Obesity is characterized by accumulation of adipose tissue and is one the most important risk factors in the development of insulin resistance. Carbon monoxide–releasing (CO-releasing) molecules (CO-RMs) have been reported to improve the metabolic profile of obese mice, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, we show that oral administration of CORM-401 to obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in a significant reduction in body weight gain, accompanied by a marked improvement in glucose homeostasis. We further unmasked an action we believe to be novel, by which CO accumulates in visceral adipose tissue and uncouples mitochondrial respiration in adipocytes, ultimately leading to a concomitant switch toward glycolysis. This was accompanied by enhanced systemic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, as indicated by a lower blood glucose and increased Akt phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that the transient uncoupling activity of CO elicited by repetitive administration of CORM-401 is associated with lower weight gain and increased insulin sensitivity during HFD. Thus, prototypic compounds that release CO could be investigated for developing promising insulin-sensitizing agents.
Laura Braud, Maria Pini, Lucie Muchova, Sylvie Manin, Hiroaki Kitagishi, Daigo Sawaki, Gabor Czibik, Julien Ternacle, Geneviève Derumeaux, Roberta Foresti, Roberto Motterlini
IQ motif–containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a ubiquitously expressed scaffolding protein that integrates multiple cellular processes, including motility, adhesion, and proliferation, but its role in metabolism is unknown. Here, we show that IQGAP1 is induced upon fasting and regulates β-oxidation of fatty acids and synthesis of ketone bodies in the liver. IQGAP1-null (Iqgap1–/–) mice exhibit reduced hepatic PPARα transcriptional activity, as evidenced during fasting, after ketogenic diet, and upon pharmacological activation. Conversely, we found that the activity of fed-state sensor mTORC1 is enhanced in Iqgap1–/– livers, but acute inhibition of mTOR in Iqgap1–/– mice was unable to rescue the defect in ketone body synthesis. However, reexpressing IQGAP1 in the livers of Iqgap1–/– mice was sufficient to promote ketone body synthesis, increase PPARα signaling, and suppress mTORC1 activity. Taken together, we uncover what we believe to be a previously unidentified role for IQGAP1 in regulating PPARα activity and ketogenesis.
Hanna L. Erickson, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
The most severe manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is critical limb ischemia (CLI). CLI patients suffer high rates of amputation and mortality; accordingly, there remains a clear need both to better understand CLI and to develop more effective treatments. Gastrocnemius muscle was obtained from 32 older (51–84 years) non-PAD controls, 27 claudicating PAD patients (ankle-brachial index [ABI] 0.65 ± 0.21 SD), and 19 CLI patients (ABI 0.35 ± 0.30 SD) for whole transcriptome sequencing and comprehensive mitochondrial phenotyping. Comparable permeabilized myofiber mitochondrial function was paralleled by both similar mitochondrial content and related mRNA expression profiles in non-PAD control and claudicating patient tissues. Tissues from CLI patients, despite being histologically intact and harboring equivalent mitochondrial content, presented a unique bioenergetic signature. This signature was defined by deficits in permeabilized myofiber mitochondrial function and a unique pattern of both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded gene suppression. Moreover, isolated muscle progenitor cells retained both mitochondrial functional deficits and gene suppression observed in the tissue. These findings indicate that muscle tissues from claudicating patients and non-PAD controls were similar in both their bioenergetics profile and mitochondrial phenotypes. In contrast, CLI patient limb skeletal muscles harbor a unique skeletal muscle mitochondriopathy that represents a potentially novel therapeutic site for intervention.
