The blood hormone erythropoietin (EPO), upon binding to its receptor (EpoR), modulates high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice, improves glucose tolerance, and prevents white adipose tissue inflammation. Transgenic mice with constitutive over-expression of human EPO solely in brain (Tg21) were used to assess the neuro-endocrine EPO effect without increasing the hematocrit. Male Tg21-mice resisted HFD-induced weight gain, showed lower serum ACTH, corticosterone and C-reactive protein levels, and prevented myeloid cell recruitment to hypothalamus compared with WT-males. HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation (HI) and microglial activation were higher in male mice, and Tg21-males exhibited lower increase in HI than WT-males. Physiological EPO function in the brain also showed sexual dimorphism in regulating HFD response. Targeted deletion of EpoR gene expression in neuronal and glial cells worsened HFD-induced glucose intolerance in both male and female mice, but increased weight gain and HI in the hypothalamus in male mice only. Female estrogen production blocked reduced weight gain and HI. Both male and female Tg21-mice kept on normal-chow and HFD showed significantly improved glycemic control. Our data indicates that cerebral EPO regulates weight gain and HI in a sex-dependent response, distinct from EPO regulation of glycemic control, and independent of erythropoietic EPO response.
Soumyadeep Dey, Zhenzhong Cui, Oksana Gavrilova, XiaoJie Zhang, Max Gassmann, Constance T. Noguchi
A critical component of wound healing is the transition from the inflammatory phase to the proliferation phase to initiate healing and remodeling of the wound. Macrophages are critical for the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory phase during wound repair. In diabetes, macrophages display a sustained inflammatory phenotype in late wound healing characterized by elevated production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα. Previous studies have shown that an altered epigenetic program directs diabetic macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype contributing to a sustained inflammatory phase. Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) that has been shown be a co-activator of TNFα-signaling and promote NFκB-mediated gene transcription in prostate cancer cell lines. Based on MOFs role in TNFα/NFκB-mediated gene expression, we hypothesized that MOF influences macrophage-mediated inflammation during wound repair. We used a myeloid-specific Mof knockout (Lyz2Cre Moff/f) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, to determine the function of MOF in diabetic wound healing. MOF deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, we found that wound macrophages from DIO mice had elevated MOF levels and higher levels of acetylated histone H4K16, MOFs primary substrate of HAT activity, on the promoters of inflammatory genes. We further identified that MOF expression could by stimulated by TNFα and that treatment with Etanercept, an FDA-approved TNFα inhibitor, reduced MOF levels and improved wound healing in DIO mice. This report is the first to define an important role for MOF in regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation in wound repair and identifies TNFα-inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds.
Aaron D. denDekker, Frank M. Davis, Amrita D. Joshi, Sonya J. Wolf, Ronald Allen, Jay Lipinski, Brenda Nguyen, Joseph Kirma, Dylan Nycz, Jennifer R. Bermick, Bethany B. Moore, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Steven L. Kunkel, Katherine A. Gallagher
Vascular inflammation is present in many cardiovascular diseases, and exogenous glucocorticoids have traditionally been used as a therapy to suppress inflammation. However, recent data have shown that endogenous glucocorticoids, acting through the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor, act as negative regulators of inflammation. Here, we performed ChIP for the glucocorticoid receptor, followed by next-generation sequencing in mouse endothelial cells to investigate how the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor regulates vascular inflammation. We identified a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in this setting and show that loss of the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor results in upregulation of Wnt signaling both in vitro and in vivo using our validated mouse model. Furthermore, we demonstrate glucocorticoid receptor regulation of a key gene in the Wnt pathway, Frzb, via a glucocorticoid response element gleaned from our genomic data. These results suggest a role for endothelial Wnt signaling modulation in states of vascular inflammation.
Han Zhou, Sameet Mehta, Swayam Prakash Srivastava, Kariona Grabinska, Xinbo Zhang, Chris Wong, Ahmad Hedayat, Paola Perrotta, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, William C. Sessa, Julie E. Goodwin
Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the neuropathic pain syndromes that can occur following stroke involving the somatosensory system. However, the underlying mechanism of CPSP remains largely unknown. Here, we established a CPSP mouse model by inducing a focal hemorrhage in the thalamic ventrobasal complex and confirmed the development of mechanical allodynia. In this model, microglial activation was observed in the somatosensory cortex, as well as in the injured thalamus. By using a CSF1 receptor inhibitor, we showed that microglial depletion effectively prevented allodynia development in our CPSP model. In the critical phase of allodynia development, c-fos–positive neurons increased in the somatosensory cortex, accompanied by ectopic axonal sprouting of the thalamocortical projection. Furthermore, microglial ablation attenuated both neuronal hyperactivity in the somatosensory cortex and circuit reorganization. These findings suggest that microglia play a crucial role in the development of CPSP pathophysiology by promoting sensory circuit reorganization.
