reductions in body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and muscle strength. These findings support senescent cells as a promising druggable target to counteract the SASP and skeletal muscle wasting in the context of chemotherapy.
Davis A. Englund, Alyssa M. Jolliffe, Gabriel J. Hanson, Zaira Aversa, Xu Zhang, Xinyi Jiang, Thomas A. White, Lei Zhang, David G. Monroe, Paul D. Robbins, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Theodore M. Kamenecka, Sundeep Khosla, Nathan K. LeBrasseur
Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA), a marker of disease severity in sepsis, is a recognized driver of thromboinflammation and a potential therapeutic target. In sepsis, plasma cfDNA is mostly derived from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. Proposed NET-directed therapeutic strategies include preventing NET formation or accelerating NET degradation. However, NET digestion liberates pathogens and releases cfDNA that promote thrombosis and endothelial cell injury. We propose an alternative strategy of cfDNA and NET stabilization with chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4, CXCL4). We previously showed that human PF4 (hPF4) enhances NET-mediated microbial entrapment. We now show that hPF4 interferes with thrombogenicity of cfDNA and NETs by preventing their cleavage to short-fragment and single-stranded cfDNA that more effectively activates the contact pathway of coagulation. In vitro, hPF4 also inhibits cfDNA-induced endothelial tissue factor surface expression and von Willebrand factor release. In vivo, hPF4 expression reduced plasma thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels in animals infused with exogenous cfDNA. Following lipopolysaccharide challenge, Cxcl4–/– mice had significant elevation in plasma TAT, cfDNA, and cystatin C levels, effects prevented by hPF4 infusion. These results show that hPF4 interacts with cfDNA and NETs to limit thrombosis and endothelial injury, an observation of potential clinical benefit in the treatment of sepsis.
Anh T.P. Ngo, Abigail Skidmore, Jenna Oberg, Irene Yarovoi, Amrita Sarkar, Nate Levine, Veronica Bochenek, Guohua Zhao, Lubica Rauova, M. Anna Kowalska, Kaitlyn Eckart, Nilam S. Mangalmurti, Ann Rux, Douglas B. Cines, Mortimer Poncz, Kandace Gollomp
Lung contusion and gastric aspiration (LC and GA) are major risk factors for developing acute respiratory distress following trauma. Hypoxia from lung injury is mainly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Published data from our group indicate that HIF-1α regulation in airway epithelial cells (AEC) drives the acute inflammatory response following LC and GA. Metabolomic profiling and metabolic flux of Type II AEC following LC revealed marked increases in glycolytic and TCA intermediates in vivo and in vitro that were HIF-1α dependent. GLUT-1/4 expression was also increased in HIF-1α+/+ mice, suggesting that increased glucose entry may contribute to increased intermediates. Importantly, lactate incubation in vitro on Type II cells did not significantly increase the inflammatory byproduct IL-1β. Contrastingly, succinate had a direct proinflammatory effect on human small AEC by IL-1β generation in vitro. This effect was reversed by dimethylmalonate, suggesting an important role for succinate dehydrogenase in mediating HIF-1α effects. We confirmed the presence of the only known receptor for succinate binding, SUCNR1, on Type II AEC. These results support the hypothesis that succinate drives HIF-1α–mediated airway inflammation following LC. This is the first report to our knowledge of direct proinflammatory activation of succinate in nonimmune cells such as Type II AEC in direct lung injury models.
Madathilparambil V. Suresh, Sinan Aktay, George Yalamanchili, Sumeet Solanki, Dily Thazhath Sathyarajan, Manikanta Swamy Arnipalli, Subramaniam Pennathur, Krishnan Raghavendran
Abnormal macrophage polarization is generally present in autoimmune diseases. Overwhelming M1 macrophage activation promotes the continuous progression of inflammation, which is one of the vital reasons for the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we explore the function of RFX1 in macrophage polarization by constructing colitis and lupus-like mouse models. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that RFX1 can promote M1 and inhibit M2 macrophage polarization. Besides, we also found that RFX1 promoted DNA demethylation of macrophage polarization-related genes by increasing APOBEC3A/Apobec3 expression. Noteworthily, we identified a potential RFX1 inhibitor, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), providing a potential strategy for treating autoimmune diseases.
