NK cells are innate immune cells implicated in ALS; whether NK cells impact ALS in a sex- and age-specific manner was investigated. In mice, NK cells were depleted in male and female SOD1G93A ALS mice, survival and neuroinflammation were assessed, and data were stratified by sex. NK cell depletion extended survival in female but not male ALS mice with sex-specific effects on spinal cord microglia. In humans, NK cell numbers, NK cell subpopulations, and NK cell surface markers were examined in prospectively collected blood from ALS and control subjects; longitudinal changes in these metrics were correlated to Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) slope and stratified by sex and age. Expression of NK cell trafficking and cytotoxicity markers were elevated in ALS subjects, and changes in CXCR3+ NK cells and seven trafficking and cytotoxicity markers (CD11a, CD11b, CD38, CX3CR1, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp46) correlated with disease progression. Age impacted the associations between ALSFRS-R and markers NKG2D and NKp46, while sex impacted the NKp30 association. Collectively, these findings suggest that NK cells contribute to ALS progression in a sex- and age-specific manner and demonstrate that age and sex are critical variables when designing and assessing ALS immunotherapy.
Benjamin J. Murdock, Joshua P. Famie, Caroline E. Piecuch, Kristen D. Raue, Faye E. Mendelson, Cole H. Pieroni, Sebastian D. Iniguez, Lili Zhao, Stephen A. Goutman, Eva L. Feldman
The hypothalamus is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism and is capable of correcting diabetes conditions independently of an effect on energy balance. The small GTPase Rap1 in the forebrain is implicated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and glucose imbalance. Here, we report that increasing Rap1 activity selectively in the medial hypothalamus elevated blood glucose without increasing the body weight of HFD-fed mice. In contrast, decreasing hypothalamic Rap1 activity protected mice from diet-induced hyperglycemia but did not prevent weight gain. The remarkable glycemic effect of Rap1 was reproduced when Rap1 was specifically deleted in SF1-positive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) known to regulate glucose metabolism. While having no effect on body weight regardless of sex, diet, and age, Rap1 deficiency in the VMH SF1 neurons markedly lowered blood glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose and insulin tolerance, and protected mice against HFD-induced neural leptin resistance and peripheral insulin resistance at the cellular and whole-body levels. Lastly, acute pharmacological inhibition of brain Epac2, a direct activator of Rap1, corrected glucose imbalance in obese mouse models. Our findings uncover the primary role of VMH Rap1 in glycemic control and implicate Rap1 signaling as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in diabetes.
Kentaro Kaneko, Hsiao-Yun Lin, Yukiko Fu, Pradip K. Saha, Ana B. De la Puente-Gomez, Yong Xu, Kousaku Ohinata, Peter Chen, Alexei Morozov, Makoto Fukuda
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton plays a critical role in axon growth and guidance. Here, we identify the MT severing enzyme fidgetin-like 2 (FL2) as a negative regulator of axon regeneration and a therapeutic target for promoting nerve regeneration after injury. Genetic knockout of FL2 in cultured adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons resulted in longer axons and attenuated growth cone retraction in response to inhibitory molecules. Given the axonal growth-promoting effects of FL2 depletion in vitro, we tested whether FL2 could be targeted to promote regeneration in a rodent model of cavernous nerve (CN) injury. The CN are parasympathetic nerves that regulate blood flow to the penis, which are commonly damaged during radical prostatectomy (RP) resulting in erectile dysfunction (ED). Application of FL2-siRNA after CN injury significantly enhanced functional nerve recovery. Remarkably, following bilateral nerve transection, visible and functional nerve regeneration was observed in 7 out of 8 animals treated with FL2-siRNA, while no control treated animals exhibited regeneration. These studies identify FL2 as a promising therapeutic target for enhancing regeneration after peripheral nerve injury and for mitigating neurogenic ED post-RP—a condition for which, at present, only poor treatment options exist.
