A maternal Western-style diet (WSD) is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but whether this is from the diet itself or underlying metabolic dysfunction is unknown. Here, we performed a longitudinal study using regularly cycling female rhesus macaques (n = 10) that underwent 2 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, one while consuming a low-fat diet and another 6–8 months after consuming a high-fat WSD. Metabolic data were collected from the females prior to each IVF cycle. Follicular fluid (FF) and oocytes were assessed for cytokine/steroid levels and IVF potential, respectively. Although transition to a WSD led to weight gain and increased body fat, no difference in insulin levels was observed. A significant decrease in IL-1RA concentration and the ratio of cortisol/cortisone was detected in FF after WSD intake. Despite an increased probability of isolating mature oocytes, a 44% reduction in blastocyst number was observed with WSD consumption, and time-lapse imaging revealed delayed mitotic timing and multipolar divisions. RNA sequencing of blastocysts demonstrated dysregulation of genes involved in RNA binding, protein channel activity, mitochondrial function and pluripotency versus cell differentiation after WSD consumption. Thus, short-term WSD consumption promotes a proinflammatory intrafollicular microenvironment that is associated with impaired preimplantation development in the absence of large-scale metabolic changes.
Sweta Ravisankar, Alison Y. Ting, Melinda J. Murphy, Nash Redmayne, Dorothy Wang, Carrie A. McArthur, Diana L. Takahashi, Paul Kievit, Shawn L. Chavez, Jon D. Hennebold
BACKGROUND Metabolic flexibility (MF) refers to the relative ability to utilize lipid and carbohydrate substrates and to transition between them. It is not clear whether MF is impaired in obese youth and what the determining factors are.METHODS We investigated the determinants of MF (increased respiratory exchange ratio [ΔRER] under insulin-stimulated conditions) in pubertal youth (n = 104; 15.6 ± 1.8 years) with obesity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance compared with normal weight (NW) controls, including body composition (fat-free mass [FFM], %body fat), visceral adipose fat (VAT) (MRI), glycemia, and insulin sensitivity (IS) [3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with measurement of lipolysis ([2H5] glycerol), free fatty acids (FFAs), and RER (indirect calorimetry)].RESULTS Youth with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes had lower ΔRER and oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal compared with NW, with no significant difference in ΔRER between NW and obese with normal glucose tolerance. In multiple regression analysis, ISFFM (β = 0.4, P = 0.004), percentage suppression of FFAs (r = 0.26, P = 0.007), and race/ethnicity (β = –0.23, P = 0.02) contributed to the variance in ΔRER (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001) independent of percentage body fat (or VAT), sex, Tanner stage, and hemoglobin A1c.Conclusion MF is defective at the extreme of the metabolic phenotype in obese youth with dysglycemia related to a defect in IS limiting substrate utilization.FUNDING USDA/ARS Project Number 3092-51000-057.
Fida Bacha, Sara Klinepeter Bartz, Maurice Puyau, Anne Adolph, Susan Sharma
BACKGROUND. Beige and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are associated with improved metabolic homeostasis. We recently reported that the β3AR agonist mirabegron induced beige adipose tissue in obese insulin resistant subjects, and this was accompanied by improved glucose metabolism. Here, we evaluated whether pioglitazone treatment, or the combination pioglitazone and mirabegron treatment, was more effective at inducing beige adipose or BAT than mirabegron treatment alone. Both drugs were used at FDA-approved dosages. METHODS. We measured BAT by PET CT scans, beige adipose tissue by immunohistochemistry, and comprehensively characterized glucose and lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity by euglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance tests. Subcutaneous white adipose tissue, muscle fiber type composition and capillary density, lipotoxicity, and systemic inflammation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling, mass spectroscopy, and ELISAs. RESULTS. Treatment with pioglitazone or the combination of pioglitazone and mirabegron increased beige adipose tissue protein marker expression and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, but neither treatment induced BAT in these obese subjects. When the magnitude of the responses to the treatments were evaluated, mirabegron was found to be the most effective at inducing beige adipose tissue. Although monotherapy with either mirabegron or pioglitazone induced adipose beiging, combination treatment resulted in less beiging than either alone. The three treatments also had different effects on muscle fiber type switching and capillary density. CONCLUSION. The addition of pioglitazone to mirabegron treatment does not enhance beiging or increase BAT in obese, insulin-resistant research participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02919176. FUNDING. NIH: DK112282, P20GM103527, and CTSA grant UL1TR001998.
