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BACKGROUND Insulin resistance of the brain can unfavorably affect long-term weight maintenance and body fat distribution. Little is known if and how brain insulin sensitivity can be restored in humans. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity of the brain and how this relates to exercise-induced changes in whole-body metabolism and behavior.METHODS In this clinical trial, sedentary participants who were overweight and obese underwent an 8-week supervised aerobic training intervention. Brain insulin sensitivity was assessed in 21 participants (14 women, 7 men; age range 21–59 years; BMI range 27.5–45.5 kg/m2) using functional MRI, combined with intranasal administration of insulin, before and after the intervention.RESULTS The exercise program resulted in enhanced brain insulin action to the level of a person of healthy weight, demonstrated by increased insulin-induced striatal activity and strengthened hippocampal functional connectivity. Improved brain insulin action correlated with increased mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, reductions in visceral fat and hunger, as well as improved cognition. Mediation analyses suggest that improved brain insulin responsiveness helps mediate the peripheral exercise effects leading to healthier body fat distribution and reduced perception of hunger.CONCLUSION Our study demonstrates that an 8-week exercise intervention in sedentary individuals can restore insulin action in the brain. Hence, the ameliorating benefits of exercise toward brain insulin resistance may provide an objective therapeutic target in humans in the challenge to reduce diabetes risk factors.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03151590).FUNDING BMBF/DZD 01GI0925.
Stephanie Kullmann, Thomas Goj, Ralf Veit, Louise Fritsche, Lore Wagner, Patrick Schneeweiss, Miriam Hoene, Christoph Hoffmann, Jürgen Machann, Andreas Niess, Hubert Preissl, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Andreas Peter, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Anja Moller, Cora Weigert, Martin Heni
Total views: 2418
The kidney contains a population of resident macrophages from birth that expands as it grows and forms a contiguous network throughout the tissue. Kidney resident macrophages (KRMs) are important in homeostasis and the response to acute kidney injury (AKI). While the kidney contains many microenvironments, it is unknown whether KRMs are a heterogeneous population differentiated by function and location. We combined single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), spatial transcriptomics, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence imaging to localize, characterize, and validate KRM populations during quiescence and following 19 minutes of bilateral ischemic kidney injury. scRNAseq and spatial transcriptomics revealed seven distinct KRM subpopulations, which are organized into zones corresponding to regions of the nephron. Each subpopulation was identifiable by a unique transcriptomic signature suggesting distinct functions. Specific protein markers were identified for two clusters allowing analysis by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence imaging. Following injury, the original localization of each subpopulation is lost, either from changing locations or transcriptomic signatures. The original spatial distribution of KRMs is not fully restored for at least 28 days post-injury. The change in KRM localization confirms a long hypothesized dysregulation of the local immune system following acute injury and may explain the increased risk for chronic kidney disease.
Matthew D. Cheung, Elise N. Erman, Kyle H. Moore, Jeremie M.P. Lever, Zhang Li, Jennifer R. LaFontaine, Gelare Ghajar-Rahimi, Shanrun Liu, Zhengqin Yang, Rafay Karim, Bradley K. Yoder, Anupam Agarwal, James F. George
Total views: 1772
Development of resistance to chemo- and immunotherapies often occurs following treatment of melanoma brain metastasis (MBM). The brain microenvironment (BME), particularly astrocytes, cooperate toward MBM progression by upregulating secreted factors, among which we found that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptors, CCR2 and CCR4, were overexpressed in MBM compared with primary lesions. Among other sources of MCP-1 in the brain, we show that melanoma cells altered astrocyte secretome and evoked MCP-1 expression and secretion, which in turn induced CCR2 expression in melanoma cells, enhancing in vitro tumorigenic properties, such as proliferation, migration, and invasion of melanoma cells. In vivo pharmacological blockade of MCP-1 or molecular knockout of CCR2/CCR4 increased the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and attenuated the immunosuppressive phenotype of the BME as shown by decreased infiltration of Tregs and tumor-associated macrophages/microglia in several models of intracranially injected MBM. These in vivo strategies led to decreased MBM outgrowth and prolonged the overall survival of the mice. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of inhibiting interactions between BME and melanoma cells for the treatment of this disease.
Sabina Pozzi, Anna Scomparin, Dikla Ben-Shushan, Eilam Yeini, Paula Ofek, Alessio D. Nahmad, Shelly Soffer, Ariel Ionescu, Antonella Ruggiero, Adi Barzel, Henry Brem, Thomas M. Hyde, Iris Barshack, Sanju Sinha, Eytan Ruppin, Tomer Weiss, Asaf Madi, Eran Perlson, Inna Slutsky, Helena F. Florindo, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro
Total views: 1488
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the main reason for poor outcomes after lung transplantation (LTx). We and others have recently identified B cells as major contributors to BOS after LTx. The extent of B cell heterogeneity and the relative contributions of B cell subpopulations to BOS, however, remain unclear. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of cell population changes and their gene expression patterns during chronic rejection after orthotopic LTx in mice. Of 11 major cell types, Mzb1-expressing plasma cells (PCs) were the most prominently increased population in BOS lungs. These findings were validated in 2 different cohorts of human BOS after LTx. A Bhlhe41, Cxcr3, and Itgb1 triple-positive B cell subset, also expressing classical markers of the innate-like B-1 B cell population, served as the progenitor pool for Mzb1+ PCs. This subset accounted for the increase in IgG2c production within BOS lung grafts. A genetic lack of Igs decreased BOS severity after LTx. In summary, we provide a detailed analysis of cell population changes during BOS. IgG+ PCs and their progenitors — an innate B cell subpopulation — are the major source of local Ab production and a significant contributor to BOS after LTx.