Shuang Yang, Pei Du, Haobo Cui, Meiling Zheng, Wei He, Xiaofei Gao, Zhi Hu, Sujie Jia, Qianjin Lu, Ming Zhao
Modulation of the immune response to initiate and halt the inflammatory process occurs both at the site of injury as well as systemically. Due to the evolving role of cellular metabolism in regulating cell fate and function, tendon injuries which undergo normal and aberrant repair were evaluated by metabolic profiling to determine its impact on healing outcomes. Metabolomics revealed an increasing abundance of the immunomodulatory metabolite itaconate with the injury site. Subsequent single-cell RNA sequencing, molecular and metabolomic validation identified a highly mature neutrophil subtype, not macrophages, as the primary producers of itaconate following trauma. These mature itaconate-producing neutrophils were highly inflammatory, producing cytokines that promote local injury fibrosis before cycling back to the bone marrow. In the bone marrow, itaconate was shown to alter hematopoiesis, skewing progenitor cells down myeloid lineages, thereby regulating systemic inflammation. Therapeutically, exogenous itaconate was found to reduce injury site inflammation, promoting tenogenic differentiation and impairing aberrant vascularization with disease ameliorating effects. These results present an intriguing role for cycling neutrophils as a sensor of inflammation induced by injury, potentially regulating immune cell production in the bone marrow, through delivery of endogenously produced itaconate and demonstrate a therapeutic potential for exogenous itaconate following tendon injury.
Janna l. Crossley, Sonya Ostashevskaya-Gohstand, Stefano Comazzetto, Jessica S. Hook, Lei Guo, Neda Vishlaghi, Conan Juan, Lin Xu, Alexander R. Horswill, Gerta Hoxhaj, Jessica G. Moreland, Robert J. Tower, Benjamin Levi
BACKGROUND. Oxidized ApoB (oxLDL) and other oxidation-modified lipoproteins (OMLs), such as oxidized ApoA-I (oxHDL), are known pro-atherogenic factors. However, OMLs prognostic value for assessing high-risk coronary plaques by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has not been fully evaluated. METHODS. In a prospective, observational study, 306 participants with known cardiovascular disease (CVD) had extensive lipoprotein profiling, including plasma OMLs and HDL function measured. Proteomics analysis was performed on oxHDL isolated by anti-oxApoA-I antibody. Atherosclerotic plaque assessment was accomplished by quantitative CCTA (QAngio, Medis). RESULTS. Patients were predominantly white, overweight males (58.5%) on statin therapy (43.5%). Significant increases in LDL-C, ApoB, LDL-TG, sdLDL-C (P<0.001 for all), and TGs (P=0.03) were observed in high oxLDL group, accompanied by less efficient HDL function. High oxLDL was associated with necrotic (NB) (β=0.20; P<0.0001) and fibro-fatty (FFB) burdens (β=0.15; P=0.001) after multivariate adjustment. Low oxHDL had a significant reverse association with these plaque characteristics. Plasma oxHDL levels better predicted NB and FFB after adjustment (2.22, 1.27-3.88 and 2.80, 1.71-4.58) (ORs, 95% CIs) compared to oxLDL and HDL-C. Interestingly, oxHDL was associated with fibrous burden (FB) change over 3.3 years of follow-up (rho=0.535; P=0.033), when compared to oxLDL. Finally, combined Met(136) monooxidation and Trp(132) dioxidation of HDL showed the most evident association with CAC score (r=0.786; P<0.001) and FB (r=0.539; P=0.012) in high oxHDL, whereas Met(136) monooxidation significantly associated with high-risk plaque in low oxHDL. CONCLUSION. Our findings suggest that the investigated OMLs are associated with high-risk coronary plaque features and progression over time in CVD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01621594. FUNDING. This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) at the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Alexander V. Sorokin, Christin G. Hong, Angel M. Aponte, Elizabeth M. Florida, Jingrong Tang, Nidhi Patel, Irina N. Baranova, Haiou Li, Philip M. Parel, Vicky Chen, Sierra R. Wilson, Emily L. Ongstad, Anna Collén, Martin P. Playford, Thomas L. Eggerman, Marcus Y. Chen, Kazuhiko Kotani, Alexander V. Bocharov, Alan T. Remaley
Pyrin, a protein encoded by the MEFV gene, plays a vital role in innate immunity by sensing modifications in Rho GTPase and assembling the pyrin inflammasome, which in turn activates downstream immune responses. We identified a novel and de novo MEFV p.E583A dominant variant in three patients from a family, distinct from the previously reported S242 and E244 sites. These patients exhibited a phenotype that diverged from those resulting from classical MEFV gene mutations, characterized by the absence of recurrent fever but the presence of recurrent chest and abdominal pain. Colchicine effectively controlled the phenotype, and the mutation was found to induce pyrin inflammasome assembly and activation in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cell lines. Mechanistically, truncation experiments revealed that the E583A variant impacted the autoinhibitory structure of pyrin. Our study offers new insights into the mechanisms underlying pyrin inflammasome activation.