Brian S. Finlin, Hasiyet Memetimin, Beibei Zhu, Amy L. Confides, Hemendra J. Vekaria, Riham H. El Khouli, Zachary R. Johnson, Philip M. Westgate, Jianzhong Chen, Andrew J. Morris, Patrick G. Sullivan, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Philip A. Kern
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. GLP-1 is classically produced by gut L cells; however, under certain circumstances α cells can express the prohormone convertase required for proglucagon processing to GLP-1, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), and can produce GLP-1. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly defined. Understanding the mechanisms by which α cell PC1/3 expression can be activated may reveal new targets for diabetes treatment. Here, we demonstrate that the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, liraglutide, increased α cell GLP-1 expression in a β cell GLP-1R–dependent manner. We demonstrate that this effect of liraglutide was translationally relevant in human islets through application of a new scRNA-seq technology, DART-Seq. We found that the effect of liraglutide to increase α cell PC1/3 mRNA expression occurred in a subcluster of α cells and was associated with increased expression of other β cell–like genes, which we confirmed by IHC. Finally, we found that the effect of liraglutide to increase bihormonal insulin+ glucagon+ cells was mediated by the β cell GLP-1R in mice. Together, our data validate a high-sensitivity method for scRNA-seq in human islets and identify a potentially novel GLP-1–mediated pathway regulating human α cell function.
Mridusmita Saikia, Marlena M. Holter, Leanne R. Donahue, Isaac S. Lee, Qiaonan C. Zheng, Journey L. Wise, Jenna E. Todero, Daryl J. Phuong, Darline Garibay, Reilly Coch, Kyle W. Sloop, Adolfo Garcia-Ocana, Charles G. Danko, Bethany P. Cummings
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are implicated in the crosstalk between adipocytes and other metabolic organs, and an altered biological cargo has been observed in EVs from human obese adipose tissue (AT). Yet, the role of adipocyte-derived EVs in pancreatic β-cells remains to be determined. Here, we explored the effects of EVs, released from both rodent and human isolated adipocytes and human AT explants, on survival and function of pancreatic β-cells and human pancreatic islets. EVs from healthy 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased survival and proliferation and promoted insulin secretion in INS-1E β-cells and human pancreatic islets, both untreated or exposed to cytokines or glucolipotoxicity, while EVs from inflamed adipocytes caused β-cell death and dysfunction. Human lean adipocyte-derived EVs produced similar beneficial effects, while EVs from obese AT explants were harmful for human EndoC-βH3 β-cells. We observed differential expression of microRNAs in EVs from healthy and inflamed adipocytes, as well as alteration in signaling pathways and expression of β-cell genes, adipokines and CKs in recipient β-cells. These in vitro results suggest that, depending on the physiopathological state of AT, adipocyte-derived EVs may influence β-cell fate and function.
Iacopo Gesmundo, Barbara Pardini, Eleonora Gargantini, Giacomo Gamba, Giovanni Birolo, Alessandro Fanciulli, Dana Banfi, Noemi Congiusta, Enrica Favaro, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Gabriele Togliatto, Gaia Zocaro, Maria Felice Brizzi, Raul M. Luque, Justo P. Castaño, Maria Alessandra Bocchiotti, Simone Arolfo, Stefania Bruno, Rita Nano, Mario Morino, Lorenzo Piemonti, Huy Ong, Giuseppe Matullo, Juan M. Falcón-Pérez, Ezio Ghigo, Giovanni Camussi, Riccarda Granata
To extract energy from stored lipids, fatty acids must first be liberated from triglyceride before their β-oxidation in mitochondria in a coordinated and stepwise manner. To determine the independent and interdependent roles of hepatic triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid oxidation, mice were generated with a liver-specific defect in triglyceride hydrolysis (AtglL–/–), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt2L–/–), or both (double knockout). The loss of either gene resulted in the compensatory increase in the other, demonstrating their coordination. The loss of individual components of fatty acid catabolism (carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 [Cpt2], adipose triglyceride lipase [Atgl], and Pparα) resulted in largely independent effects on hepatocyte morphology, intermediary metabolism, and gene expression in response to fasting. However, high-fat feeding revealed the interdependent role of Atgl and Cpt2, as the loss of only one of the genes resulted in steatosis (fatty liver) but the loss of both components resulted in significant steatohepatitis (inflammation and fibrosis). Lipolysis and β-oxidation are intimately linked within a continuous pathway, and disruption of their coordination leads to unique cellular and molecular phenotypes that ultimately result in liver disease.
Ebru S. Selen, Joseph Choi, Michael J. Wolfgang
Reduced expression of the plasma membrane citrate transporter INDY (acronym I’m Not Dead, Yet) extends life span in lower organisms. Deletion of the mammalian Indy (mIndy) gene in rodents improves metabolism via mechanisms akin to caloric restriction, known to lower blood pressure (BP) by sympathoadrenal inhibition. We hypothesized that mIndy deletion attenuates sympathoadrenal support of BP. Continuous arterial BP and heart rate (HR) were reduced in mINDY-KO mice. Concomitantly, urinary catecholamine content was lower, and the decreases in BP and HR by mIndy deletion were attenuated after autonomic ganglionic blockade. Catecholamine biosynthesis pathways were reduced in mINDY-KO adrenals using unbiased microarray analysis. Citrate, the main mINDY substrate, increased catecholamine content in pheochromocytoma cells, while pharmacological inhibition of citrate uptake blunted the effect. Our data suggest that deletion of mIndy reduces sympathoadrenal support of BP and HR by attenuating catecholamine biosynthesis. Deletion of mIndy recapitulates beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic responses to caloric restriction, making it an attractive therapeutic target.