Natalia F. Smirnova, Kent Riemondy, Marta Bueno, Susan Collins, Pavan Suresh, Xingan Wang, Kapil N. Patel, Carlyne Cool, Melanie Königshoff, Nirmal S. Sharma, Oliver Eickelberg
Total views: 1200
Gene mutations causing loss of dystrophin result in the severe muscle disease known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Despite efforts at genetic repair, DMD therapy remains largely palliative. Loss of dystrophin destabilizes the sarcolemmal membrane impacting mechanosensitive cation channels to increase calcium entry, promoting cell damage, and eventually muscle dysfunction. One putative channel is transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) that we showed contributes to abnormal force and calcium stress-responses in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking dystrophin and haplodeficient in utrophin mdx/utrn+/- (HET). Here, we show in both HET and the far more severe homozygous mdx/utrn-/- (DKO) mouse that TRPC6 gene deletion or its selective pharmacologic inhibition (BI 749327) prolongs survival 2-3-fold, improving skeletal and cardiac muscle and bone defects. Gene pathways reduced by BI 749327 treatment most prominently regulate fat metabolism and TGFβ1 signaling. These results support the testing of TRPC6 inhibitors in human trials for other diseases as a novel DMD therapy.
Brian L. Lin, Joseph Y. Shin, William P.D. Jeffreys, Nadan Wang, Clarisse A. Lukban, Megan C. Moorer, Esteban Velarde, Olivia A. Hanselman, Seoyoung Kwon, Suraj Kannan, Ryan C. Riddle, Christopher W. Ward, Steven S. Pullen, Antonio Filareto, David A. Kass
Total views: 1181
Loss of retinal blood flow autoregulation is an early feature of diabetes that precedes the development of clinically recognizable diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal blood flow autoregulation is mediated by the myogenic response of the retinal arterial vessels, a process that is initiated by the stretch‑dependent activation of TRPV2 channels on the retinal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we show that the impaired myogenic reaction of retinal arterioles from diabetic animals is associated with a complete loss of stretch‑dependent TRPV2 current activity on the retinal VSMCs. This effect could be attributed, in part, to TRPV2 channel downregulation, a phenomenon that was also evident in human retinal VSMCs from diabetic donors. We also demonstrate that TRPV2 heterozygous rats, a nondiabetic model of impaired myogenic reactivity and blood flow autoregulation in the retina, develop a range of microvascular, glial, and neuronal lesions resembling those observed in DR, including neovascular complexes. No overt kidney pathology was observed in these animals. Our data suggest that TRPV2 dysfunction underlies the loss of retinal blood flow autoregulation in diabetes and provide strong support for the hypothesis that autoregulatory deficits are involved in the pathogenesis of DR.
Michael O’Hare, Gema Esquiva, Mary K. McGahon, Jose Manuel Romero Hombrebueno, Josy Augustine, Paul Canning, Kevin S. Edgar, Peter Barabas, Thomas Friedel, Patrizia Cincolà, Jennifer Henry, Katie Mayne, Hannah Ferrin, Alan W. Stitt, Timothy J. Lyons, Derek P. Brazil, David J. Grieve, J. Graham McGeown, Tim M. Curtis
Total views: 1142
Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic disorder largely caused by pathogenic variants in the WFS1 gene and manifested by diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, and progressive neurodegeneration. Recent genetic and clinical findings have revealed Wolfram syndrome as a spectrum disorder. Therefore, a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis is needed for diagnosis and therapeutic development. Here, we focus on the WFS1 c.1672C>T, p.R558C variant, which is highly prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Clinical investigation indicated that patients carrying the homozygous WFS1 c.1672C>T, p.R558C variant showed mild forms of Wolfram syndrome phenotypes. Expression of WFS1 p.R558C was more stable compared with the other known recessive pathogenic variants associated with Wolfram syndrome. Human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC-derived) islets (SC-islets) homozygous for WFS1 c.1672C>T variant recapitulated genotype-related Wolfram syndrome phenotypes. Enhancing residual WFS1 function through a combination treatment of chemical chaperones mitigated detrimental effects caused by the WFS1 c.1672C>T, p.R558C variant and increased insulin secretion in SC-islets. Thus, the WFS1 c.1672C>T, p.R558C variant causes a mild form of Wolfram syndrome phenotypes, which can be remitted with a combination treatment of chemical chaperones. We demonstrate that our patient iPSC–derived disease model provides a valuable platform for further genotype-phenotype analysis and therapeutic development for Wolfram syndrome.