Shin-ichiro Hiraga, Takahide Itokazu, Maki Hoshiko, Hironobu Takaya, Mariko Nishibe, Toshihide Yamashita
IL-17A plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of steroid-resistant neutrophilic airway inflammation, which is a hallmark of severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Through RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptomes of human airway smooth muscle cells treated with IL-17A, dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid drug), alone or in combination, we identified a group of genes that are synergistically induced by IL-17A and DEX, including the neutrophil-promoting cytokine CSF3. In type-17 (Th17/IL-17Ahi) preclinical models of neutrophilic severe asthma (acute and chronic) and COPD, although DEX treatment was able to reduce the expression of neutrophil-mobilizing CXCL1 and CXCL2 in lung tissue, CSF3 expression was upregulated by DEX treatment. We found that DEX treatment alone failed to alleviate neutrophilic airway inflammation and pathology, and even exacerbated the disease phenotype when CSF3 was highly induced. Disruption of the IL-17A/DEX synergy by IL-17A inhibition with anti–IL-17A mAb or cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, a small-molecule IL-17A blocker) or depletion of CSF3 effectively rendered DEX sensitivity in type-17 preclinical models of neutrophilic airway diseases. Our study elucidates what we believe is a novel mechanism of steroid resistance in type-17 neutrophilic airway inflammation and offers an effective steroid-sparing therapeutic strategy (combined low-dose DEX and C3G) for treating neutrophilic airway diseases.
Suidong Ouyang, Caini Liu, Jianxin Xiao, Xing Chen, Andy C. Lui, Xiaoxia Li
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a recently-discovered damage-associated molecular pattern. Understanding the precise mechanism by which it exacerbates inflammation is essential. Here we identified that eCIRP is a new biologically active endogenous ligand of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), fueling inflammation in sepsis. Surface plasmon resonance revealed a strong binding affinity between eCIRP and TREM-1, and FRET assay confirmed eCIRP’s interaction with TREM-1 in macrophages. Targeting TREM-1 by its siRNA or a decoy peptide LP17 or by using TREM-1-/- mice dramatically reduced eCIRP-induced inflammation. We developed a novel 7-aa peptide derived from human eCIRP, M3, which blocked the interaction of TREM-1 and eCIRP. M3 suppressed inflammation induced by eCIRP or agonist TREM-1 Ab crosslinking in murine macrophages or human peripheral blood monocytes. M3 also inhibited eCIRP-induced systemic inflammation and tissue injury. Treatment with M3 further protected mice from sepsis, improved acute lung injury, and increased survival. Thus, we have discovered a novel TREM-1 ligand and developed a new peptide M3 to block the eCIRP-TREM-1 interaction and improve the outcomes in sepsis.
Naomi-Liza Denning, Monowar Aziz, Atsushi Murao, Steven D. Gurien, Mahendar Ochani, Jose M. Prince, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern, whose effect on macrophages is not entirely elucidated. Here we identified that eCIRP promotes macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Septic mice had higher serum levels of eCIRP; this was associated with a reduced ex vivo immune response of their splenocytes to LPS. Pretreatment of macrophages with recombinant murine (rm) CIRP resulted in a tolerance to LPS stimulation as demonstrated by a significant reduction of TNF-α production. We found that eCIRP increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) in macrophages. A STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic, rescued macrophages from rmCIRP-induced tolerance by restoring the release of TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. We discovered strong binding affinity between eCIRP and IL-6R as revealed by Biacore, FRET, and their co-localization in macrophages by immunostaining assays. Blockade of IL-6R with its neutralizing Ab significantly inhibited eCIRP-induced pSTAT3 and restored LPS-stimulated TNF-α release in macrophages. Incubation of macrophages with rmCIRP skewed them towards a M2 phenotype, while treatment with anti-IL-6R Ab prevented rmCIRP-induced M2 polarization. Thus, we have demonstrated that eCIRP activates pSTAT3 via a novel receptor IL-6R to promote macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Targeting eCIRP appears to be a new therapeutic option to correct immune-tolerance in sepsis.
