Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric niche can persist for years in asymptomatic individuals. To deeply characterize the host–microbiota environment in H. pylori–infected (HPI) stomachs, we collected human gastric tissues and performed metagenomic sequencing, single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq), flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. HPI asymptomatic individuals had dramatic changes in the composition of gastric microbiome and immune cells compared with noninfected individuals. Metagenomic analysis uncovered pathway alterations related to metabolism and immune response. scRNA-Seq and flow cytometry data revealed that, in contrast to murine stomachs, ILC2s are virtually absent in the human gastric mucosa, whereas ILC3s are the dominant population. Specifically, proportion of NKp44+ ILC3s out of total ILCs were highly increased in the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic HPI individuals, and correlated with the abundance of selected microbial taxa. In addition, CD11c+ myeloid cells and activated CD4+ T cells and B cells were expanded in HPI individuals. B cells of HPI individuals acquired an activated phenotype and progressed into a highly proliferating germinal-center stage and plasmablast maturation, which correlated with the presence of tertiary lymphoid structures within the gastric lamina propria. Our study provides a comprehensive atlas of the gastric mucosa–associated microbiome and immune cell landscape when comparing asymptomatic HPI and uninfected individuals.
Chiara Sorini, Kumar P. Tripathi, Shengru Wu, Shawn M. Higdon, Jing Wang, Liqin Cheng, Sanghita Banerjee, Annika Reinhardt, Taras Kreslavsky, Anders Thorell, Lars Engstrand, Juan Du, Eduardo J. Villablanca
Short-chain fatty acids, including butyrate, have multiple metabolic benefits in individuals who are lean but not in individuals with metabolic syndrome, with the underlying mechanisms still being unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of gut microbiota in the induction of metabolic benefits of dietary butyrate. We performed antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion of the gut and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established translational model for developing human-like metabolic syndrome, and revealed that dietary butyrate reduced appetite and ameliorated high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) weight gain dependent on the presence of gut microbiota. FMT from butyrate-treated lean donor mice, but not butyrate-treated obese donor mice, into gut microbiota–depleted recipient mice reduced food intake, attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, and improved insulin resistance. 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing on cecal bacterial DNA of recipient mice implied that these effects were accompanied by the selective proliferation of Lachnospiraceae bacterium 28-4 in the gut as induced by butyrate. Collectively, our findings reveal a crucial role of gut microbiota in the beneficial metabolic effects of dietary butyrate as strongly associated with the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacterium 28-4.
Zhuang Li, Enchen Zhou, Cong Liu, Hope Wicks, Sena Yildiz, Farhana Razack, Zhixiong Ying, Sander Kooijman, Debby P.Y. Koonen, Marieke Heijink, Sarantos Kostidis, Martin Giera, Ingrid M.J.G. Sanders, Ed J. Kuijper, Wiep Klaas Smits, Ko Willems van Dijk, Patrick C.N. Rensen, Yanan Wang
Urinary catheterization facilitates urinary tract colonization by Escherichia coli and increases infection risk. Here we aimed to identify strain-specific characteristics associated with the transition from colonization to infection in catheterized patients. In a single-site study population, we compared E. coli isolates from patients with catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CAASB) to those with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). CAUTI isolates were dominated by a phylotype B2 subclade containing the multidrug resistant ST131 lineage relative to CAASB isolates, which were phylogenetically more diverse. A distinctive combination of virulence-associated genes was present in the CAUTI-associated B2 subclade. Catheter-associated biofilm formation was widespread among isolates and did not distinguish CAUTI from CAASB strains. Preincubation with CAASB strains could potently inhibit catheter colonization by multiple ST131 CAUTI isolates. Comparative genomic analysis identified a group of variable genes associated with high catheter-biofilm formation present in both CAUTI and CAASB strains. Among these, ferric citrate transport (Fec) system genes were experimentally associated with enhanced catheter biofilm formation using reporter and fecA deletion strains. Together, these results are consistent with a variable role for catheter biofilm formation in promoting CAUTI by ST131-like strains or resisting CAUTI by lower risk strains that engage in niche exclusion.
Zongsen Zou, Robert F. Potter, William H. McCoy 4th, John A. Wildenthal, George L. Katumba, Peter J. Mucha, Gautam Dantas, Jeffrey P. Henderson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes diversification during infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. Understanding these changes requires model systems that capture the complexity of the CF lung environment. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in the two-component regulatory system sensor kinase gene pmrB, in P. aeruginosa from CF and from experimental infection of mice. Here, we demonstrate that whilst such mutations lower in vitro MICs for multiple antimicrobial classes, this is not reflected in increased antibiotic susceptibility in vivo. Loss of PmrB impairs aminoarabinose modification of lipopolysaccharide, increasing the negative charge of the outer membrane and promoting uptake of cationic antimicrobials. However, in vivo, this can be offset by increased membrane binding of other positively charged molecules present in lungs. The polyamine spermidine readily coats the surface of PmrB-deficient P. aeruginosa, reducing susceptibility to antibiotics that rely on charge differences to bind the outer membrane and increasing biofilm formation. Spermidine is elevated in lungs during P. aeruginosa infection in mice and during episodes of antimicrobial treatment in people with CF. These findings highlight the need to study antimicrobial resistance under clinically relevant environmental conditions. Microbial mutations carrying fitness costs in vitro may be advantageous during infection, where host resources can be utilised.