Terence E. Ryan, Dean J. Yamaguchi, Cameron A. Schmidt, Tonya N. Zeczycki, Saame Raza Shaikh, Patricia Brophy, Thomas D. Green, Michael D. Tarpey, Reema Karnekar, Emma J. Goldberg, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Maria J. Torres, Brian H. Annex, P. Darrell Neufer, Espen E. Spangenburg, Joseph M. McClung
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary interventions based on protein restriction (PR) reduce circulating triglycerides (TGs), but underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance remain unclear. Here, we show that 1 week of a protein-free diet without enforced calorie restriction significantly lowered circulating TGs in both lean and diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, the TG-lowering effect of PR was due, in part, to changes in very low–density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism both in liver and peripheral tissues. In the periphery, PR stimulated VLDL-TG consumption by increasing VLDL-bound APOA5 expression and promoting VLDL-TG hydrolysis and clearance from circulation. The PR-mediated increase in Apoa5 expression was controlled by the transcription factor CREBH, which coordinately regulated hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation–related genes, including Fgf21 and Ppara. The CREBH-APOA5 axis activation upon PR was intact in mice lacking the GCN2-dependent amino acid–sensing arm of the integrated stress response. However, constitutive hepatic activation of the amino acid–responsive kinase mTORC1 compromised CREBH activation, leading to blunted APOA5 expression and PR-recalcitrant hypertriglyceridemia. PR also contributed to hypotriglyceridemia by reducing the rate of VLDL-TG secretion, independently of activation of the CREBH-APOA5 axis. Finally, a randomized controlled clinical trial revealed that 4–6 weeks of reduced protein intake (7%–9% of calories) decreased VLDL particle number, increased VLDL-bound APOA5 expression, and lowered plasma TGs, consistent with mechanistic conservation of PR-mediated hypotriglyceridemia in humans with translational potential as a nutraceutical intervention for dyslipidemia.
J. Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S. Reynolds, Alexander Bartelt, P. Kent Langston, Michael R. MacArthur, Alessandro Arduini, Valeria Tosti, Nicola Veronese, Beatrice Bertozzi, Lear E. Brace, Pedro Mejia, Kaspar Trocha, Gustavo S. Kajitani, Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Rose Gathungu, Susan S. Bird, Arnold D. Bullock, Robert S. Figenshau, Gerald L. Andriole, Andrew Thompson, Jöerg Heeren, C. Keith Ozaki, Bruce S. Kristal, Luigi Fontana, James R. Mitchell
BACKGROUND. In inflammatory blood vessel diseases, macrophages represent a key component of the vascular infiltrates and are responsible for tissue injury and wall remodeling. METHODS. To examine whether inflammatory macrophages in the vessel wall display a single distinctive effector program, we compared functional profiles in patients with either coronary artery disease (CAD) or giant cell arteritis (GCA). RESULTS. Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived macrophages from the 2 patient cohorts displayed disease-specific signatures and differed fundamentally in metabolic fitness. Macrophages from CAD patients were high producers for T cell chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10), the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the immunoinhibitory ligand PD-L1. In contrast, macrophages from GCA patients upregulated production of T cell chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10) but not IL-1β and IL-6, and were distinctly low for PD-L1 expression. Notably, disease-specific effector profiles were already identifiable in circulating monocytes. The chemokinehicytokinehiPD-L1hi signature in CAD macrophages was sustained by excess uptake and breakdown of glucose, placing metabolic control upstream of inflammatory function. CONCLUSIONS. We conclude that monocytes and macrophages contribute to vascular inflammation in a disease-specific and discernible pattern, have choices to commit to different functional trajectories, are dependent on glucose availability in their immediate microenvironment, and possess memory in their lineage commitment. FUNDING. Supported by the NIH (R01 AR042527, R01 HL117913, R01 AI108906, P01 HL129941, R01 AI108891, R01 AG045779 U19 AI057266, R01 AI129191), I01 BX001669, and the Cahill Discovery Fund.
