Patients with Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) commonly present severe ventricular arrhythmias that contribute to heart failure. Arrhythmias and lethality are also consistently observed in adult Dmdmdx mice, a mouse model of DMD, after acute β-adrenergic stimulation. These pathological features were previously linked to aberrant expression and remodeling of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Here, we report that remodeled Cx43 protein forms Cx43 hemichannels in the lateral membrane of Dmdmdx cardiomyocytes and that the β -adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (Iso) aberrantly activates these hemichannels. Block of Cx43 hemichannels or a reduction in Cx43 levels (using Dmdmdx:Cx43+/- mice) prevents the abnormal increase in membrane permeability, plasma membrane depolarization and Iso-evoked electrical activity in these cells. Additionally, Iso treatment promotes nitric oxide (NO) production and S-nitrosylation of Cx43 hemichannels in Dmdmdx heart. Importantly, inhibition of NO production prevents arrhythmias evoked by Iso. We found that NO directly activates Cx43 hemichannels by S-nitrosylation of cysteine at the position 271. Our results demonstrate that opening of remodeled and S-nitrosylated Cx43 hemichannels play a key role in the development of arrhythmias in DMD mice and may serve as therapeutic targets to prevent fatal arrhythmias in DMD patients.
Mauricio A. Lillo, Eric Himelman, Natalia Shirokova, Lai-Hua Xie, Diego Fraidenraich, Jorge E. Contreras
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance results from impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation, linked to augmented lipid availability. Despite greater intramuscular lipids, athletes are highly insulin sensitive, which could result from higher rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis or glucose transport/phosphorylation and oxidation. Thus, we examined the time course of muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations during low and high systemic lipid availability.METHODS Eight endurance-trained and 9 sedentary humans (VO2 peak: 56 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05) underwent 6-hour hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp tests with infusions of triglycerides or saline in a randomized crossover design. Glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were monitored in vastus lateralis muscles using 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.RESULTS Athletes displayed a 25% greater (P < 0.05) insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (Rd) than sedentary participants. During Intralipid infusion, insulin sensitivity remained higher in the athletes (ΔRd: 25 ± 3 vs. 17 ± 3 μmol/kg/min, P < 0.05), supported by higher glucose transporter type 4 protein expression than in sedentary humans. Compared to saline infusion, AUC of glucose-6-phosphate remained unchanged during Intralipid infusion in athletes (1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 [mmol/L] × h, P = n.s.) but tended to decrease by 36% in sedentary humans (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 [mmol/L] × h, P < 0.059). This drop was accompanied by a 72% higher rate of net glycogen synthesis in the athletes upon Intralipid infusion (47 ± 9 vs. 13 ± 3 μmol/kg/min, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION Athletes feature higher skeletal muscle glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis during increased lipid availability, which primarily results from maintained insulin-stimulated glucose transport with increased myocellular glucose-6-phosphate levels for subsequent glycogen synthesis.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01229059.FUNDING German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG).
Esther Phielix, Paul Begovatz, Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Esther Kornips, Gert Schaart, Matthijs K. C. Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen, Michael Roden
Muscle contractures are a prominent and disabling feature of many neuromuscular disorders, including the two most common forms of childhood neurologic dysfunction: neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) and cerebral palsy (CP). There are currently no treatment strategies to directly alter the contracture pathology, as the pathogenesis of these contractures is unknown. We previously showed in a mouse model of NBPI that contractures result from impaired longitudinal muscle growth. Current presumed explanations for growth impairment in contractures focus on the dysregulation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), which differentiate and fuse to existing myofibers during growth, as this process has classically been thought to control muscle growth during the neonatal period. Here, we demonstrate in a mouse model of NBPI that denervation does not prevent myonuclear accretion and that reduction of myonuclear number has no effect on functional muscle length or contracture development, providing definitive evidence that altered myonuclear accretion is not a driver of neuromuscular contractures. In contrast, we observed elevated levels of protein degradation in NBPI muscle, and we demonstrate that contractures can be pharmacologically prevented with the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. These studies provide the first strategy to prevent neuromuscular contractures by correcting the underlying deficit in longitudinal muscle growth.
Sia Nikolaou, Alyssa A.W. Cramer, Liangjun Hu, Qingnian Goh, Douglas P. Millay, Roger Cornwall
Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and metabolism and its inhibition in mice improves insulin sensitivity, increases glucose uptake into skeletal muscle, and decreases total body fat. A recently described mammalian protein called Mss51 is significantly downregulated with myostatin inhibition. In vitro disruption of Mss51 results in increased levels of ATP, β-oxidation, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. To determine the in vivo biological function of Mss51 in mice, we disrupted the Mss51 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 and found that Mss51 KO mice have normal muscle weights and fiber-type distribution but reduced fat pads. Myofibers isolated from Mss51 KO mice showed an increased oxygen consumption rate compared to WT controls, indicating an accelerated rate of skeletal muscle metabolism. The expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation were enhanced in skeletal muscle of Mss51 KO mice compared to that of WT mice. We found that mice lacking Mss51 and challenged with a high fat diet were resistant to diet-induced weight gain, had increased whole-body glucose turnover and glycolysis rate, and increased systemic insulin sensitivity and fatty acid β-oxidation. These findings demonstrate that Mss51 modulates skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and regulates whole-body glucose and fatty acid metabolism, making it a potential target for obesity and diabetes.
