The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33–driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.
Michael A. Portelli, F. Nicole Dijk, Maria E. Ketelaar, Nick Shrine, Jenny Hankinson, Sangita Bhaker, Néomi S. Grotenboer, Ma’en Obeidat, Amanda P. Henry, Charlotte K. Billington, Dominick Shaw, Simon R. Johnson, Zara E.K. Pogson, Andrew Fogarty, Tricia M. McKeever, David C. Nickle, Yohan Bossé, Maarten van den Berge, Alen Faiz, Sharon Brouwer, Judith M. Vonk, Paul de Vos, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Cornelis J. Vermeulen, Amisha Singapuri, Liam G. Heaney, Adel H. Mansur, Rekha Chaudhuri, Neil C. Thomson, John W. Holloway, Gabrielle A. Lockett, Peter H. Howarth, Robert Niven, Angela Simpson, John D. Blakey, Martin D. Tobin, Dirkje S. Postma, Ian P. Hall, Louise V. Wain, Martijn C. Nawijn, Christopher E. Brightling, Gerard H. Koppelman, Ian Sayers
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by mutations in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We report clinical, structural, ultrastructural, and electrophysiologic features of 4 CMS patients with 6 heteroallelic variants in AGRN, encoding agrin. One was a 7.9-kb deletion involving the N-terminal laminin–binding domain. Another, c.4744G>A — at the last nucleotide of exon 26 — caused skipping of exon 26. Four missense mutations (p.S1180L, p.R1509W, p.G1675S, and p.Y1877D) expressed in conditioned media decreased AChR clusters in C2C12 myotubes. The agrin-enhanced phosphorylation of MuSK was markedly attenuated by p.Y1877D in the LG3 domain and moderately attenuated by p.R1509W in the LG1 domain but not by the other 2 mutations. The p.S1180L mutation in the SEA domain facilitated degradation of secreted agrin. The p.G1675S mutation in the LG2 domain attenuated anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma by compromising its binding to heparin. Anchoring of agrin with p.R1509W in the LG1 domain was similarly attenuated. Mutations of agrin affect AChR clustering by enhancing agrin degradation or by suppressing MuSK phosphorylation and/or by compromising anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma of the neuromuscular junction.
Bisei Ohkawara, XinMing Shen, Duygu Selcen, Mohammad Nazim, Vera Bril, Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Lauren Brady, Sae Fukami, Anthony A. Amato, Uluc Yis, Kinji Ohno, Andrew G. Engel
BACKGROUND. Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) vary widely in terms of the patient’s overall survival (OS). There is a lack of valid method that could exactly predict the survival. The effects of intratumoral immune infiltration on clinical outcome have been widely reported. Thus, we aim to develop an immune infiltration signature to predict the survival of LGG patients. METHODS. We analyzed 1216 LGGs from 5 public datasets, including 2 RNA-Seq datasets and 3 microarray datasets. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was used to select an immune infiltration signature and build a risk score. The performance of the risk score was assessed in the training set (329 patients), internal validation set (140 patients), and 4 external validation sets (405, 118, 88, and 136 patients). RESULTS. An immune infiltration signature consisting of 20 immune metagenes was used to generate a risk score. The performance of the risk score was thoroughly verified in the training and validation sets. Additionally, we found that the risk score was positively correlated with the expression levels of TGFβ and PD-L1, which were important targets of combination immunotherapy. Furthermore, a nomogram incorporating the risk score, patient’s age, and tumor grade was developed to predict the OS, and it performed well in all the training and validation sets (C-index: 0.873, 0.881, 0.781, 0.765, 0.721, and 0.753, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. The risk score based on the immune infiltration signature has reliable prognostic and predictive value for patients with LGGs and might be a potential biomarker for the co-targeting immunotherapy. FUNDING. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81472370 and 81672506), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (Grant No. J180005), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program, Grant No. 2014AA020610) and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No. 2014CB542006).