Lisa Baker, Moses Tar, Adam H. Kramer, Guillermo A. Villegas, Rabab A. Charafeddine, Olga Vafaeva, Parimala Nacharaju, Joel Friedman, Kelvin P. Davies, David J. Sharp
Antipsychotics often cause tardive dyskinesia, an adverse symptom of involuntary hyperkinetic movements. Analysis of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and JMDC insurance claims revealed that acetaminophen prevents the dyskinesia induced by dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. In vivo experiments further showed that a 21-day treatment with haloperidol increased the number of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats, an effect that was inhibited by oral acetaminophen treatment or intracerebroventricular injection of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonylamide (AM404), an acetaminophen metabolite that acts as an activator of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In mice, haloperidol-induced VCMs were also mitigated by treatment with AM404 applied to the dorsal striatum, but not in TRPV1-deficient mice. Acetaminophen prevented the haloperidol-induced decrease in the number of c-Fos+/preproenkephalin+ striatal neurons in wild-type mice but not in TRPV1-deficient mice. Finally, chemogenetic stimulation of indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons in the dorsal striatum decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs. These results suggest that acetaminophen activates the indirect pathway neurons by activating TRPV1 channels via AM404.
Koki Nagaoka, Takuya Nagashima, Nozomi Asaoka, Hiroki Yamamoto, Chihiro Toda, Gen Kayanuma, Soni Siswanto, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yasuo Mori, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
The recently proposed glymphatic pathway for solute transport and waste clearance from the brain has been the focus of intense debate. By exploiting an isotopically enriched MRI tracer, H217O, we directly imaged glymphatic water transport in the rat brain in vivo for the first time. Our results reveal glymphatic transport that is dramatically faster and more extensive than previously thought and unlikely to be explained by diffusion alone. Moreover, we confirm the critical role of aquaporin-4 channels in glymphatic transport.
Mohammed S. Alshuhri, Lindsay Gallagher, Lorraine M. Work, William M. Holmes
Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for weight loss in morbid obesity. There is significant individual variability in the weight loss outcomes, yet factors leading to postoperative weight loss or weight regain remain elusive. Alterations in the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) systems are associated with obesity and appetite control, and the magnitude of initial brain receptor system perturbation may predict long-term surgical weight loss outcomes. We tested this hypothesis by studying 19 morbidly obese women (mean BMI 40) scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. We measured their preoperative MOR and D2R availabilities using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride, respectively, and then assessed their weight development association with regional MOR and D2R availabilities at 24-month follow-up. MOR availability in the amygdala consistently predicted weight development throughout the follow-up period, but no associations were found for D2R. This is the first study to demonstrate that neuroreceptor markers prior to bariatric surgery are associated with the postoperative weight loss. Postoperative weight regain may derive from dysfunction in the opioid system, and weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery may be partially predicted based on preoperative brain receptor availability opening up new potential for treatment possibilities.
Henry K. Karlsson, Lauri Tuominen, Semi Helin, Paulina Salminen, Pirjo Nuutila, Lauri Nummenmaa
BACKGROUND. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition predominantly affecting obese women of reproductive age. Recent evidence suggests that IIH is a disease of metabolic dysregulation, androgen excess and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Here we evaluate systemic and adipose specific metabolic determinants of the IIH phenotype. METHODS. In fasted, matched IIH (N=97) and control (N=43) patients, we assessed: glucose and insulin homeostasis and leptin levels. Body composition was assessed along with an interrogation of adipose tissue function via nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and RNA sequencing in paired omental and subcutaneous biopsies in a case control study. RESULTS. We demonstrate an insulin and leptin resistant phenotype in IIH in excess to that driven by obesity. Adiposity in IIH is preferentially centripetal and is associated with increased disease activity and insulin resistance. IIH adipocytes appear transcriptionally and metabolically primed towards depot-specific lipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS. These data show that IIH is a metabolic disorder in which adipose tissue dysfunction is a feature of the disease. Managing IIH as a metabolic disease could reduce disease morbidity and improving cardiovascular outcomes. FUNDING. This study was supported by the National Institute of Health Research UK (NIHR-CS-011-028), the Medical Research Council UK (MR/K015184/1) and the Midlands Neuroscience Teaching and Research Fund.
