Somatostatin (SS) inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in a paracrine manner. We hypothesized that blocking somatostatin subtype receptor 2 (SSTR2) and 5 (SSTR5) would improve glycaemia by enhancing GLP-1 secretion. In the perfused mouse small intestine the selective SSTR5 antagonist (SSTR5a) stimulated glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion to a larger degree than the SSTR2 antagonist (SSTR2a). In parallel, mice lacking the SSTR5R showed increased glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion. Both antagonists improved glycaemia in vivo in a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) dependent manner, as the glycaemic improvements were absent in mice with impaired GLP-1R signalling and in mice treated with a GLP-1R specific antagonist. SSTR5a had no direct effect on insulin secretion in the perfused pancreas whereas SSTR2a increased insulin secretion in a GLP-1R independent manner. Adding a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) in vivo resulted in additive effects on glycaemia, however, when glucose was administered intraperitoneally the antagonists was incapable of lowering blood glucose. Oral administration of SSTR5a, but not SSTR2a lowered blood glucose in diet induced obese mice. In summary, we demonstrate that selective SSTR antagonists can improve glucose control primarily through the intestinal GLP-1 system in mice.
Sara L. Jepsen, Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Katrine D. Galsgaard, Jenna Elizabeth Hunt, Thomas B. Farb, Hannelouise Kissow, Jens Pedersen, Carolyn F. Deacon, Rainer E. Martin, Jens J. Holst
MC4R mutations represent the largest monogenic cause of obesity, resulting mainly from receptor misfolding and intracellular retention by the cellular quality control system. The present study aimed at determining whether pharmacological chaperones (PC) that restore folding and plasma membrane trafficking by stabilizing near native protein conformation, may represent valid therapeutic avenues for the treatment of melanocortin type 4 receptor (MC4R) linked obesity.To test the therapeutic PC potential, we engineered humanized MC4R mouse models expressing either the wild type (WT) human MC4R or a prevalent obesity-causing mutant (R165W). Administration of a PC able to rescue cell surface expression and functional activity of R165W-hMC4R in cells, restored the anorexigenic response of the R165W-hMC4R obese mice to melanocortin agonist, providing a proof-of-principle for the therapeutic potential of MC4R-targetting PC in vivo. Interestingly, the expression of the WT-hMC4R in mice revealed lower sensitivity of the human receptor to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) but not β-MSH or MTII, resulting in a lower penetrance obese phenotype in the WT-hMC4R versus R165W-hMC4R mice. In conclusion, we created two new obesity models, one hypomorph highlighting species differences, and one amorphic that provides a pre-clinical model to test the therapeutic potential of PC to treat MC4R-linked obesity.
Patricia René, Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard, Michel Bouvier
Dedifferentiation has been implicated in β cell dysfunction and loss in rodent diabetes. However, the pathophysiological significance in humans remains unclear. To elucidate this, we analyzed surgically resected pancreatic tissues of 26 Japanese subjects with diabetes and 11 nondiabetic subjects, who had been overweight during adulthood but had no family history of diabetes. The diabetic subjects were subclassified into 3 disease stage categories, early, advanced, and intermediate. Despite no numerical changes in endocrine cells immunoreactive for chromogranin A (ChgA), diabetic islets showed profound β cell loss, with an increase in α cells without an increase in insulin and glucagon double-positive cells. The proportion of dedifferentiated cells that retain ChgA immunoreactivity without 4 major islet hormones was strikingly increased in diabetic islets and rose substantially during disease progression. The increased dedifferentiated cell ratio was inversely correlated with declining C-peptide index. Moreover, a subset of islet cells converted into exocrine-like cells during disease progression. These results indicate that islet remodeling with dedifferentiation is the underlying cause of β cell failure during the course of diabetes progression in humans.
Kikuko Amo-Shiinoki, Katsuya Tanabe, Yoshinobu Hoshii, Hiroto Matsui, Risa Harano, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Ryotaro Bouchi, Tokiyo Takagi, Masayuki Hatanaka, Komei Takeda, Shigeru Okuya, Wataru Nishimura, Atsushi Kudo, Shinji Tanaka, Minoru Tanabe, Takumi Akashi, Tetsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Eiji Ikeda, Hiroaki Nagano, Yukio Tanizawa
Insulin-mediated suppression of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis is an important anabolic function that is dysregulated in states of overnutrition. However, the mechanism of short-term high-fat diet (HFD)-induced WAT insulin resistance is poorly understood. Based on our recent studies we hypothesize that a short-term HFD causes WAT insulin resistance through increases in plasma membrane (PM) sn-1,2-diacylglycerols (DAG), which promotes protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) activation to impair insulin signaling by phosphorylating insulin receptor (Insr) Thr1160. To test this hypothesis, we assessed WAT insulin action in 7-day HFD-fed versus regular chow diet-fed rats during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. HFD feeding caused WAT insulin resistance, reflected by reductions in both insulin-mediated WAT glucose uptake and suppression of WAT lipolysis. These changes were specifically associated with increased PM sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) content, increased PKCε activation and impaired insulin-stimulated InsrY1162 phosphorylation. In order to examine the role of InsrT1160 phosphorylation in mediating lipid-induced WAT insulin resistance, we examined these same parameters in short-term HFD-fed InsrT1150A knockin mice (mouse homolog for human Thr1160). Similar to the rat study HFD feeding induced WAT insulin resistance in WT control mice but failed to induce WAT insulin resistance in InsrT1150A mice. Taken together these data demonstrate that the PM sn-1,2-DAG - PKCε - InsrT1160 phosphorylation pathway plays an important role in mediating lipid-induced WAT insulin resistance and represents a potential therapeutic target to improve insulin sensitivity in WAT.