Chowdhury M. Hasan, Sian Pottenger, Angharad E. Green, Adrienne A. Cox, Jack S. White, Trevor Jones, Craig Winstanley, Aras Kadioglu, Megan H. Wright, Daniel R. Neill, Joanne L. Fothergill
Bacteria have evolved to cope with the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using their essential molecular components. Catalase, a heme-containing tetramer protein expressed universally in most of the aerobic bacteria, plays an indispensable role in scavenging excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, through utilization of wild-type and catalase-deficient mutants, we identified catalase as an endogenous therapeutic target of 400-420 nm blue light. Catalase residing inside bacteria could be effectively inactivated by blue light, subsequently rendering the pathogens extremely vulnerable to H2O2 and H2O2-producing agents. As a result, photoinactivation of catalase and H2O2 synergistically eliminate a wide range of catalase-positive planktonic bacteria and P. aeruginosa inside biofilms. In addition, photoinactivation of catalase is shown to facilitate macrophages to defend against intracellular pathogens. The antimicrobial efficacy of catalase photoinactivation is further validated using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mice abrasion model. Taken together, our findings offer a catalase-targeting phototherapy approach against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.
Pu-Ting Dong, Sebastian Jusuf, Jie Hui, Yuewei Zhan, Yifan Zhu, George Y. Liu, Ji-Xin Cheng
Elucidating how resident enteric bacteria interact with their hosts to promote health or inflammation is of central importance to diarrheal and inflammatory bowel diseases across species. Here, we integrate the microbial and chemical microenvironment of a patient’s ileal mucosa with their clinical phenotype and genotype to identify factors favoring the growth and virulence of Adherent and Invasive E. coli (AIEC) linked to Crohn’s disease. We determine that the ileal niche of AIEC is characterized by inflammation, dysbiosis, coculture of Enterococcus and oxidative stress. We discover that mucosal metabolites support general growth of ileal E. coli, with a selective effect of ethanolamine on AIEC that is augmented by co-metabolism of ileitis-associated amino acids and glutathione, and symbiosis-associated fucose. This metabolic plasticity is facilitated by the eut and pdu microcompartments, amino acid metabolism, γ-glutamyl-cycle and pleotropic stress responses. We link metabolism to virulence, finding that ethanolamine and glutamine enhance AIEC motility, infectivity and pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. We connect use of ethanolamine to intestinal inflammation, and L-fuculose phosphate aldolase (fucA) to symbiosis in AIEC mono-associated IL10-/- mice. Collectively, we establish that AIEC are pathoadapted to utilize mucosal metabolites associated with health and inflammation for growth and virulence, enabling the transition from symbiont to pathogen in a susceptible host.
Shiying Zhang, Xochitl C, Morgan, Belgin Dogan, Francois-Pierre Martin, Susan R. Strickler, Akihiko Oka, Jeremy Herzog, Bo Liu, Scot E. Dowd, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthieu Pichaud, Esra I. Dogan, Jack Satsangi, Randy Longman, Rhonda Yantiss, Lukas A. Mueller, Ellen Scherl, R. Balfour Sartor, Kenneth W. Simpson
Uveal melanoma (UM) represents a unique disease in that patients with primary UM are well stratified based on their risk of developing metastasis yet there are limited effective treatments once metastases occur. There is an urgent need to better understand the distinct molecular pathogenesis of UM and characteristics of patients at high risk for metastasis, to identify neo-antigenic targets which can be used in immunotherapy, and develop novel therapeutic strategies that may effectively target this lethal transition. An important and overlooked area of molecular pathogenesis and neoantigenic targets in UM come from human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). We investigated the HERV expression landscape in primary UM and found that tumors stratified into four HERV-based subsets that provide clear delineation of risk outcome and support subtypes identified by other molecular indicators. Specific HERV loci are associated with the risk of uveal melanoma metastasis and may offer mechanistic insights into this process, including dysregulation of HERVs on chromosomes 3 and 8. A HERV signature comprised of 17 loci was sufficient to classify tumors according to subtype with >95% accuracy, including at least one intergenic HERV with coding potential (HERVE_Xp11.23) that could represent a new potential HERV E target for immunotherapy.