Mian Zhou, Monowar Aziz, Naomi-Liza Denning, Hao-Ting Yen, Gaifeng Ma, Ping Wang
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase-2 (ARG2) share a common substrate, arginine. Higher expression of iNOS and exhaled NO are linked to airway inflammation in patients. iNOS deletion in animal models suggests that eosinophilic inflammation is regulated by arginine metabolism. Moreover, ARG2 is a regulator of Th2 response, as shown by the development of severe eosinophilic inflammation in ARG2–/– mice. However, potential synergistic roles of iNOS and ARG2 in asthma have not been explored. Here, we hypothesized that arginine metabolic fate via iNOS and ARG2 may govern airway inflammation. In an asthma cohort, ARG2 variant genotypes were associated with arginase activity. ARG2 variants with lower arginase activity, combined with levels of exhaled NO, identified a severe asthma phenotype. Airway inflammation was present in WT, ARG2–/–, iNOS–/–, and ARG2–/–/iNOS–/– mice but was greatest in ARG2–/–. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltration in the ARG2–/– mice was abrogated in ARG2–/–/iNOS–/– animals. Similarly, angiogenic airway remodeling was greatest in ARG2–/– mice. Cytokines driving inflammation and remodeling were highest in lungs of asthmatic ARG2–/– mice and lowest in the iNOS–/–. ARG2 metabolism of arginine suppresses inflammation, while iNOS metabolism promotes airway inflammation, supporting a central role for arginine metabolic control of inflammation.
Kewal Asosingh, Chris D. Lauruschkat, Mario Alemagno, Matthew Frimel, Nicholas Wanner, Kelly Weiss, Sean Kessler, Deborah A. Meyers, Carole Bennett, Weiling Xu, Serpil Erzurum
Interleukin-3 (IL3) receptor α (IL3Rα) is the alpha subunit of the ligand-specific IL3 receptor and initiates intracellular signaling in response to IL3. IL3 amplifies pro-inflammatory signaling and cytokine storm in murine sepsis models. Here we found that RNFT2 (RING finger transmembrane-domain containing protein 2, also TMEM118), a previously uncharacterized RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase, negatively regulated IL3-dependent cellular responses through IL3Rα ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome. In vitro, IL3 stimulation promoted IL3Rα proteasomal degradation dependent on RNFT2, and we identified IL3Rα Lysine 357 as a ubiquitin acceptor site. We determined that LPS-priming reduces RNFT2 abundance, extends IL3Rα half-life, and sensitizes cells to the effects of IL3, acting synergistically to increase pro-inflammatory signaling. In vivo, IL3 synergized with LPS to exacerbate lung inflammation in LPS and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-challenged mice; conversely, IL3 neutralization reduced LPS-induce lung injury. Further, RNFT2 over-expression reduced lung inflammation and injury, whereas Rnft2 knockdown exacerbated inflammatory responses in LPS-induced murine lung injury. Lastly, we examined RNFT2 and IL3Rα in human lung explants from patients with Cystic Fibrosis, and also showed that IL3 is elevated in mechanically-ventilated critically ill humans at risk for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). These results identify RNFT2 as a negative regulator of IL3Rα, and show a potential role for the RNFT2/IL3Rα/IL3 axis in regulating innate immune responses in the lung.
Yao Tong, Travis B. Lear, John Evankovich, Yanwen Chen, James D. Londino, Michael M. Myerburg, Yingze Zhang, Iulia D. Popescu, John F. McDyer, Bryan J. McVerry, Karina C. Lockwood, Michael J. Jurczak, Yuan Liu, Bill B. Chen
Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide causing a wide range of preventable morbidity and mortality. In this translational study, we show that heavy drinking (HD) (≥6 standard drinks/day) is independently associated to a worse outcome of ischemic stroke patients. To study the underlying mechanisms of this deleterious effect of HD, we then performed an extensive analysis of the brain inflammatory responses of mice exposed or not to 10% alcohol before and after ischemic stroke. Inflammatory responses were analyzed at the parenchymal, perivascular and vascular levels by using transcriptomic, immunohistochemical, in vivo two-photon microscopy and molecular MRI analyses. Alcohol-exposed mice show, in the absence of any other insult, a neurovascular inflammatory priming [i.e., an abnormal inflammatory status including an increase in brain perivascular macrophages (PVM)] associated to exacerbated inflammatory responses after a secondary insult (ischemic stroke or LPS challenge). Similar to our clinical data, alcohol-exposed mice showed larger ischemic lesions. We show here that PVM are key players on this aggravating effect of alcohol, since their specific depletion blocks the alcohol-induced aggravation of ischemic lesions. This study opens new therapeutic avenues aiming at blocking alcohol-induced exacerbation of the neurovascular inflammatory responses triggered after ischemic stroke.
Antoine Drieu, Anastasia Lanquetin, Damien Levard, Martina Glavan, Francisco Campos, Aurélien Quenault, Eloïse Lemarchand, Mikael Naveau, Anne Lise Pitel, José Castillo, Denis Vivien, Marina Rubio
No posts were found with this tag.