Yazmin I. Rovira Gonzalez, Adam L, Moyer, Nicolas J. LeTexier, August D. Bratti, Siyuan Feng, Congshan Sun, Ting Liu, Jyothi Mula, Pankhuri Jha, Shama R. Iyer, Richard M. Lovering, Brian O'Rourke, Hye Lim Noh, Sujin Suk, Jason K. Kim, George K.E. Umanah, Kathryn R. Wagner
Abnormalities in purine availability or purinergic receptor density are commonly seen in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but the underlying mechanisms relating altered receptor function to LUTS are unknown. Here we provide extensive evidence for the reciprocal interplay of multiple receptors responding to ATP, ADP (adenosine diphosphate), and adenosine, agonists that regulate bladder function significantly. ADP stimulated P2Y12 receptors, causing bladder smooth muscle (BSM) contraction, whereas adenosine signaling through potentially newly defined A2b receptors, actively inhibited BSM purinergic contractility. The modulation of adenylyl cyclase-cAMP signaling via A2b and P2Y12 interaction actively regulated bladder contractility by modulating intracellular calcium levels. KO mice lacking the receptors display diametrically opposed bladder phenotypes, with P2Y12-KO mice exhibiting an underactive bladder (UAB) phenotype with increased bladder capacity and reduced voiding frequency, whereas A2b-KO mice have an overactive bladder (OAB), with decreased capacity and increased voiding frequency. The opposing phenotypes in P2Y12-KO and A2b-KO mice not only resulted from dysregulated BSM contractility, but also from abnormal BSM cell growth. Finally, we demonstrate that i.p. administration of drugs targeting P2Y12 or A2b receptor rescues these abnormal phenotypes in both KO mice. These findings strongly indicate that P2Y12 and A2b receptors are attractive therapeutic targets for human patients with LUTS.
Yuan Hao, Lu Wang, Huan Chen, Warren G. Hill, Simon C. Robson, Mark L. Zeidel, Weiqun Yu
Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with intramyocellular lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that in contrast to current dogma, this linkage is related to an upstream mechanism that coordinately regulates both processes. We demonstrate that the muscle-enriched transcription factor MondoA is glucose/fructose responsive in human skeletal myotubes and directs the transcription of genes in cellular metabolic pathways involved in diversion of energy substrate from a catabolic fate into nutrient storage pathways including fatty acid desaturation and elongation, triacylglyeride (TAG) biosynthesis, glycogen storage, and hexosamine biosynthesis. MondoA also reduces myocyte glucose uptake by suppressing insulin signaling. Mice with muscle-specific MondoA deficiency were partially protected from insulin resistance and muscle TAG accumulation in the context of diet-induced obesity. These results identify MondoA as a nutrient-regulated transcription factor that under normal physiological conditions serves a dynamic checkpoint function to prevent excess energy substrate flux into muscle catabolic pathways when myocyte nutrient balance is positive. However, in conditions of chronic caloric excess, this mechanism becomes persistently activated leading to progressive myocyte lipid storage and insulin resistance.
Byungyong Ahn, Shibiao Wan, Natasha Jaiswal, Rick B. Vega, Donald E. Ayer, Paul M. Titchenell, Xianlin Han, Kyoung Jae Won, Daniel P. Kelly
BACKGROUND. Physical function decreases with age, and though bioenergetic alterations contribute to this decline, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial function changes with age remains unclear. This is partially because human mitochondrial studies require highly invasive procedures, such as muscle biopsies, to obtain live tissue with functional mitochondria. However, recent studies demonstrate that circulating blood cells are potentially informative in identifying systemic bioenergetic changes. Here, we hypothesize that human platelet bioenergetics reflect bioenergetics measured in muscle biopsies. METHODS & RESULTS. We demonstrate that maximal and ATP-linked respiratory rate measured in isolated platelets from older adults (86–93 years) correlates significantly with maximal respiration (r = 0.595; P = 0.003) measured by muscle biopsy respirometry and maximal ATP production (r = 0.643; P = 0.004) measured by 31P-MRS respectively, in the same individuals. Comparison of platelet bioenergetics in this aged cohort to platelets from younger adults (18–35 years) shows aged adults demonstrate lower basal and ATP-linked respiration. Platelets from older adults also show enhanced proton leak, which is likely due to increased protein levels of uncoupling protein 2, and correlates with increased gate speed in this cohort (r = 0.58; P = 0.0019). While no significant difference in glycolysis was observed in older adults compared to younger adults, platelet glycolytic rate correlated with fatigability (r = 0.44; P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS. These data advance the mechanistic understanding of age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Further, they suggest that measuring platelet bioenergetics provides a potential supplement or surrogate for muscle biopsy measurement and may be a valuable tool to study mitochondrial involvement in age-related decline of physical function.