Matthew L. Bendall, Jasmine H. Francis, Alexander N. Shoushtari, Douglas F. Nixon
Besides promoting inflammation by mobilizing lipid mediators, group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) prevents bacterial infection by degrading bacterial membranes. Here, we show that, despite the restricted intestinal expression of sPLA2-IIA in BALB/c mice, its genetic deletion leads to amelioration of cancer and exacerbation of psoriasis in distal skin. Intestinal expression of sPLA2-IIA is reduced after treatment with antibiotics or under germ-free conditions, suggesting its upregulation by gut microbiota. Metagenome, transcriptome, and metabolome analyses have revealed that sPLA2-IIA deficiency alters the gut microbiota, accompanied by notable changes in the intestinal expression of genes related to immunity and metabolism, as well as in the levels of various blood metabolites and fecal bacterial lipids, suggesting that sPLA2-IIA contributes to shaping of the gut microbiota. The skin phenotypes in Pla2g2a–/– mice are lost (a) when they are cohoused with littermate WT mice, resulting in the mixing of the microbiota between the genotypes, or (b) when they are housed in a more stringent pathogen-free facility, where Pla2g2a expression in WT mice is low and the gut microbial compositions in both genotypes are nearly identical. Thus, our results highlight a potentially new aspect of sPLA2-IIA as a modulator of gut microbiota, perturbation of which affects distal skin responses.
Yoshimi Miki, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Yuh Kidoguchi, Kei Yamamoto, Kazuaki Muramatsu, Yasumasa Nishito, Jonguk Park, Koji Hosomi, Kenji Mizuguchi, Jun Kunisawa, Tomoyoshi Soga, Eric Boilard, Siddabasave Gowda B. Gowda, Kazutaka Ikeda, Makoto Arita, Makoto Murakami
Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) hydrolyzes phospholipids to liberate lysophospholipids and fatty acids. Given its poor activity toward eukaryotic cell membranes, its role in the generation of proinflammatory lipid mediators is unclear. Conversely, sPLA2-IIA efficiently hydrolyzes bacterial membranes. Here, we show that sPLA2-IIA affects the immune system by acting on the intestinal microbial flora. Using mice overexpressing transgene-driven human sPLA2-IIA, we found that the intestinal microbiota was critical for both induction of an immune phenotype and promotion of inflammatory arthritis. The expression of sPLA2-IIA led to alterations of the intestinal microbiota composition, but housing in a more stringent pathogen-free facility revealed that its expression could affect the immune system in the absence of changes to the composition of this flora. In contrast, untargeted lipidomic analysis focusing on bacteria-derived lipid mediators revealed that sPLA2-IIA could profoundly alter the fecal lipidome. The data suggest that a singular protein, sPLA2-IIA, produces systemic effects on the immune system through its activity on the microbiota and its lipidome.
Etienne Doré, Charles Joly-Beauparlant, Satoshi Morozumi, Alban Mathieu, Tania Lévesque, Isabelle Allaeys, Anne-Claire Duchez, Nathalie Cloutier, Mickaël Leclercq, Antoine Bodein, Christine Payré, Cyril Martin, Agnes Petit-Paitel, Michael H. Gelb, Manu Rangachari, Makoto Murakami, Laetitia Davidovic, Nicolas Flamand, Makoto Arita, Gérard Lambeau, Arnaud Droit, Eric Boilard
Commensal microbes critically regulate skeletal homeostasis, yet the impact of specific microbiota communities on osteoimmune response mechanisms is unknown. To discern osteoimmunomodulatory effects imparted by the commensal oral microbiota that are distinct from the systemic microbiota, osteoimmunology studies were performed in both alveolar bone and non-oral skeletal sites of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) vs. germ-free (GF) mice, and SPF mice subjected to saline vs. chlorhexidine oral rinses. SPF vs. GF mice had reduced cortical/trabecular bone and an enhanced pro-osteoclastic phenotype in alveolar bone. Toll-like receptor signaling and TH17 cells that have known pro-osteoclastic actions were increased in alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. MHC class-II antigen presentation genes, activated dendritic cells, and activated CD4+ T-cells were elevated in alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. These findings were substantiated by in vitro allostimulation studies demonstrating increased activated dendritic cells derived from alveolar, but not long-bone marrow, of SPF vs. GF mice. Chlorhexidine antiseptic rinse depleted the oral, but not gut, bacteriome in SPF mice. Findings from saline- vs. chlorhexidine-treated SPF mice corroborated outcomes from SPF vs. GF mice, which reveals that the commensal oral microbiota imparts osteoimmunomodulatory effects separate from the systemic microbiome.
Jessica D. Hathaway-Schrader, Johannes D. Aartun, Nicole A. Poulides, Megan B. Kuhn, Blakely E. McCormick, Michael E. Chew, Emily Huang, Richard P. Darveau, Caroline Westwater, Chad M. Novince
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