Ryu Watanabe, Marc Hilhorst, Hui Zhang, Markus Zeisbrich, Gerald J. Berry, Barbara B. Wallis, David G. Harrison, John C. Giacomini, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a product of the GJA1 gene, is a gap junction protein facilitating intercellular communication between cardiomyocytes. Cx43 protects the heart from ischemic injury by mechanisms that are not well understood. GJA1 mRNA can undergo alternative translation, generating smaller isoforms in the heart, with GJA1-20k being the most abundant. Here, we report that ischemic and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries upregulate endogenous GJA1-20k protein in the heart, which targets to cardiac mitochondria and associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane. Exploring the functional consequence of increased GJA1-20k, we found that AAV9-mediated gene transfer of GJA1-20k in mouse hearts increases mitochondrial biogenesis while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, and ROS production. By doing so, GJA1-20k promotes a protective mitochondrial phenotype, as seen with ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which also increases endogenous GJA1-20k in heart lysates and mitochondrial fractions. As a result, AAV9-GJA1-20k pretreatment reduces myocardial infarct size in mouse hearts subjected to in vivo ischemic injury or ex vivo I/R injury, similar to an IPC-induced cardioprotective effect. In conclusion, GJA1-20k is an endogenous stress response protein that induces mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic hibernation, preconditioning the heart against I/R insults. Introduction of exogenous GJA1-20k is a putative therapeutic strategy for patients undergoing anticipated ischemic injury.
Wassim A. Basheer, Ying Fu, Daisuke Shimura, Shaohua Xiao, Sosse Agvanian, Diana M. Hernandez, Tara C. Hitzeman, TingTing Hong, Robin M. Shaw
Black women, compared with White women, have high rates of whole-body insulin resistance but a lower prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. This dissociation of whole-body insulin resistance from fasting hyperglycemia may be explained by racial differences in gluconeogenesis, hepatic fat, or tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Two groups of premenopausal federally employed women, without diabetes were studied. Using stable isotope tracers, [2H2O] and [6,62-H2]glucose, basal glucose production was partitioned into its components (gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis) and basal whole-body lipolysis ([2H5]glycerol) was measured. Indices of insulin sensitivity, whole-body (SI), hepatic (HISIGPR), and adipose tissue, were calculated. Hepatic fat was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Black women had less hepatic fat and lower fractional and absolute gluconeogenesis. Whole-body SI, HISIGPR, and adipose tissue sensitivity were similar by race, but at any given level of whole-body SI, Black women had higher HISIGPR. Therefore, fasting hyperglycemia may be a less common early pathological feature of prediabetes in Black women compared with White women, because gluconeogenesis remains lower despite similar whole-body SI.
Stephanie T. Chung, Amber B. Courville, Anthony U. Onuzuruike, Mirella Galvan-De La Cruz, Lilian S. Mabundo, Christopher W. DuBose, Kannan Kasturi, Hongyi Cai, Ahmed M. Gharib, Peter J. Walter, H. Martin Garraffo, Shaji Chacko, Morey W. Haymond, Anne E. Sumner
BACKGROUND. Plasma lipidomic measures may enable improved prediction of cardiovascular outcomes in secondary prevention. The aim of this study is to determine the association of plasma lipidomic measurements with cardiovascular events and assess their potential to predict such events. METHODS. Plasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in a retrospective subcohort (n = 5,991) of the LIPID study. Proportional hazards regression was used to identify lipids associated with future cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death) and cardiovascular death. Multivariable models adding lipid species to traditional risk factors were created using lipid ranking established from the Akaike information criterion within a 5-fold cross-validation framework. The results were tested on a diabetic case cohort from the ADVANCE study (n = 3,779). RESULTS. Specific ceramide species, sphingolipids, phospholipids, and neutral lipids containing omega-6 fatty acids or odd-chain fatty acids were associated with future cardiovascular events (106 species) and cardiovascular death (139 species). The addition of 7 lipid species to a base model (11 conventional risk factors) resulted in an increase in the C-statistics