This list is updated daily and reflects the last month of access data. Articles older than two years will not be shown.
Preexisting cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 occurs in the absence of prior viral exposure. However, this has been difficult to quantify at the population level due to a lack of reliably defined seroreactivity thresholds. Using an orthogonal antibody testing approach, we estimated that about 0.6% of nontriaged adults from the greater Vancouver, Canada, area between May 17 and June 19, 2020, showed clear evidence of a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, after adjusting for false-positive and false-negative test results. Using a highly sensitive multiplex assay and positive/negative thresholds established in infants in whom maternal antibodies have waned, we determined that more than 90% of uninfected adults showed antibody reactivity against the spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), N-terminal domain (NTD), or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from SARS-CoV-2. This seroreactivity was evenly distributed across age and sex, correlated with circulating coronaviruses’ reactivity, and was partially outcompeted by soluble circulating coronaviruses’ spike. Using a custom SARS-CoV-2 peptide mapping array, we found that this antibody reactivity broadly mapped to spike and to conserved nonstructural viral proteins. We conclude that most adults display preexisting antibody cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, which further supports investigation of how this may impact the clinical severity of COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses.
Abdelilah Majdoubi, Christina Michalski, Sarah E. O’Connell, Sarah Dada, Sandeep Narpala, Jean Gelinas, Disha Mehta, Claire Cheung, Dirk F.H. Winkler, Manjula Basappa, Aaron C. Liu, Matthias Görges, Vilte E. Barakauskas, Mike Irvine, Jennifer Mehalko, Dominic Esposito, Inna Sekirov, Agatha N. Jassem, David M. Goldfarb, Steven Pelech, Daniel C. Douek, Adrian B. McDermott, Pascal M. Lavoie
Total views: 3081
Inflammasomes are a class of innate immune signaling platforms that activate in response to an array of cellular damage and pathogens. Inflammasomes promote inflammation under many circumstances to enhance immunity against pathogens and inflammatory responses through their effector cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. Multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are autoimmune conditions influenced by inflammasomes. Despite work investigating inflammasomes during EAE, little remains known concerning the role of inflammasomes in the central nervous system (CNS) during the disease. Here, we used multiple genetically modified mouse models to monitor activated inflammasomes in situ based on oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) in the spinal cord. Using inflammasome reporter mice, we found heightened inflammasome activation in astrocytes after the disease peak. In contrast, microglia and CNS-infiltrated myeloid cells had few activated inflammasomes in the CNS during EAE. Astrocyte inflammasome activation during EAE was dependent on absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), but low IL-1β release and no significant signs of cell death were found. Thus, the AIM2 inflammasome activation in astrocytes may have a distinct role from traditional inflammasome-mediated inflammation.
William E. Barclay, Nupur Aggarwal, M. Elizabeth Deerhake, Makoto Inoue, Toshiaki Nonaka, Kengo Nozaki, Nathan A. Luzum, Edward A. Miao, Mari L. Shinohara
Total views: 1680
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a hallmark symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We monitored the evolution of 1157 plasma metabolites in 60 ME/CFS (45 female, 15 male) and 45 matched healthy control participants (30 female, 15 male) before and after 2 maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) challenges separated by 24 hours, with the intent of provoking PEM in patients. Four time points allowed exploration of the metabolic response to maximal energy-producing capacity and the recovery pattern of participants with ME/CFS compared with the healthy control group. Baseline comparison identified several significantly different metabolites, along with an enriched percentage of yet-to-be identified compounds. Additionally, temporal measures demonstrated an increased metabolic disparity between cohorts, including unknown metabolites. The effects of exertion in the ME/CFS cohort predominantly highlighted lipid-related as well as energy-related pathways and chemical structure clusters, which were disparately affected by the first and second exercise sessions. The 24-hour recovery period was distinct in the ME/CFS cohort, with over a quarter of the identified pathways statistically different from the controls. The pathways that are uniquely different 24 hours after an exercise challenge provide clues to metabolic disruptions that lead to PEM. Numerous altered pathways were observed to depend on glutamate metabolism, a crucial component of the homeostasis of many organs in the body, including the brain.
Arnaud Germain, Ludovic Giloteaux, Geoffrey E. Moore, Susan M. Levine, John K. Chia, Betsy A. Keller, Jared Stevens, Carl J. Franconi, Xiangling Mao, Dikoma C. Shungu, Andrew Grimson, Maureen R. Hanson
Total views: 1322
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic autoimmune disease characterized by pathogenic activation of fibroblasts enhanced by local oxidative stress. The tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A1 was identified as a critical promoter of TGF-β signaling in SSc. Oxidative stress is known to functionally inactivate tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we assessed whether oxidation of PTP4A1 modulates its profibrotic action and found that PTP4A1 forms a complex with the kinase SRC in scleroderma fibroblasts, but surprisingly, oxidative stress enhanced rather than reduced PTP4A1’s association with SRC and its profibrotic action. Through structural assessment of the oxo-PTP4A1-SRC complex, we unraveled an unexpected mechanism whereby oxidation of a tyrosine phosphatase promotes its function through modification of its protein complex. Considering the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of SSc and fibrosis, our findings suggest routes for leveraging PTP4A1 oxidation as a potential strategy for developing antifibrotic agents.