Kun Lyu, Dongyan Zhang, Joongyu D. Song, Xiruo Li, Rachel J. Perry, Varman T. Samuel, Gerald I. Shulman
Glucagon regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and also promotes weight loss. Thus, therapeutics stimulating glucagon-receptor (GCGR) signaling are promising for obesity treatment; however, the underlying mechanism(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. We previously identified that hepatic GCGR signaling increases circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21), a potent regulator of energy balance. We reported that mice deficient for liver Fgf21 are partially resistant to GCGR-mediated weight loss, implicating FGF21 as a regulator of glucagon’s weight-loss effects. FGF21 signaling requires an obligate co-receptor (B-Klotho, KLB), with expression limited to adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, and brain. We hypothesized that the GCGR-FGF21 system mediates weight loss through a central mechanism. Mice deficient for neuronal Klb (Klb∆CNS) exhibit a partial reduction in body weight with chronic GCGR-agonism (via IUB288) compared to controls (p<0.0001), supporting a role for central FGF21 signaling in GCGR-mediated weight loss. Substantiating these results, mice with central KLB inhibition via a pharmacological KLB antagonist (1153) also display partial weight loss (p<0.0001). Central KLB, however, is dispensable for GCGR-mediated improvements in plasma cholesterol and liver triglycerides. Together, these data suggest GCGR-agonism mediates part of its weight loss properties through central KLB and has implications for future treatments against obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Shelly R. Nason, Jessica P. Antipenko, Natalie Presedo, Stephen E. Cunningham, Tanya H. Pierre, Teayoun Kim, Jodi R. Paul, Cassie L. Holleman, Martin E. Young, Karen L. Gamble, Brian Finan, Richard DiMarchi, Chad S. Hunter, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Kirk M. Habegger
Computational models based on recent maps of the red blood cell proteome suggest that mature erythrocytes may harbor targets for common drugs. This prediction is relevant to red blood cell storage in the blood bank, in which the impact of small molecule drugs or other xenometabolites deriving from dietary, iatrogenic or environmental exposures (“exposome”) may alter erythrocyte energy and redox metabolism and, in so doing, affect red cell storage quality and post-transfusion efficacy. To test this prediction, here we provide a comprehensive characterization of the blood donor exposome, including the detection of common prescription and over-the-counter drugs in 250 units donated by healthy volunteers from the REDS-III RBC Omics study. Based on high-throughput drug screenings of 1,366 FDA-approved drugs, we report a significant impact of ~65% of the tested drugs on erythrocyte metabolism. Machine learning models built using metabolites as predictors were able to accurately predict drugs for several drug classes/targets (bisphosphonates, anticholinergics, calcium channel blockers, adrenergics, proton-pump inhibitors, antimetabolites, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mTOR) suggesting that these drugs have a direct, conserved, and significant impact on erythrocyte metabolism. As a proof of principle, here we show that the antiacid ranitidine – though rarely detected in the blood donor population – has a strong effect on RBC markers of storage quality in vitro. We thus show that ranitidine supplementation to blood units could improve erythrocyte metabolism and storage quality when supplemented to blood bags, through mechanisms involving sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent modulation of erythrocyte glycolysis and/or direct binding to hemoglobin.
Travis Nemkov, Davide Stefanoni, Aarash Bordbar, Aaron Issaian, Bernhard O. Palsson, Larry J. Dumont, Ariel M. Hay, Anren Song, Yang Xia, Jasmina S. Redzic, Elan Z. Eisenmesser, James C. Zimring, Steve Kleinman, Kirk C. Hansen, Michael Busch, Angelo D’Alessandro
Subjects with obesity frequently have elevated serum vasopressin levels, noted by the stable analog, copeptin. Vasopressin acts primarily to reabsorb water via urinary concentration. However, fat is also a source of metabolic water, raising the possibility that vasopressin might have a role in fat accumulation. Fructose has also been reported to stimulate vasopressin. Here we tested the hypothesis that fructose induced metabolic syndrome is mediated by vasopressin. Orally administered fructose, glucose or high fructose corn syrup increased vasopressin (copeptin) concentrations and was mediated by fructokinase, an enzyme specific for fructose metabolism. Suppressing vasopressin with hydration both prevented and ameliorated fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. The vasopressin effects were mediated by the Vasopressin 1b receptor, as Vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice were completely protected while V1a knockout paradoxically showed worse metabolic syndrome. The mechanism is likely mediated in part by de novo expression of V1b in the liver that amplifies fructokinase expression in response to fructose. Thus, our studies document a new role for vasopressin in water conservation via the accumulation of fat as a source of metabolic water. Clinically, it also suggests that increased water intake may be a beneficial way to both prevent or treat metabolic syndrome.
Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas J. Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, David J. Orlicky, Christina Cicerchi, Nanxing Li, Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez, Gabriela E. Garcia, Takuji Ishimoto, Paul S. Maclean, Petter Bjornstad, Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Mehmet Kanbay, Takahiko Nakagawa, Richard Johnson, Miguel Lanaspa
Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we show that ketogenic diet (KD) or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in an intermittent scheduling, induced T cell-dependent tumor growth retardation of aggressive tumor models. In conditions in which anti-PD-1, alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4, failed to reduce tumor growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the antitumor effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the ICB-linked upregulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells while favoring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of the gut microbiota with distinct species such as Eisenbergiella massiliensis commonly emerging in mice and humans subjected to carbohydrate low diet interventions and highly correlating with serum concentrations of 3HB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that KD induces a 3HB-mediated antineoplastic effect that relies on T-cell mediated cancer immunosurveillance.
Gladys Ferrere, Maryam Tidjani Alou, Peng Liu, Anne-Gaëlle Goubet, Marine Fidelle, Oliver Kepp, Sylvère Durand, Valerio Iebba, Aurélie Fluckiger, Romain Daillère, Cassandra Thelemaque, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Carolina Alves Costa Silva, Fanny Aprahamian, Deborah Lefevre, Liwei Zhao, Bernhard Ryffel, Emeline Colomba, Monica Arnedos, Damien Drubay, Conrad Rauber, Didier Raoult, Francesco Asnicar, Tim Spector, Nicola Segata, Lisa Derosa, Guido Kroemer, Laurence Zitvogel.
Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 are associated with a much higher mortality rate. Yet, little is known about the pathogenesis of systemic complications of COVID-19. Here, we create a murine model of SARS-CoV-2 induced severe systemic toxicity and multi-organ involvement by expressing the human ACE2 transgene in multiple tissues via viral delivery followed by systemic administration of SARS-CoV-2. The animals develop a profound phenotype within 7 days with severe weight loss, morbidity and failure to thrive. We demonstrate there is metabolic suppression of oxidative phosphorylation and the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in multiple organs with neutrophilia, lymphopenia and splenic atrophy mirroring human COVID-19 phenotypes. Animals had a significantly lower heart rate and electron microscopy demonstrated myofibrillar disarray and myocardial edema, a common pathogenic cardiac phenotype in human COVID-19. We perform metabolomic profiling of peripheral blood and identify a panel of TCA cycle metabolites that serve as biomarkers of depressed oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 induces epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, that affects expression of immune response genes and could in part contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Our model suggests that SARS-CoV-2 induced metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic changes in internal organs could contribute to systemic toxicity and lethality in COVID-19.
Shen Li, Feiyang Ma, Tomohiro Yokota, Gustavo Garcia Jr., Amelia Palermo, Yijie Wang, Colin Farrell, Yu-Chen Wang, Rimao Wu, Zhiqiang Zhou, Calvin Pan, Marco Morselli, Michael A. Teitell, Sergey Ryazantsev, Gregory A. Fishbein, Johanna ten Hoeve, Valerie A. Arboleda, Joshua Bloom, Barbara J. Dillon, Matteo Pellegrini, Aldons J. Lusis, Thomas G. Graeber, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Arjun Deb
Enhanced energy expenditure in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues can be therapeutic against metabolic diseases. We examined the thermogenic role of adipose α/β-hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6), which hydrolyzes monoacylglycerol (MAG), by employing adipose-specific ABHD6-KO mice. Control and KO mice show similar phenotype at room temperature and thermoneutral conditions. However, KO mice are resistant to hypothermia, which can be accounted for by the simultaneously increased lipolysis and lipogenesis of the thermogenic glycerolipid/free fatty acid (GL/FFA) cycle in visceral fat, despite unaltered UCP1 expression. Upon cold-stress, nuclear 2-MAG levels increase in visceral WAT of the KO mice. Evidence is provided that 2-MAG causes activation of PPARα in white adipocytes, leading to elevated expression and activity of GL/FFA cycle enzymes. In the ABHD6-ablated BAT, glucose and oxidative metabolism are elevated upon cold-induction, without changes in GL/FFA cycle and lipid turnover. Moreover, response to in vivo β3-adrenergic stimulation is comparable between KO and control mice. Our data reveal a MAG/PPARα/GL/FFA cycling metabolic signaling network in visceral adipose tissue, which contributes to cold-tolerance, and that adipose ABHD6 is a negative modulator of adaptive thermogenesis.
Pegah Poursharifi, Camille Attané, Yves Mugabo, Anfal Al-Mass, Anindya Ghosh, Clémence Schmitt, Shangang Zhao, Julian Guida, Roxane Lussier, Heidi Erb, Isabelle Chenier, Marie-Line Peyot, Erik Joly, Christophe Noll, André C. Carpentier, S.R. Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
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