Rie Asada Kitamura, Kristina G. Maxwell, Wenjuan Ye, Kelly Kries, Cris M. Brown, Punn Augsornworawat, Yoel Hirsch, Martin M. Johansson, Tzvi Weiden, Joseph Ekstein, Joshua Cohen, Justin Klee, Kent Leslie, Anton Simeonov, Mark J. Henderson, Jeffrey R. Millman, Fumihiko Urano
Total views: 1139
Cross-reactive immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and other related coronaviruses has been well-documented, and it may play a role in preventing severe COVID-19. Epidemiological studies early in the pandemic showed a geographical association between high influenza vaccination rates and lower incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We, therefore, analyzed whether exposure to influenza A virus (IAV) antigens could influence the T cell repertoire in response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating a heterologous immune response between these 2 unrelated viruses. Using artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) combined with real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), we developed a sensitive assay to quickly screen for antigen-specific T cell responses and detected a significant correlation between responses to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and IAV dominant epitope (M158–66). Further analysis showed that some COVID-19 convalescent donors exhibited both T cell receptor (TCR) specificity and functional cytokine responses to multiple SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and M158–66. Utilizing an aAPC-based stimulation/expansion assay, we detected cross-reactive T cells with specificity to SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. In addition, TCR sequencing of the cross-reactive and IAV-specific T cells revealed similarities between the TCR repertoires of the two populations. These results indicate that heterologous immunity shaped by our exposure to other unrelated endemic viruses may affect our immune response to novel viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.
Worarat Chaisawangwong, Hanzhi Wang, Theodore Kouo, Sebastian F. Salathe, Ariel Isser, Joan Glick Bieler, Maya L. Zhang, Natalie K. Livingston, Shuyi Li, Joseph J. Horowitz, Ron E. Samet, Israel Zyskind, Avi Z. Rosenberg, Jonathan P. Schneck
Total views: 1124
Preexisting cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 occurs in the absence of prior viral exposure. However, this has been difficult to quantify at the population level due to a lack of reliably defined seroreactivity thresholds. Using an orthogonal antibody testing approach, we estimated that about 0.6% of nontriaged adults from the greater Vancouver, Canada, area between May 17 and June 19, 2020, showed clear evidence of a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, after adjusting for false-positive and false-negative test results. Using a highly sensitive multiplex assay and positive/negative thresholds established in infants in whom maternal antibodies have waned, we determined that more than 90% of uninfected adults showed antibody reactivity against the spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), N-terminal domain (NTD), or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from SARS-CoV-2. This seroreactivity was evenly distributed across age and sex, correlated with circulating coronaviruses’ reactivity, and was partially outcompeted by soluble circulating coronaviruses’ spike. Using a custom SARS-CoV-2 peptide mapping array, we found that this antibody reactivity broadly mapped to spike and to conserved nonstructural viral proteins. We conclude that most adults display preexisting antibody cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, which further supports investigation of how this may impact the clinical severity of COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses.
Abdelilah Majdoubi, Christina Michalski, Sarah E. O’Connell, Sarah Dada, Sandeep Narpala, Jean Gelinas, Disha Mehta, Claire Cheung, Dirk F.H. Winkler, Manjula Basappa, Aaron C. Liu, Matthias Görges, Vilte E. Barakauskas, Mike Irvine, Jennifer Mehalko, Dominic Esposito, Inna Sekirov, Agatha N. Jassem, David M. Goldfarb, Steven Pelech, Daniel C. Douek, Adrian B. McDermott, Pascal M. Lavoie
Total views: 1106
Acute lung injury (ALI) can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a lethal condition with limited treatment options and currently a common global cause of death due to COVID-19. ARDS secondary to transfusion-related ALI (TRALI) has been recapitulated preclinically by anti–MHC-I antibody administration to LPS-primed mice. In this model, we demonstrate that inhibitors of PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates signaling pathways of fundamental importance to homeostasis and inflammation, prevented lung injury and increased survival. Treatment with PTP1B inhibitors attenuated the aberrant neutrophil function that drives ALI and was associated with release of myeloperoxidase, suppression of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and inhibition of neutrophil migration. Mechanistically, reduced signaling through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, particularly to the activation of PI3Kγ/AKT/mTOR, was essential for these effects, linking PTP1B inhibition to promoting an aged-neutrophil phenotype. Considering that dysregulated activation of neutrophils has been implicated in sepsis and causes collateral tissue damage, we demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors improved survival and ameliorated lung injury in an LPS-induced sepsis model and improved survival in the cecal ligation and puncture–induced (CLP-induced) sepsis model. Our data highlight the potential for PTP1B inhibition to prevent ALI and ARDS from multiple etiologies.
Dongyan Song, Jose M. Adrover, Christy Felice, Lisa N. Christensen, Xue-Yan He, Joseph R. Merrill, John E. Wilkinson, Tobias Janowitz, Scott K. Lyons, Mikala Egeblad, Nicholas K. Tonks
Total views: 1097