Ruiyuan Zhang, Ganesan Senthil Kumar, Uwe Hansen, Martina Zoccheddu, Cristiano Sacchetti, Zachary J. Holmes, Megan C. Lee, Denise Beckmann, Yutao Wen, Zbigniew Mikulski, Shen Yang, Eugenio Santelli, Rebecca Page, Francesco Boin, Wolfgang Peti, Nunzio Bottini
Total views: 1213
Elucidating how resident enteric bacteria interact with their hosts to promote health or inflammation is of central importance to diarrheal and inflammatory bowel diseases across species. Here, we integrated the microbial and chemical microenvironment of a patient’s ileal mucosa with their clinical phenotype and genotype to identify factors favoring the growth and virulence of adherent and invasive E. coli (AIEC) linked to Crohn’s disease. We determined that the ileal niche of AIEC was characterized by inflammation, dysbiosis, coculture of Enterococcus, and oxidative stress. We discovered that mucosal metabolites supported general growth of ileal E. coli, with a selective effect of ethanolamine on AIEC that was augmented by cometabolism of ileitis-associated amino acids and glutathione and by symbiosis-associated fucose. This metabolic plasticity was facilitated by the eut and pdu microcompartments, amino acid metabolism, γ-glutamyl-cycle, and pleiotropic stress responses. We linked metabolism to virulence and found that ethanolamine and glutamine enhanced AIEC motility, infectivity, and proinflammatory responses in vitro. We connected use of ethanolamine to intestinal inflammation and L-fuculose phosphate aldolase (fucA) to symbiosis in AIEC monoassociated IL10–/– mice. Collectively, we established that AIEC were pathoadapted to utilize mucosal metabolites associated with health and inflammation for growth and virulence, enabling the transition from symbiont to pathogen in a susceptible host.
Shiying Zhang, Xochitl Morgan, Belgin Dogan, Francois-Pierre Martin, Suzy Strickler, Akihiko Oka, Jeremy Herzog, Bo Liu, Scot E. Dowd, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthieu Pichaud, Esra I. Dogan, Jack Satsangi, Randy Longman, Rhonda Yantiss, Lukas A. Mueller, Ellen J. Scherl, R. Balfour Sartor, Kenneth W. Simpson
Total views: 1054
Cell-free extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) as a distinct topological form from linear DNA has recently gained increasing research interest, with possible clinical applications as a class of biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between nucleases and eccDNA characteristics in plasma. By using knockout mouse models with deficiencies in deoxyribonuclease 1 (DNASE1) or deoxyribonuclease 1 like 3 (DNASE1L3), we found that cell-free eccDNA in Dnase1l3−/− mice exhibited larger size distributions than that in wild-type mice. Such size alterations were not found in tissue eccDNA of either Dnase1−/− or Dnase1l3−/− mice, suggesting that DNASE1L3 could digest eccDNA extracellularly but did not seem to affect intracellular eccDNA. Using a mouse pregnancy model, we observed that in Dnase1l3−/− mice pregnant with Dnase1l3+/− fetuses, the eccDNA in the maternal plasma was shorter compared with that of Dnase1l3−/− mice carrying Dnase1l3−/− fetuses, highlighting the systemic effects of circulating fetal DNASE1L3 degrading the maternal eccDNA extracellularly. Furthermore, plasma eccDNA in patients with DNASE1L3 mutations also exhibited longer size distributions than that in healthy controls. Taken together, this study provided a hitherto missing link between nuclease activity and the biological manifestations of eccDNA in plasma, paving the way for future biomarker development of this special form of DNA molecules.
Sarah T.K. Sin, Jiaen Deng, Lu Ji, Masashi Yukawa, Rebecca W.Y. Chan, Stefano Volpi, Augusto Vaglio, Paride Fenaroli, Paola Bocca, Suk Hang Cheng, Danny K.L. Wong, Kathy O. Lui, Peiyong Jiang, K.C. Allen Chan, Rossa W.K. Chiu, Y.M. Dennis Lo
Total views: 1009
Tirzepatide (LY3298176) is a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Early phase trials in T2DM indicate that tirzepatide improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved by a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist. Therefore, we hypothesized that the integrated potency and signaling properties of tirzepatide provide a unique pharmacological profile tailored for improving broad metabolic control. Here, we establish methodology for calculating occupancy of each receptor for clinically efficacious doses of the drug. This analysis reveals a greater degree of engagement of tirzepatide for the GIP receptor than the GLP-1 receptor, corroborating an imbalanced mechanism of action. Pharmacologically, signaling studies demonstrate that tirzepatide mimics the actions of native GIP at the GIP receptor but shows bias at the GLP-1 receptor to favor cAMP generation over β-arrestin recruitment, coincident with a weaker ability to drive GLP-1 receptor internalization compared with GLP-1. Experiments in primary islets reveal β-arrestin1 limits the insulin response to GLP-1, but not GIP or tirzepatide, suggesting that the biased agonism of tirzepatide enhances insulin secretion. Imbalance toward GIP receptor, combined with distinct signaling properties at the GLP-1 receptor, together may account for the promising efficacy of this investigational agent.
