Impairment of GABAergic system has been reported in epilepsy, autism, ADHD and schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) shapes directly the development of GABAergic system. Here, we show for the first time how the abnormal expression of ATM impacts the pathological condition of autism. We exploit two different animal models of autism, the Mecp2y/- mouse model of Rett syndrome, and mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid, and found increased ATM levels. Accordingly, the treatment with the specific ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933 (KU) normalises molecular, functional and behavioural defects in these mouse models such as the i) delayed GABAergic development, ii) hippocampal hyper-excitability, iii) low cognitive performances, iv) social impairments. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that KU administration to wild type hippocampal neurons leads to i) higher Egr4 activity on Kcc2b promoter, ii) increased expression of Mecp2, iii) potentiated GABA-transmission. These results provide evidences and molecular substrates for the pharmacological development of ATM inhibition in autism spectrum disorders.
Lara Pizzamiglio, Elisa Focchi, Clara Maria Cambria, Luisa Ponzoni, Silvia Ferrara, Francesco Bifari, Genni Desiato, Nicoletta Landsberger, Luca Murru, Maria Passafaro, Mariaelvina Sala, MIchela Matteoli, Elisabetta Menna, Flavia Antonucci
Respiratory complicˆations are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants, which is partially prevented by the administration of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS). Most very preterm infants are exposed to chorioamnionitis, but short- and long-term effects of ACS treatment in this setting are not well defined. In low-resource settings, ACS increased neonatal mortality by perhaps increasing infection. We report that treatment with low-dose ACS in the setting of inflammation induced by intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rhesus macaques improves lung compliance and increases surfactant production relative to either exposure alone. RNA sequencing shows that these changes are mediated by suppression of proliferation and induction of mesenchymal cellular death via TP53. The combined exposure results in a mature-like transcriptomic profile with inhibition of extracellular matrix development by suppression of collagen genes COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1 and regulators of lung development FGF9 and FGF10. ACS and inflammation also suppressed signature genes associated with proliferative mesenchymal progenitors similar to the term gestation lung. Treatment with ACS in the setting of inflammation may result in early respiratory advantage to preterm infants, but this advantage may come at a risk of abnormal extracellular matrix development, which may be associated with increased risk of chronic lung disease.
Augusto F. Schmidt, Paranthaman S. Kannan, James Bridges, Pietro Presicce, Courtney M. Jackson, Lisa A. Miller, Suhas G. Kallapur, Claire A. Chougnet, Alan H. Jobe
Ongoing societal changes in views on medical and recreational roles of cannabis increased the use of concentrated plant extracts with a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of >90%. Even though prenatal THC exposure is widely considered adverse for neuronal development, equivalent experimental data for young age cohorts are largely lacking. Here, we administered plant-derived THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) to mice daily during postnatal days (P)5-16 and P5-35 and monitored its effects on hippocampal neuronal survival and specification by high resolution imaging and the hippocampal proteome by iTRAQ proteomics, respectively. We find that THC indiscriminately affects pyramidal cells and both cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R)+ and CB1R- interneurons by P16. THC particularly disrupted the expression of mitochondrial proteins (complexes I-IV), a change that had persisted even 4 months after the end of drug exposure. This was reflected by a THC-induced loss of membrane integrity occluding mitochondrial respiration and could be partially or completely rescued by pH stabilization, antioxidants, bypassed glycolysis, and targeting either mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase or the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel. Overall, THC exposure during infancy induces significant and long-lasting reorganization of neuronal circuits through mechanisms that, in a large part, render cellular bioenergetics insufficient to sustain key developmental processes in otherwise healthy neurons.
Johannes Beiersdorf, Zsofia Hevesi, Daniela Calvigioni, Jakob Pyszkowski, Roman A. Romanov, Edit Szodorai, Gert Lubec, Sally L. Shirran, Catherine H. Botting, Siegfried Kasper, Geoffrey W. Guy, Roy A. Gray, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Tibor Harkany, Erik Keimpema
Pituitary developmental defects lead to partial or complete hormone deficiency and significant health problems. The majority of cases are sporadic and of unknown cause. We screened 28 patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) for mutations in the FAT/DCHS family of protocadherins that have high functional redundancy. We identified seven variants, four of which putatively damaging, in FAT2 and DCHS2 in six patients with pituitary developmental defects recruited through a cohort of patients with mostly ectopic posterior pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption. All patients had growth hormone deficiency and two presented with multiple hormone deficiencies and small glands. FAT2 and DCHS2 were strongly expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the normal developing human pituitary. We analyzed Dchs2-/- mouse mutants and identified anterior pituitary hypoplasia and partially penetrant infundibular defects. Overlapping infundibular abnormalities and distinct anterior pituitary morphogenesis defects were observed in Fat4-/- and Dchs1-/- mouse mutants but all animal models displayed normal commitment to the anterior pituitary cell type. Together our data implicate FAT/DCHS protocadherins in normal hypothalamic-pituitary development and identify FAT2 and DCHS2 as candidates underlying pituitary gland developmental defects such as ectopic pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption.
