BACKGROUND. Increasing evidence indicates a role for EBV in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). EBV-infected autoreactive B cells might accumulate in the CNS because of defective cytotoxic CD8+ T cell immunity. We sought to determine the feasibility and safety of treating progressive MS patients with autologous EBV-specific T cell therapy. METHODS. An open-label phase I trial was designed to treat 5 patients with secondary progressive MS and 5 patients with primary progressive MS with 4 escalating doses of in vitro–expanded autologous EBV-specific T cells targeting EBV nuclear antigen 1, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2A. Following adoptive immunotherapy, we monitored the patients for safety and clinical responses. RESULTS. Of the 13 recruited participants, 10 received the full course of T cell therapy. There were no serious adverse events. Seven patients showed improvement, with 6 experiencing both symptomatic and objective neurological improvement, together with a reduction in fatigue, improved quality of life, and, in 3 patients, reduced intrathecal IgG production. All 6 patients receiving T cells with strong EBV reactivity showed clinical improvement, whereas only 1 of the 4 patients receiving T cells with weak EBV reactivity showed improvement (P = 0.033, Fisher’s exact test). CONCLUSION. EBV-specific adoptive T cell therapy was well tolerated. Clinical improvement following treatment was associated with the potency of EBV-specific reactivity of the administered T cells. Further clinical trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of EBV-specific T cell therapy in MS. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615000422527. FUNDING. MS Queensland, MS Research Australia, Perpetual Trustee Company Ltd., and donations from private individuals who wish to remain anonymous.
Michael P. Pender, Peter A. Csurhes, Corey Smith, Nanette L. Douglas, Michelle A. Neller, Katherine K. Matthews, Leone Beagley, Sweera Rehan, Pauline Crooks, Tracey J. Hopkins, Stefan Blum, Kerryn A. Green, Zara A. Ioannides, Andrew Swayne, Blake T. Aftab, Kaye D. Hooper, Scott R. Burrows, Kate M. Thompson, Alan Coulthard, Rajiv Khanna
Glycine encephalopathy (GE), or nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by defective glycine cleavage and characterized by increased accumulation of glycine in all tissues. Here, based on new case reports of GLDC loss-of-function mutations in GE patients, we aimed to generate a zebrafish model of severe GE in order to unravel the molecular mechanism of the disease. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we knocked out the gldc gene and showed that gldc–/– fish recapitulate GE on a molecular level and present a motor phenotype reminiscent of severe GE symptoms. The molecular characterization of gldc–/– mutants showed a broad metabolic disturbance affecting amino acids and neurotransmitters other than glycine, with lactic acidosis at stages preceding death. Although a transient imbalance was found in cell proliferation in the brain of gldc–/– zebrafish, the main brain networks were not affected, thus suggesting that GE pathogenicity is mainly due to metabolic defects. We confirmed that the gldc–/– hypotonic phenotype is due to NMDA and glycine receptor overactivation, and demonstrated that gldc–/– larvae depict exacerbated hyperglycinemia at these synapses. Remarkably, we were able to rescue the motor dysfunction of gldc–/– larvae by counterbalancing pharmacologically or genetically the level of glycine at the synapse.
Raphaëlle Riché, Meijiang Liao, Izabella A. Pena, Kit-Yi Leung, Nathalie Lepage, Nicolas D.E. Greene, Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Lisa A. Schimmenti, Pierre Drapeau, Éric Samarut
Noninvasive tools that target tumor cells could improve the management of glioma. Cancer generally has a high demand for Fe(III), an essential nutrient for a variety of biochemical processes. We tested whether 68Ga-citrate, an Fe(III) biomimetic that binds to apo-transferrin in blood, detects glioma in preclinical models and patients using hybrid PET/MRI. Mouse PET/CT studies showed that 68Ga-citrate accumulates in subcutaneous U87MG xenografts in a transferrin receptor–dependent fashion within 4 hours after injection. Seventeen patients with WHO grade III or IV glioma received 3.7–10.2 mCi 68Ga-citrate and were imaged with PET/MR 123–307 minutes after injection to establish that the radiotracer can localize to human tumors. Multiple contrast-enhancing lesions were PET avid, and tumor to adjacent normal white matter ratios were consistently greater than 10:1. Several contrast-enhancing lesions were not PET avid. One minimally enhancing lesion and another tumor with significantly reduced enhancement following bevacizumab therapy were PET avid. Advanced MR imaging analysis of one patient with contrast-enhancing glioblastoma showed that metabolic hallmarks of viable tumor spatially overlaid with 68Ga-citrate accumulation. These early data underscore that high-grade glioma may be detectable with a radiotracer that targets Fe(III) transport.