Qintao Wang, Taijie Jin, Shan Jian, Xu Han, Hongmei Song, Qing Zhou, Xiaomin Yu
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an esophageal immune-mediated disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation and epithelial remodeling, including basal cell hyperplasia (BCH). Although BCH is known to correlate with disease severity and with persistent symptoms in patients in histological remission, the molecular processes driving BCH remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that BCH is predominantly characterized by an expansion of non-proliferative suprabasal cells that are still committed to early differentiation. Furthermore, we discovered that suprabasal and superficial esophageal epithelial cells retain progenitor identity programs in EoE, which was evidenced by increased quiescent cell identity scoring and the enrichment of signaling pathways regulating stem cell pluripotency. Enrichment and trajectory analyses identified SOX2 and KLF5 as potential drivers of the increased quiescent identity and epithelial remodeling observed in EoE. Notably, these alterations were not observed in GERD. These findings provide additional insights into the differentiation process in EoE and highlight the distinct characteristics of suprabasal and superficial esophageal epithelial cells in the disease.
Margarette H. Clevenger, Adam L. Karami, Dustin A. Carlson, Peter J. Kahrilas, Nirmala Gonsalves, John E. Pandolfino, Deborah R. Winter, Kelly A. Whelan, Marie-Pier Tétreault
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF)-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is an important regulator of type 2 responses in the airway; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we generated T cell-specific TRAF4-deficient (CD4cre-Traf4fl/fl) mice and investigated the role of TRAF4 in interleukin (IL)-33 receptor (ST2, suppression of tumorigenicity 2)-expressing memory Th2 cells (ST2+ mTh2) in IL-33-mediated type 2 airway inflammation. We found that in vitro polarized TRAF4-deficient (CD4cre-Traf4fl/fl) ST2+ mTh2 cells exhibited decreased IL-33-induced proliferation as compared with TRAF4-sufficient (Traf4fl/fl) cells. Moreover, CD4cre-Traf4fl/fl mice showed less ST2+ mTh2 cell proliferation and eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs than Traf4fl/fl mice in the preclinical models of IL-33-mediated type 2 airway inflammation. Mechanistically, we discovered that TRAF4 was required for the activation of AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways as well as the expression of transcription factor Myc and nutrient transporters (Slc2a1, Slc7a1, and Slc7a5), signature genes involved in T cell growth and proliferation, in ST2+ mTh2 cells stimulated by IL-33. Taken together, the current study reveals a previously unappreciated role of TRAF4 in ST2+ mTh2 cells in IL-33-mediated type 2 pulmonary inflammation, opening up avenues for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Jianxin Xiao, Xing Chen, Weiwei Liu, Wen Qian, Katarzyna Bulek, Lingzi Hong, William Miller-Little, Xiaoxia Li, Caini Liu
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unclear pathogenesis. We performed single-cell RNA-seq and surface proteome analyses on 61,379 PBMCs from 9 treatment-naïve IgG4-RD patients and 7 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Integrative analyses were performed for altered gene expression in IgG4-RD, and flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used for validation. We observed expansion of plasmablasts with enhanced protein processing and activation, which correlated with number of involved organs in IgG4-RD. Increased proportions of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CD8+ CTLs-GNLY (granulysin) and γδT cells with enhanced chemotaxis and cytotoxicity but with suppressed inhibitory receptors characterize IgG4-RD. Prominent infiltration of lymphocytes with distinct compositions were found in different organs of IgG4-RD patients. Transcription factors (TFs) including PRDM1/XBP1 and RUNX3 were upregulated in IgG4-RD, promoting the differentiation of plasmablasts and CTLs, respectively. Monocytes in IgG4-RD have stronger expression of genes related to cell adhesion and chemotaxis, which may give rise to profibrotic macrophages in lesions. The gene activation pattern in peripheral immune cells indicated activation of multiple interaction pathways between cell types, in part through chemokines or growth factors and their receptors. Specific upregulation of TFs and expansion of plasmablasts and CTLs may be involved in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD, and each of these populations are candidate targets for therapeutic interventions in this disease.
Chenyang Lu, Shasha Li, Pingying Qing, Qiuping Zhang, Xing Ji, Zhigang Tang, Chunyan Chen, Tong Wu, Yidan Hu, Yi Zhao, Xiaohui Zhang, Qi He, David A. Fox, Chunyu Tan, Yubin Luo, Yi Liu
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