Lai-Rong Song, Jian-Cong Weng, Cheng-Bei Li, Xu-Lei Huo, Huan Li, Shu-Yu Hao, Zhen Wu, Liang Wang, Da Li, Jun-Ting Zhang
Long-term memory depends on the control of activity-dependent neuronal gene expression, which is regulated by epigenetic modifications. The epigenetic modification of histones is orchestrated by the opposing activities of two classes of regulatory complexes: permissive co-activators and silencing co-repressors. Much work has focused on co-activator complexes, but little is known about the co-repressor complexes that suppress the expression of plasticity-related genes. Here, we define a critical role for the co-repressor SIN3A in memory and synaptic plasticity, showing that postnatal neuronal deletion of Sin3a enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term contextual fear memory. SIN3A regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins in the post-synaptic density. Loss of SIN3A increases expression of the synaptic scaffold Homer1, alters the mGluR1α- and mGluR5-dependence of long-term potentiation, and increases activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) in the hippocampus after learning. Our studies define a critical role for co-repressors in modulating neural plasticity and memory consolidation and reveal that Homer1/mGluR signaling pathways may be central molecular mechanisms for memory enhancement.
Morgan S. Bridi, Hannah Schoch, Cédrick Florian, Shane G. Poplawski, Anamika Banerjee, Joshua D. Hawk, Giulia S. Banks, Camille Lejards, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Karl Peter Giese, Robbert Havekes, Nelson Spruston, Ted Abel
Genetic variants within/near the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) locus associate with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) across ancestral groups. The major IRF5-SLE risk haplotype is common across populations, yet immune functions for the risk haplotype are undefined. We characterized the global immune-phenotype of healthy donors homozygous for the major risk and non-risk haplotypes and identified cell lineage-specific alterations that mimic pre-symptomatic SLE. Contrary to previous studies in B lymphoblastoid cell lines and SLE immune cells, IRF5 genetic variants had little effect on IRF5 protein levels in healthy donors. Instead, we detected basal IRF5 hyper-activation in the myeloid compartment of risk donors that drives the SLE immune-phenotype. Risk donors were ANA positive with anti-Ro and -MPO specificity, had increased circulating plasma cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and enhanced spontaneous NETosis. The IRF5-SLE immune-phenotype was conserved over time and probed mechanistically by ex vivo co-culture, indicating that risk neutrophils are drivers of the global immune-phenotype. RNA-seq of risk neutrophils revealed increased IRF5 transcript expression, IFN pathway enrichment and decreased expression of ROS pathway genes. Altogether, data support that individuals carrying the IRF5-SLE risk haplotype are more susceptible to environmental/stochastic influences that trigger chronic immune activation, predisposing to the development of clinical SLE.
Dan Li, Bharati Matta, Su Song, Victoria Nelson, Kirsten Diggins, Kim R. Simpfendorfer, Peter K. Gregersen, Peter Linsley, Betsy J. Barnes
The ciliopathies Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and Alström Syndrome are genetically inherited pleiotropic disorders with primary clinical features of hyperphagia and obesity. Methionine aminopeptidase 2 inhibitors (MetAP2i) have been shown in preclinical and clinical studies to reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity. Here we investigated the effects of MetAP2i administration in a mouse model of ciliopathy produced by conditional deletion of the Thm1 gene in adulthood. Thm1 conditional knock-out (cko) mice show decreased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin expression as well as hyperphagia, obesity, metabolic disease and hepatic steatosis. In obese Thm1 cko mice, two-week administration of MetAP2i reduced daily food intake and reduced body weight 17.1% from baseline (vs. 5% reduction for vehicle). This was accompanied with decreased levels of blood glucose, insulin and leptin. Further, MetAP2i reduced gonadal adipose depots and adipocyte size and improved liver morphology. This is the first report of MetAP2i reducing hyperphagia and body weight, and ameliorating metabolic indices in a mouse model of ciliopathy. These results support further investigation of MetAP2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for ciliary-mediated forms of obesity.
Tana S Pottorf, Micaella P. Fagan, Bryan F. Burkey, David J Cho, James E Vath, Pamela V. Tran
The ciliopathies are a group of phenotypically overlapping disorders caused by structural or functional defects in the primary cilium. Although disruption of numerous signaling pathways and cellular trafficking events have been implicated in ciliary pathology, treatment options for affected individuals remain limited. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNAi (RNA interference) screen to identify genetic suppressors of BBS4, one of the genes mutated in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). We discovered 10 genes that, when silenced, ameliorate BBS4-dependent pathology. One of these encodes USP35, a negative regulator of the ubiquitin proteasome system, suggesting that inhibition of a deubiquitinase, and subsequent facilitation of the clearance of signaling components, might ameliorate BBS-relevant phenotypes. Testing of this hypothesis in transient and stable zebrafish genetic models showed this posit to be true; suppression or ablation of usp35 ameliorated hallmark ciliopathy defects including impaired convergent extension (CE), renal tubule convolution, and retinal degeneration with concomitant clearance of effectors such as β-catenin and rhodopsin. Together, our findings reinforce a direct link between proteasome-dependent degradation and ciliopathies and suggest that augmentation of this system might offer a rational path to novel therapeutic modalities.