Spencer C. Behr, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Yan Li, Yung-Hua Wang, Junnian Wei, Anna Moroz, Julia K.L. Lee, Jeffrey C. Hsiao, Kenneth T. Gao, Wendy Ma, Soonmee Cha, David M. Wilson, Youngho Seo, Sarah J. Nelson, Susan M. Chang, Michael J. Evans
Mechanical injury to the brain triggers multiple biochemical events whose specific contributions to the pathogenesis define clinical manifestations and the overall outcome. Among many factors, mitochondrial injury has recently attracted much attention due to the importance of the organelle for bioenergetics as well as intra- and extracellular signaling and cell death. Assuming the essentiality of a mitochondria-unique phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), for the structural and functional organization of mitochondria, here we applied global (phospho) lipidomics and redox lipidomics to reveal and identify CL modifications during controlled cortical impact (CCI). We revealed 2 major pathways activated in the CCI-injured brain as time-specific responses: early accumulation of oxidized CL (CLox) products was followed by hydrolytic reactions yielding monolyso-CLs (mCLs) and free fatty acids. To quantitatively assess possible specific roles of peroxidation and hydrolysis of mitochondrial CL, we performed comparative studies of CL modifications using an animal model of Barth syndrome where deficiency of CL reacylation (Tafazzin [Taz] deficiency) was associated exclusively with the accumulation of mCLs (but not CLox). By comparing the in vitro and in vivo results with genetic manipulation of major CL-, CLox-, and mCL-metabolizing enzymes, calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ and Taz, we concluded that the 2 processes — CL oxidation and CL hydrolysis — act as mutually synergistically enhancing components of the pathogenic mechanism of mitochondrial injury in traumatic brain injury. This emphasizes the need for combined therapeutic approaches preventing the formation of both CLox and mCL.
Honglu Chao, Tamil S. Anthonymuthu, Elizabeth M. Kenny, Andrew A. Amoscato, Laura K. Cole, Grant M. Hatch, Jing Ji, Valerian E. Kagan, Hülya Bayır
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited ataxia caused by expansion of a translated CAG repeat encoding a glutamine tract in the ataxin-1 (ATXN1) protein. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis of SCA1, there are still no therapies to alter its progressive fatal course. RNA-targeting approaches have improved disease symptoms in preclinical rodent models of several neurological diseases. Here, we investigated the therapeutic capability of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting mouse Atxn1 in Atxn1154Q/2Q-knockin mice that manifest motor deficits and premature lethality. Following a single ASO treatment at 5 weeks of age, mice demonstrated rescue of these disease-associated phenotypes. RNA-sequencing analysis of genes with expression restored to WT levels in ASO-treated Atxn1154Q/2Q mice was used to demonstrate molecular differences between SCA1 pathogenesis in the cerebellum and disease in the medulla. Finally, select neurochemical abnormalities detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vehicle-treated Atxn1154Q/2Q mice were reversed in the cerebellum and brainstem (a region containing the pons and the medulla) of ASO-treated Atxn1154Q/2Q mice. Together, these findings support the efficacy and therapeutic importance of directly targeting ATXN1 RNA expression as a strategy for treating both motor deficits and lethality in SCA1.
Jillian Friedrich, Holly B. Kordasiewicz, Brennon O’Callaghan, Hillary P. Handler, Carmen Wagener, Lisa Duvick, Eric E. Swayze, Orion Rainwater, Bente Hofstra, Michael Benneyworth, Tessa Nichols-Meade, Praseuth Yang, Zhao Chen, Judit Perez Ortiz, H. Brent Clark, Gülin Öz, Sarah Larson, Huda Y. Zoghbi, Christine Henzler, Harry T. Orr
Despite the initial promise of immunotherapy for CNS disease, multiple recent clinical trials have failed. This may be due in part to characteristically low penetration of antibodies to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma, resulting in poor target engagement. We here utilized transcranial macroscopic imaging to noninvasively evaluate in vivo delivery pathways of CSF fluorescent tracers. Tracers in CSF proved to be distributed through a brain-wide network of periarterial spaces, previously denoted as the glymphatic system. CSF tracer entry was enhanced approximately 3-fold by increasing plasma osmolality without disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Further, plasma hyperosmolality overrode the inhibition of glymphatic transport that characterizes the awake state and reversed glymphatic suppression in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Plasma hyperosmolality enhanced the delivery of an amyloid-β (Aβ) antibody, obtaining a 5-fold increase in antibody binding to Aβ plaques. Thus, manipulation of glymphatic activity may represent a novel strategy for improving penetration of therapeutic antibodies to the CNS.