Francis S. Willard, Jonathan D. Douros, Maria B.N. Gabe, Aaron D. Showalter, David B. Wainscott, Todd M. Suter, Megan E. Capozzi, Wijnand J.C. van der Velden, Cynthia Stutsman, Guemalli R. Cardona, Shweta Urva, Paul J. Emmerson, Jens J. Holst, David A. D’Alessio, Matthew P. Coghlan, Mette M. Rosenkilde, Jonathan E. Campbell, Kyle W. Sloop
Total views: 1002
Metabolic stress is an important cause of pathological atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation. AMPK is a ubiquitous master metabolic regulator, yet its biological function in the atria is poorly understood in both health and disease. We investigated the impact of atrium-selective cardiac AMPK deletion on electrophysiological and structural remodeling in mice. Loss of atrial AMPK expression caused atrial changes in electrophysiological properties and atrial ectopic activity prior to the onset of spontaneous atrial fibrillation. Concomitant transcriptional downregulation of connexins and atrial ion channel subunits manifested with delayed left atrial activation and repolarization. The early molecular and electrophysiological abnormalities preceded left atrial structural remodeling and interstitial fibrosis. AMPK inactivation induced downregulation of transcription factors (Mef2c and Pitx2c) linked to connexin and ion channel transcriptional reprogramming. Thus, AMPK plays an essential homeostatic role in atria, protecting against adverse remodeling potentially by regulating key transcription factors that control the expression of atrial ion channels and gap junction proteins.
Kevin N. Su, Yina Ma, Marine Cacheux, Zeki Ilkan, Nour Raad, Grace K. Muller, Xiaohong Wu, Nicole Guerrera, Stephanie L. Thorn, Albert J. Sinusas, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, Joseph G. Akar, Fadi G. Akar, Lawrence H. Young
Total views: 993
Pancreatic fibrosis is a complication of chronic pancreatitis and is a prominent feature of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic fibrosis is commonly observed in patients with prolonged pancreatic duct obstruction, which elevates intrapancreatic pressure. We show here that increased pancreatic duct pressure causes fibrosis and describes the mechanism by which pressure increases deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and fibrosis. We found that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the source of the extracellular matrix proteins in fibrosis, express the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1. By increasing intracellular calcium, mechanical stress or the Piezo1 agonist Yoda1-activated PSCs manifest by loss of perinuclear fat droplets and increased TGF-β1, fibronectin, and type I collagen expression. These effects were blocked by the Piezo1 inhibitor GsMTx4 and absent in PSCs from mice with conditional genetic deletion of Piezo1 in stellate cells, as was pancreatic duct ligation–induced fibrosis. Although TRPV4 has been proposed to have direct mechanosensing properties, we discovered that PSCs from Trpv4-KO mice were protected against Yoda1-triggered activation. Moreover, mice devoid of TRPV4 were protected from pancreatic duct ligation–induced fibrosis. Thus, high pressure within the pancreas stimulates Piezo1 channel opening, and subsequent activation of TRPV4 leads to stellate cell activation and pressure-induced chronic pancreatitis and fibrosis.
Sandip M. Swain, Joelle M-J Romac, Steven R. Vigna, Rodger A. Liddle
Total views: 985
Greater than 25% of all men develop an inguinal hernia in their lifetime, and more than 20 million inguinal hernia repair surgeries are performed worldwide each year. The mechanisms causing abdominal muscle weakness, the formation of inguinal hernias, or their recurrence are largely unknown. We previously reported that excessively produced estrogen in the lower abdominal muscles (LAMs) triggers extensive LAM fibrosis, leading to hernia formation in a transgenic male mouse model expressing the human aromatase gene (Aromhum). To understand the cellular basis of estrogen-driven muscle fibrosis, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on LAM tissue from Aromhum and wild-type littermates. We found a fibroblast-like cell group composed of 6 clusters, 2 of which were validated for their enrichment in Aromhum LAM tissue. One of the potentially novel hernia-associated fibroblast clusters in Aromhum was enriched for the estrogen receptor-α gene (Esr1hi). Esr1hi fibroblasts maximally expressed estrogen target genes and seemed to serve as the progenitors of another cluster expressing ECM-altering enzymes (Mmp3hi) and to upregulate expression of proinflammatory, profibrotic genes. The discovery of these 2 potentially novel and unique hernia-associated fibroblasts may lead to the development of novel treatments that can nonsurgically prevent or reverse inguinal hernias.
Tanvi Potluri, Matthew J. Taylor, Jonah J. Stulberg, Richard L. Lieber, Hong Zhao, Serdar E. Bulun
Total views: 973