Connar S.J. Westgate, Hannah F. Botfield, Zerin Alimajstorovic, Andreas Yiangou, Mark Walsh, Gabrielle Smith, Rishi Singhal, James L. Mitchell, Olivia Grech, Keira A. Markey, Daniel Hebenstreit, Daniel A. Tennant, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Susan P. Mollan, Christian Ludwig, Ildem Akerman, Gareth G. Lavery, Alexandra J. Sinclair
Extensive activation of glial cells during a latent period has been well documented in various animal models of epilepsy. However, it remains unclear whether activated glial cells contribute to epileptogenesis; i.e., the chronically persistent process leading to epilepsy. Particularly, it is not clear whether inter-glial communication between different types of glial cells contributes to epileptogenesis, as past literature mainly focused on one type of glial cell. Here, we show that temporally distinct activation profiles of microglia and astrocytes collaboratively contribute to epileptogenesis in a drug-induced status epilepticus model. We found that reactive microglia appeared first, followed by reactive astrocytes and increased susceptibility to seizures. Reactive astrocytes exhibited larger Ca2+ signals mediated by IP3R2, whereas deletion of this type of Ca2+ signaling reduced seizure susceptibility after status epilepticus. Immediate, but not late, pharmacological inhibition of microglial activation prevented subsequent reactive astrocytes, aberrant astrocyte Ca2+ signaling, and the enhanced seizure susceptibility. These findings indicate that the sequential activation of glial cells constitutes a cause of epileptogenesis after status epilepticus. Thus, our findings suggest that the therapeutic target to prevent epilepsy after status epilepticus should be shifted from microglia (early phase) to astrocytes (late phase).
Fumikazu Sano, Eiji Shigetomi, Youichi Shinozaki, Haruka Tsuzukiyama, Kozo Saito, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Dennis Lawrence Cheung, Junichi Nabekura, Kanji Sugita, Masao Aihara, Schuichi Koizumi
BACKGROUND. Methodology for estimation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer clearance could have wide clinical application in predicting excretion of intrathecal drugs and metabolic solutes from brain metabolism, and for diagnostic work-up of cerebrospinal fluid disturbances. METHODS. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadobutrol (Gadovist) was utilized as CSF tracer and injected into the lumbar CSF. Gadobutrol is contained outside blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) and is thus eliminated along extra-vascular pathways, analogous to many CNS metabolites and intrathecal drugs. Tracer enrichment was verified and assessed in CSF by MRI at level of the cisterna magna in parallel with obtaining blood samples through 48 hours. RESULTS. In a reference patient cohort (REF; n=29), both enrichment within CSF and blood coincided in time. Blood concentration profiles of gadobutrol through 48 hours varied between patients diagnosed with CSF leakage (n=4), idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus dementia (iNPH; n=7), pineal cysts (n=8), and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH; n=4). CONCLUSION. Assessment of CSF tracer clearance is clinically feasible and may provide a way to predict extra-vascular clearance of intrathecal drugs and endogenous metabolites from the CNS. The peak concentration in blood (at about 10 hrs) preceded by far peak tracer enhancement at MRI in extra-cranial lymphatic structures (at about 24 hrs) as shown in previous studies, indicating a major role of the spinal canal in CSF clearance capacity. FUNDING. The work was supported by Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo university hospital, and Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway, and University of Oslo.
Per K. Eide, Espen Mariussen, Hilde Uggerud, Are H. Pripp, Aslan Lashkarivand, Bjørnar Hassel, Hege Christensen, Markus Herberg Hovd, Geir Ringstad
Acute high fat diet (HFD) exposure induces a brief period of hyperphagia before caloric balance is restored. Previous studies have demonstrated this period of regulation is associated with activation of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons, which increases vagal control of gastric functions. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that activation of DMV NMDARs occurs subsequent to activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARex). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control or HFD for 3-5 days prior to experimentation. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from gastric-projecting DMV neurons, in vivo recordings of gastric motility, tone, compliance, and emptying, as well as food intake studies were used to assess the effects of NMDAR antagonism on caloric regulation. Following acute HFD exposure, inhibition of NMDARex prevented the NMDARs-mediated increase in glutamatergic transmission to DMV neurons, as well as the increase in gastric tone and motility, while chronic NMDARex inhibition attenuated the regulation of caloric intake. Following acute HFD exposure, the regulation of food intake involves NMDARs-mediated currents, which occur in response to NMDARex activation. Understanding these events may provide a mechanistic basis for hyperphagia and identify potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity.
Courtney Clyburn, R. Alberto Travagli, Amy C. Arnold, Kirsteen N. Browning
No posts were found with this tag.