Andrea C. Braganza, Catherine G. Corey, Adam J. Santanasto, Giovanna Distefano, Paul M. Coen, Nancy W. Glynn, Seyed-Mehdi Nouraie, Bret H. Goodpaster, Anne B. Newman, Sruti Shiva
In the current preclinical study, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of sarcospan (SSPN) overexpression to alleviate cardiomyopathy associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) utilizing dystrophin-deficient mdx mice with utrophin haploinsufficiency that more accurately represent the severe disease course of human DMD. SSPN interacts with dystrophin, the DMD disease gene product, and its autosomal paralog utrophin, which is upregulated in DMD as a partial compensatory mechanism. SSPN transgenic mice have enhanced abundance of fully glycosylated α-dystroglycan, which may further protect dystrophin-deficient cardiac membranes. Baseline echocardiography reveals SSPN improves systolic function and hypertrophic indices in mdx and mdx:utr-heterozygous mice. Assessment of SSPN transgenic mdx mice by hemodynamic pressure-volume methods highlights enhanced systolic performance compared to mdx controls. SSPN restores cardiac sarcolemma stability, the primary defect in DMD disease, reduces fibrotic response and improves contractile function. We demonstrate that SSPN ameliorates more advanced cardiac disease in the context of diminished sarcolemma expression of utrophin and β1D integrin that mitigate disease severity and partially restores responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation. Overall, our current and previous findings suggest SSPN overexpression in DMD mouse models positively impacts skeletal, pulmonary and cardiac performance by addressing the stability of proteins at the sarcolemma that protect the heart from injury, supporting SSPN and membrane stabilization as a therapeutic target for DMD.
Michelle S. Parvatiyar, Alexandra J. Brownstein, Rosemeire M. Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Judd R. Collado, Karissa M. Dieseldorff Jones, Jay Gopal, Katherine G. Hammond, Jamie L. Marshall, Abel Ferrel, Aaron M. Beedle, Jeffrey S. Chamberlain, Jose Renato Pinto, Rachelle H. Crosbie
Nemaline myopathy is a congenital neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness, fiber atrophy and presence of nemaline bodies within myofibers. However, the understanding of underlying pathomechanisms is lacking. Recently, mutations in KBTBD13, KLHL40 and KLHL41, three substrate adaptors for the E3-ubiquitin ligase Cullin-3, have been associated with early-onset nemaline myopathies. We hypothesized that deregulation of Cullin-3 and its muscle protein substrates may be responsible for the disease development. Using Cullin-3 knockout mice, we identified accumulation of non-muscle alpha-Actinins (ACTN1 and ACTN4) in muscles of these mice, which we also observed in KBTBD13 patients. Our data reveal that proper regulation of Cullin-3 activity and ACTN1 levels is essential for normal muscle and neuromuscular junction development. While ACTN1 is naturally downregulated during myogenesis, its overexpression in C2C12 myoblasts triggered defects in fusion, myogenesis and acetylcholine receptor clustering; features that we characterized in Cullin-3 deficient mice. Taken together, our data highlight the importance for Cullin-3 mediated degradation of ACTN1 for muscle development, and indicate a new pathomechanism for the etiology of myopathies seen in Cullin-3 knockout mice and nemaline myopathy patients.
Jordan Blondelle, Kavya Tallapaka, Jane T. Seto, Majid Ghassemian, Madison Clark, Jenni M. Laitila, Adam Bournazos, Jeffrey D. Singer, Stephan Lange
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling consists of an array of successively acting kinases. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) are major components of the greater MAPK cascade that transduce growth factor signaling at the cell membrane. Here we investigated ERK1/2 signaling in skeletal muscle homeostasis and disease. Using mouse genetics, we observed that the muscle-specific expression of a constitutively active MEK1 mutant promotes greater ERK1/2 signaling that mediates fiber-type switching to a slow, oxidative phenotype with type I myosin heavy chain expression. Using a conditional and temporally regulated Cre strategy as well as Mapk1 (ERK2) and Mapk3 (ERK1) genetically targeted mice, MEK1-ERK2 signaling was shown to underlie this fast-to-slow fiber type switching in adult skeletal muscle as well as during development. Physiologic assessment of these activated MEK1-ERK1/2 mice showed enhanced metabolic activity and oxygen consumption with greater muscle fatigue resistance. Moreover, induction of MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling increased dystrophin and utrophin protein expression in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscle dystrophy and protected myofibers from damage. In summary, sustained MEK1-ERK1/2 activity in skeletal muscle produces a fast-to-slow fiber-type switch that protects from muscular dystrophy, suggesting a therapeutic approach to enhance the metabolic effectiveness of muscle and protect from dystrophic disease.
Justin G. Boyer, Vikram Prasad, Taejeong Song, Donghoon Lee, Xing Fu, Kelly M. Grimes, Michelle A. Sargent, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Jeffery D. Molkentin
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