I-Chun Tsai, Kevin A. Adams, Joyce A. Tzeng, Omar Shennib, Perciliz L. Tan, Nicholas Katsanis
Mutations in B cell lymphoma 2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are recurrently associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and muscular dystrophy. Using isogenic genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs), we examined how a DCM-causing BAG3 mutation (R477H), as well as complete loss of BAG3 (KO), impacts myofibrillar organization and chaperone networks. Although unchanged at baseline, fiber length and alignment declined markedly in R477H and KO iPSC-CMs following proteasome inhibition. RNA sequencing revealed extensive baseline changes in chaperone- and stress response protein–encoding genes, and protein levels of key BAG3 binding partners were perturbed. Molecular dynamics simulations of the BAG3-HSC70 complex predicted a partial disengagement by the R477H mutation. In line with this, BAG3-R477H bound less HSC70 than BAG3-WT in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Finally, myofibrillar disarray triggered by proteasome inhibition in R477H cells was mitigated by overexpression of the stress response protein heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). These studies reveal the importance of BAG3 in coordinating protein quality control subsystem usage within the cardiomyocyte and suggest that augmenting HSF1 activity might be beneficial as a means to mitigate proteostatic stress in the context of BAG3-associated DCM.
Chris McDermott-Roe, Wenjian Lv, Tania Maximova, Shogo Wada, John Bukowy, Maribel Marquez, Shuping Lai, Amarda Shehu, Ivor Benjamin, Aron Geurts, Kiran Musunuru
Mice homozygous for a hypomorphic allele of DNA replication factor minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (designated Mcm2cre/cre) develop precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-T LBL) with 4-32 small interstitial deletions per tumor. Mice that express a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgene develop multiple types of leukemia, including myeloid, T and B lymphocyte. All Mcm2cre/creNHD13+ mice develop pre-T LBL, and 26% develop an unrelated, concurrent B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Copy Number Alteration (CNA) analysis demonstrated that pre-T LBL were characterized by homozygous deletions of Pten and Tcf3, and partial deletions of Notch1 leading to Notch1 activation. In contrast, BCP-ALL were characterized by recurrent deletions involving Pax5 and Ptpn1, and copy number gain of Abl1 and Nup214 resulting in a Nup214-Abl1 fusion. We present a model in which Mcm2 deficiency leads to replicative stress, DNA double strand breaks, and resultant CNAs due to errors in DNA DSB repair. CNAs which involve critical oncogenic pathways are then selected in vivo as malignant lymphoblasts, due to a fitness advantage. Some CNAs, such as those involving Abl1 and Notch1, represent attractive targets for therapy.
Mianmian Yin, Timour Baslan, Robert L. Walker, Yuelin J. Zhu, Amy Freeland, Toshihiro Matsukawa, Sriram Sridharan, André Nussenzweig, Steven C. Pruitt, Scott W. Lowe, Paul S. Meltzer, Peter D. Aplan
Background. The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. Methods. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. Results. We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. Conclusions. In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. Funding. For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.
Alexander Teumer, Teresa Trenkwalder, Thorsten Kessler, Yalda Jamshidi, Marten E. van den Berg, Bernhard Kaess, Christopher P. Nelson, Rachel Bastiaenen, Marzia De Bortoli, Alessandra Rossini, Isabel Deisenhofer, Klaus Stark, Solmaz Assa, Peter S. Braund, Claudia Cabrera, Anna F. Dominiczak, Martin Gögele, Leanne M. Hall, M. Arfan Ikram, Maryam Kavousi, Karl J. Lackner, Christian Müller, Thomas Münzel, Matthias Nauck, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Norbert Pfeiffer, Tim D. Spector, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Niek Verweij, Uwe Völker, Helen R. Warren, Mobeen Zafar, Stephan B. Felix, Jan A. Kors, Harold Snieder, Patricia B. Munroe, Cristian Pattaro, Christian Fuchsberger, Georg Schmidt, Ilja M. Nolte, Heribert Schunkert, Peter Pramstaller, Philipp S. Wild, Pim van der Harst, Bruno H. Stricker, Renate B. Schnabel, Nilesh J. Samani, Christian Hengstenberg, Marcus Dörr, Elijah R. Behr, Wibke Reinhard
No posts were found with this tag.