Emily J. Lodge, Paraskevi Xekouki, Tatiane S. Silva, Cristiane Kochi, Carlos A. Longui, Fabio R. Faucz, Alice Santambrogio, James L. Mills, Nathan Pankratz, John Lane, Dominika Sosnowska, Tina Hodgson, Amanda L. Patist, Philippa Francis-West, Francoise Helmbacher, Constantine Stratakis, Cynthia L. Andoniadou
Although congenital heart defects (CHDs) represent the most common birth defect, a comprehensive understanding of disease etiology remains unknown. This is further complicated since CHDs can occur in isolation or as a feature of another disorder. Analyzing disorders with associated CHDs provides a powerful platform to identify primary pathogenic mechanisms driving disease. Aberrant localization and expression of cathepsin proteases can perpetuate later-stage heart diseases, but their contribution toward CHDs is unclear. To investigate the contribution of cathepsins during cardiovascular development and congenital disease, we analyzed the pathogenesis of cardiac defects in zebrafish models of the lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis II (MLII). MLII is caused by mutations in the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase enzyme (Gnptab) that disrupt carbohydrate-dependent sorting of lysosomal enzymes. Without Gnptab, lysosomal hydrolases, including cathepsin proteases, are inappropriately secreted. Analyses of heart development in gnptab-deficient zebrafish show cathepsin K secretion increases its activity, disrupts TGF-β–related signaling, and alters myocardial and valvular formation. Importantly, cathepsin K inhibition restored normal heart and valve development in MLII embryos. Collectively, these data identify mislocalized cathepsin K as an initiator of cardiac disease in this lysosomal disorder and establish cathepsin inhibition as a viable therapeutic strategy.
Po-Nien Lu, Trevor Moreland, Courtney J. Christian, Troy C. Lund, Richard A. Steet, Heather Flanagan-Steet
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, yet the molecular signature of the vulnerable atrial substrate is not well understood. Here, we delineated a distinct transcriptional signature in right versus left atrial cardiomyocytes (CMs) at baseline, and identified chamber-specific gene expression changes in patients with history of AF in the setting of end-stage heart failure (AF+HF) that are not present in heart failure alone (HF). We observed that human left atrial (LA) CMs exhibit Notch pathway activation and increased ploidy in AF+HF, but not in HF alone. Transient activation of Notch signaling within adult CMs in a murine genetic model is sufficient to increase ploidy in both atrial chambers. Notch activation within LA CMs generated a transcriptomic fingerprint resembling AF, with dysregulation of transcription factor and ion channel genes including Pitx2, Tbx5, Kcnh2, Kcnq1, and Kcnip2. Notch activation also produced distinct cellular electrophysiologic responses in LA versus RA CMs, prolonging the action potential duration (APD) without altering the upstroke velocity in the LA, and reducing the maximal upstroke velocity without altering the APD in the RA. Our results support a shared human/murine model of increased Notch pathway activity predisposing to AF.
Catherine E. Lipovsky, Jesus Jimenez, Qiusha Guo, Gang Li, Tiankai Yin, Stephanie Hicks, Somya Bhatnagar, Kentaro Takahashi, David M. Zhang, Brittany D. Brumback, Uri Goldsztejn, Rangarajan D. Nadadur, Carlos Perez-Cervantes, Ivan P. Moskowitz, Shaopeng Liu, Bo Zhang, Stacey L. Rentschler
Glaucoma surgeries, such as trabeculectomy, are performed to lower intraocular pressure to reduce risk of vision loss. These surgeries create a new passage in the eye that reroutes the aqueous humor outflow to the subconjunctival space, where the fluid is presumably absorbed by the conjunctival lymphatics. Here, we characterized the development and function of the ocular lymphatics using transgenic lymphatic reporter mice and rats. We found that the limbal and conjunctival lymphatic networks are progressively formed from a primary lymphatic vessel that grows from the nasal-side medial canthus region at birth. This primary lymphatic vessel immediately branches out, invades the limbus and conjunctiva, and bidirectionally encircles the cornea. As a result, the distribution of the ocular lymphatics is significantly polarized toward the nasal side, and the limbal lymphatics are directly connected to the conjunctival lymphatics. New lymphatic sprouts are produced mainly from the nasal-side limbal lymphatics, posing the nasal side of the eye as more responsive to fluid drainage and inflammatory stimuli. Consistent with this polarized distribution of the ocular lymphatics, a higher drainage efficiency was observed in the nasal side than the temporal side of the eye when injected with a fluorescent tracer. In contrast, blood vessels are evenly distributed at the anterior surface of the eyes. Also, we found that these distinct vascular distribution patterns were conserved in human eyes. Together, our study demonstrated that the ocular surface lymphatics are more densely present in the nasal side and uncovered the potential clinical benefits in selecting the nasal side as a glaucoma surgery site to improve fluid drainage.