from 0.629 (95% CI, 0.628–0.630) to 0.654 (95% CI, 0.653–0.656) for prediction of cardiovascular events and from 0.673 (95% CI, 0.671–0.675) to 0.727 (95% CI, 0.725–0.728) for prediction of cardiovascular death. Categorical net reclassification improvements for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death were 0.083 (95% CI, 0.081–0.086) and 0.166 (95% CI, 0.162–0.170), respectively. Evaluation on the ADVANCE case cohort demonstrated significant improvement on the base models. CONCLUSIONS. The improvement in the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes, above conventional risk factors, demonstrates the potential of plasma lipidomic profiles as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification in secondary prevention. FUNDING. Bristol-Myers Squibb, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754), and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Christopher K. Barlow, Paul J. Nestel, Elizabeth H. Barnes, Adrienne Kirby, Peter Thompson, David R. Sullivan, Zahir H. Alshehry, Natalie A. Mellett, Kevin Huynh, Kaushala S. Jayawardana, Corey Giles, Malcolm J. McConville, Sophia Zoungas, Graham S. Hillis, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Gerard Wong, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, John Simes, Andrew M. Tonkin, Peter J. Meikle, LIPID Study Investigators
When obesity is caused by consumption of a high-fat diet, the tumor suppressor pRb is phosphoinactivated in the neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus, a brain area critical for energy-balance regulation. However, the functional relevance of pRb phosphoinactivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus to diet-induced obesity remains unknown. Here, we show that inhibiting pRb phosphorylation in the mediobasal hypothalamus can prevent and treat diet-induced obesity in mice. Expressing an unphosphorylable pRb nonselectively in the mediobasal hypothalamus or conditionally in anorexigenic POMC neurons inhibits diet-induced obesity. Intracerebroventricular delivery of US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor abemaciclib inhibits pRb phosphorylation in the mediobasal hypothalamus and prevents diet-induced obesity. Oral administration of abemaciclib at doses approved for human use reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese mice by increasing lipid oxidation without significantly reducing lean mass. With analysis of recent literature identifying CDK4 as the most abundantly expressed neuronal CDK in the mediobasal hypothalamus, our work uncovers CDK4 as the major kinase for hypothalamic pRb phosphoinactivation and a highly effective central antiobesity target. As three CDK4/6 inhibitors have recently received FDA approval for life-long breast cancer therapy, our study provides a preclinical basis for their expedient repurposing for obesity management.
Niloy Jafar Iqbal, Zhonglei Lu, Shun Mei Liu, Gary J. Schwartz, Streamson Chua Jr., Liang Zhu
Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a late-onset disease caused by intracellular accumulation of polyglucosan bodies, formed due to glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE) deficiency. To find a treatment for APBD, we screened 1,700 FDA-approved compounds in fibroblasts derived from APBD-modeling GBE1-knockin mice. Capitalizing on fluorescent periodic acid–Schiff reagent, which interacts with polyglucosans in the cell, this screen discovered that the flavoring agent guaiacol can lower polyglucosans, a result also confirmed in APBD patient fibroblasts. Biochemical assays showed that guaiacol lowers basal and glucose 6-phosphate–stimulated glycogen synthase (GYS) activity. Guaiacol also increased inactivating GYS1 phosphorylation and phosphorylation of the master activator of catabolism, AMP-dependent protein kinase. Guaiacol treatment in the APBD mouse model rescued grip strength and shorter lifespan. These treatments had no adverse effects except making the mice slightly hyperglycemic, possibly due to the reduced liver glycogen levels. In addition, treatment corrected penile prolapse in aged GBE1-knockin mice. Guaiacol’s curative effects can be explained by its reduction of polyglucosans in peripheral nerve, liver, and heart, despite a short half-life of up to 60 minutes in most tissues. Our results form the basis to use guaiacol as a treatment and prepare for the clinical trials in APBD.
Or Kakhlon, Igor Ferreira, Leonardo J. Solmesky, Netaly Khazanov, Alexander Lossos, Rafael Alvarez, Deniz Yetil, Sergey Pampou, Miguel Weil, Hanoch Senderowitz, Pablo Escriba, Wyatt W. Yue, H. Orhan Akman
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