Benjamin A. Plog, Humberto Mestre, Genaro E. Olveda, Amanda M. Sweeney, H. Mark Kenney, Alexander Cove, Kosha Y. Dholakia, Jeffrey Tithof, Thomas D. Nevins, Iben Lundgaard, Ting Du, Douglas H. Kelley, Maiken Nedergaard
Neuroinflammation is a recognized pathogenic mechanism underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the inflammatory mechanisms influencing peripheral motor axon degeneration remain largely unknown. A recent report showed a pathogenic role for c-Kit–expressing mast cells mediating inflammation and neuromuscular junction denervation in muscles from SOD1G93A rats. Here, we have explored whether mast cells infiltrate skeletal muscles in autopsied muscles from ALS patients. We report that degranulating mast cells were abundant in the quadriceps muscles from ALS subjects but not in controls. Mast cells were associated with myofibers and motor endplates and, remarkably, interacted with neutrophils forming large extracellular traps. Mast cells and neutrophils were also abundant around motor axons in the extensor digitorum longus muscle, sciatic nerve, and ventral roots of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, indicating that immune cell infiltration extends along the entire peripheral motor pathway. Postparalysis treatment of SOD1G93A rats with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug masitinib prevented mast cell and neutrophil infiltration, axonal pathology, secondary demyelination, and the loss of type 2B myofibers, compared with vehicle-treated rats. These findings provide further evidence for a yet unrecognized contribution of immune cells in peripheral motor pathway degeneration that can be therapeutically targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Emiliano Trias, Peter H. King, Ying Si, Yuri Kwon, Valentina Varela, Sofía Ibarburu, Mariángeles Kovacs, Ivan C. Moura, Joseph S. Beckman, Olivier Hermine, Luis Barbeito
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients suffer from chronic abdominal pain and extraintestinal comorbidities, including overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC-PBS). Mechanistic understanding of the cause and time course of these comorbid symptoms is lacking, as are clinical treatments. Here, we report that colitis triggers hypersensitivity of colonic afferents, neuroplasticity of spinal cord circuits, and chronic abdominal pain, which persists after inflammation. Subsequently, and in the absence of bladder pathology, colonic hypersensitivity induces persistent hypersensitivity of bladder afferent pathways, resulting in bladder-voiding dysfunction, indicative of OAB/IC-PBS. Daily administration of linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist that is restricted to and acts within the gastrointestinal tract, reverses colonic afferent hypersensitivity, reverses neuroplasticity-induced alterations in spinal circuitry, and alleviates chronic abdominal pain in mice. Intriguingly, daily linaclotide administration also reverses persistent bladder afferent hypersensitivity to mechanical and chemical stimuli and restores normal bladder voiding. Linaclotide itself does not inhibit bladder afferents, rather normalization of bladder function by daily linaclotide treatment occurs via indirect inhibition of bladder afferents via reduced nociceptive signaling from the colon. These data support the concepts that cross-organ sensitization underlies the development and maintenance of visceral comorbidities, while pharmaceutical treatments that inhibit colonic afferents may also improve urological symptoms through common sensory pathways.
Luke Grundy, Andrea M. Harrington, Joel Castro, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Annemie Deiteren, Jessica Maddern, Grigori Y. Rychkov, Pei Ge, Stefanie Peters, Robert Feil, Paul Miller, Andre Ghetti, Gerhard Hannig, Caroline B. Kurtz, Inmaculada Silos-Santiago, Stuart M. Brierley
AEP is an age-dependent lysosomal asparaginyl endopeptidase that cleaves numerous substrates including tau and α-synuclein and mediates their pathological roles in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanism regulating this critical protease remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that Akt phosphorylates AEP on residue T322 upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and triggers its lysosomal translocation and inactivation. When BDNF levels are reduced in neurodegenerative diseases, AEP T322 phosphorylation is attenuated. Consequently, AEP is activated and translocates into the cytoplasm, where it cleaves both tau and α-synuclein. Remarkably, the unphosphorylated T322A mutant increases tau or α-synuclein cleavage by AEP and augments cell death, whereas phosphorylation mimetic T322E mutant represses these effects. Interestingly, viral injection of T322E into Tau P301S mice antagonizes tau N368 cleavage and tau pathologies, rescuing synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits. By contrast, viral administration of T322A into young α-SNCA mice elicits α-synuclein N103 cleavage and promotes dopaminergic neuronal loss, facilitating motor defects. Therefore, our findings support the notion that BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by suppressing AEP via Akt phosphorylation.
Zhi-Hao Wang, Wanqiang Wu, Seong Su Kang, Xia Liu, Zhiping Wu, Junmin Peng, Shan Ping Yu, Fredric P. Manfredsson, Ivette M. Sandoval, Xuebo Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Keqiang Ye
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease among the elderly. To understand its pathogenesis and to test therapies, animal models that faithfully reproduce key pathological PD hallmarks are needed. As a prelude to developing a model of PD, we tested the tropism, efficacy, biodistribution, and transcriptional effect of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors in the brain of Microcebus murinus, a nonhuman primate that naturally develops neurodegenerative lesions. We show that introducing helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors results in long-term, neuron-specific expression at the injection site and in afferent nuclei. Although HD CAV-2 vector injection induced a modest transcriptional response, no significant adaptive immune response was generated. We then generated and tested HD CAV-2 vectors expressing leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and LRRK2 carrying a G2019S mutation (LRRK2G2019S), which is linked to sporadic and familial autosomal dominant forms of PD. We show that HD-LRRK2G2019S expression induced parkinsonian-like motor symptoms and histological features in less than 4 months.
Nadine Mestre-Francés, Nicolas Serratrice, Aurélie Gennetier, Gina Devau, Sandra Cobo, Stéphanie G. Trouche, Pascaline Fontès, Charleine Zussy, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Sara Salinas, Franck J.D. Mennechet, Julien Dusonchet, Bernard L. Schneider, Isabella Saggio, Vasiliki Kalatzis, M. Rosario Luquin-Piudo, Jean-Michel Verdier, Eric J. Kremer
No posts were found with this tag.