Diana M. Willmes, Martin Daniels, Anica Kurzbach, Stefanie Lieske, Nicole Bechmann, Tina Schumann, Christine Henke, Nermeen N. El-Agroudy, Andrey C. Da Costa Goncalves, Mirko Peitzsch, Anja Hofmann, Waldemar Kanczkowski, Kristin Kräker, Dominik N. Müller, Henning Morawietz, Andreas Deussen, Michael Wagner, Ali El-Armouche, Stephen L. Helfand, Stephan R. Bornstein, Rafael de Cabo, Michel Bernier, Graeme Eisenhofer, Jens Tank, Jens Jordan, Andreas L. Birkenfeld
Somatostatin (SS) inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in a paracrine manner. We hypothesized that blocking somatostatin subtype receptor 2 (SSTR2) and 5 (SSTR5) would improve glycaemia by enhancing GLP-1 secretion. In the perfused mouse small intestine the selective SSTR5 antagonist (SSTR5a) stimulated glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion to a larger degree than the SSTR2 antagonist (SSTR2a). In parallel, mice lacking the SSTR5R showed increased glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion. Both antagonists improved glycaemia in vivo in a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) dependent manner, as the glycaemic improvements were absent in mice with impaired GLP-1R signalling and in mice treated with a GLP-1R specific antagonist. SSTR5a had no direct effect on insulin secretion in the perfused pancreas whereas SSTR2a increased insulin secretion in a GLP-1R independent manner. Adding a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) in vivo resulted in additive effects on glycaemia, however, when glucose was administered intraperitoneally the antagonists was incapable of lowering blood glucose. Oral administration of SSTR5a, but not SSTR2a lowered blood glucose in diet induced obese mice. In summary, we demonstrate that selective SSTR antagonists can improve glucose control primarily through the intestinal GLP-1 system in mice.
Sara L. Jepsen, Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Katrine D. Galsgaard, Jenna Elizabeth Hunt, Thomas B. Farb, Hannelouise Kissow, Jens Pedersen, Carolyn F. Deacon, Rainer E. Martin, Jens J. Holst
MC4R mutations represent the largest monogenic cause of obesity, resulting mainly from receptor misfolding and intracellular retention by the cellular quality control system. The present study aimed at determining whether pharmacological chaperones (PC) that restore folding and plasma membrane trafficking by stabilizing near native protein conformation, may represent valid therapeutic avenues for the treatment of melanocortin type 4 receptor (MC4R) linked obesity.To test the therapeutic PC potential, we engineered humanized MC4R mouse models expressing either the wild type (WT) human MC4R or a prevalent obesity-causing mutant (R165W). Administration of a PC able to rescue cell surface expression and functional activity of R165W-hMC4R in cells, restored the anorexigenic response of the R165W-hMC4R obese mice to melanocortin agonist, providing a proof-of-principle for the therapeutic potential of MC4R-targetting PC in vivo. Interestingly, the expression of the WT-hMC4R in mice revealed lower sensitivity of the human receptor to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) but not β-MSH or MTII, resulting in a lower penetrance obese phenotype in the WT-hMC4R versus R165W-hMC4R mice. In conclusion, we created two new obesity models, one hypomorph highlighting species differences, and one amorphic that provides a pre-clinical model to test the therapeutic potential of PC to treat MC4R-linked obesity.
Patricia René, Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard, Michel Bouvier
Dedifferentiation has been implicated in β cell dysfunction and loss in rodent diabetes. However, the pathophysiological significance in humans remains unclear. To elucidate this, we analyzed surgically resected pancreatic tissues of 26 Japanese subjects with diabetes and 11 nondiabetic subjects, who had been overweight during adulthood but had no family history of diabetes. The diabetic subjects were subclassified into 3 disease stage categories, early, advanced, and intermediate. Despite no numerical changes in endocrine cells immunoreactive for chromogranin A (ChgA), diabetic islets showed profound β cell loss, with an increase in α cells without an increase in insulin and glucagon double-positive cells. The proportion of dedifferentiated cells that retain ChgA immunoreactivity without 4 major islet hormones was strikingly increased in diabetic islets and rose substantially during disease progression. The increased dedifferentiated cell ratio was inversely correlated with declining C-peptide index. Moreover, a subset of islet cells converted into exocrine-like cells during disease progression. These results indicate that islet remodeling with dedifferentiation is the underlying cause of β cell failure during the course of diabetes progression in humans.
Kikuko Amo-Shiinoki, Katsuya Tanabe, Yoshinobu Hoshii, Hiroto Matsui, Risa Harano, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Ryotaro Bouchi, Tokiyo Takagi, Masayuki Hatanaka, Komei Takeda, Shigeru Okuya, Wataru Nishimura, Atsushi Kudo, Shinji Tanaka, Minoru Tanabe, Takumi Akashi, Tetsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Eiji Ikeda, Hiroaki Nagano, Yukio Tanizawa
No posts were found with this tag.