Yifan Wu, Young Jin Seong, Kin Li, Dongwon Choi, Eunkyung Park, George H. Daghlian, Eunson Jung, Khoa Bui, Luping Zhao, Shrimika Madhavan, Saren Daghlian, Patill Daghlian, Desmond Chin, Il-Taeg Cho, Alex K. Wong, Martin Heur, Sandy Zhang-Nunes, James C. Tan, Masatsugu Ema, Tina T. Wong, Alex S. Huang, Young-Kwon Hong
During the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis), lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) at the growing front sprout by forming filopodia. Those tip cells are not exposed to circulating lymph, as they are not lumenized. In contrast, LECs that trail the growing front are exposed to shear stress, become quiescent and remodel into stable vessels. The mechanisms that coordinate the opposed activities of lymphatic sprouting and maturation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the canonical tip cell marker Delta-Like 4 (DLL4) promotes sprouting lymphangiogenesis by enhancing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C (VEGF-C) /VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGFR3) signaling. However, in lumenized lymphatic vessels laminar shear stress (LSS) inhibits the expression of DLL4, as well as additional tip cell markers. Paradoxically, LSS also upregulates VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling in LECs, but sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) activity antagonizes LSS-mediated VEGF-C signaling to promote lymphatic vascular quiescence. Correspondingly, S1pr1 loss in LECs induced lymphatic vascular hypersprouting and hyperbranching, which could be rescued by reducing Vegfr3 gene dosage in vivo. In addition, S1PR1 regulates lymphatic vessel maturation by inhibiting RhoA activity to promote membrane localization of the tight junction molecule Claudin-5. Our findings suggest a new paradigm in which LSS induces quiescence and promotes the survival of LECs by downregulating DLL4 and enhancing VEGF-C signaling, respectively. S1PR1 dampens LSS/VEGF-C signaling, thereby preventing sprouting from quiescent lymphatic vessels. These results also highlight the distinct roles that S1PR1 and DLL4 play in LECs when compared to their known roles in the blood vasculature.
Xin Geng, Keisuke Yanagida, Racheal G. Akwii, Dongwon Choi, Lijuan Chen, YenChun Ho, Boksik Cha, Md. Riaj Mahamud, Karen Berman de Ruiz, Hirotake Ichise, Hong Chen, Joshua Wythe, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Timothy Hla, R. Sathish Srinivasan
The impact of transient ischemic-hypoxemic insults on the developing fetal brain is poorly understood despite evidence suggesting an association with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. To address this, we designed an aberrant uterine hypercontractility paradigm with oxytocin to better assess the consequences of acute, but transient, placental ischemia-hypoxemia in term pregnant rats. Using MRI, we confirmed that oxytocin-induced aberrant uterine hypercontractility substantially compromised uteroplacental perfusion. This was supported by the observation of oxidative stress and increased lactate concentration in the fetal brain. Genes related to oxidative stress pathways were significantly upregulated in male, but not female, offspring 1 hour after oxytocin-induced placental ischemia-hypoxemia. Persistent upregulation of select mitochondrial electron transport chain complex proteins in the anterior cingulate cortex of adolescent male offspring suggested that this sex-specific effect was enduring. Functionally, offspring exposed to oxytocin-induced uterine hypercontractility showed male-specific abnormalities in social behavior with associated region-specific changes in gene expression and functional cortical connectivity. Our findings, therefore, indicate that even transient but severe placental ischemia-hypoxemia could be detrimental to the developing brain and point to a possible mitochondrial link between intrauterine asphyxia and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Arvind Palanisamy, Tusar Giri, Jia Jiang, Annie Bice, James D. Quirk, Sara B. Conyers, Susan E. Maloney, Nandini Raghuraman, Adam Q. Bauer, Joel R. Garbow, David F. Wozniak
Insufficient O2 supply is frequently associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR), a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although the erythrocyte is the most abundant and only cell type to deliver O2 in our body, its function and regulatory mechanism in FGR remain unknown. Here, we report that genetic ablation of mouse erythrocyte equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (eENT1) in dams, but not placentas or fetuses, results in FGR. Unbiased high-throughput metabolic profiling coupled with in vitro and in vivo flux analyses with isotopically labeled tracers led us to discover that maternal eENT1–dependent adenosine uptake is critical in activating AMPK by controlling the AMP/ATP ratio and its downstream target, bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM); in turn, BPGM mediates 2,3-BPG production, which enhances O2 delivery to maintain placental oxygenation. Mechanistically and functionally, we revealed that genetic ablation of maternal eENT1 increases placental HIF-1α; preferentially reduces placental large neutral aa transporter 1 (LAT1) expression, activity, and aa supply; and induces FGR. Translationally, we revealed that elevated HIF-1α directly reduces LAT1 gene expression in cultured human trophoblasts. We demonstrate the importance and molecular insight of maternal eENT1 in fetal growth and open up potentially new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities for FGR.
Seisuke Sayama, Anren Song, Benjamin C. Brown, Jacob Couturier, Xiaoli Cai, Ping Xu, Changhan Chen, Yangxi Zheng, Takayuki Iriyama, Baha Sibai, Monica Longo, Rodney E. Kellems, Angelo D’Alessandro, Yang Xia
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