The satiety effects and metabolic actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets in obesity for decades. We identified a potentially novel Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl–) current (CaCC) that is induced by CCK in intestinal vagal afferents of nodose neurons. The CaCC subunit Anoctamin 2 (Ano2/TMEM16B) is the dominant contributor to this current. Its expression is reduced, as is CCK current activity in obese mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Reduced expression of TMEM16B in the heterozygote KO of the channel in sensory neurons results in an obese phenotype with a loss of CCK sensitivity in intestinal nodose neurons, a loss of CCK-induced satiety, and metabolic changes, including decreased energy expenditure. The effect on energy expenditure is further supported by evidence in rats showing that CCK enhances sympathetic nerve activity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, and these effects are abrogated by a HFD and vagotomy. Our findings reveal that Ano2/TMEM16B is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in vagal afferents of nodose neurons and a major determinant of CCK-induced satiety, body weight control, and energy expenditure, making it a potential therapeutic target in obesity.
Runping Wang, Yongjun Lu, Michael Z. Cicha, Madhu V. Singh, Christopher J. Benson, Christopher J. Madden, Mark W. Chapleau, François M. Abboud
Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 induces glycosuria and reduces glycemia. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce mortality and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, improved understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating these metabolic effects is required. Treatment of obese but nondiabetic mice with the SGLT2i canagliflozin (CANA) reduces adiposity, improves glucose tolerance despite reduced plasma insulin, increases plasma ketones, and improves plasma lipid profiles. Utilizing an integrated transcriptomic-metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that CANA modulates key nutrient-sensing pathways, with activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), independent of insulin or glucagon sensitivity or signaling. Moreover, CANA induces transcriptional reprogramming to activate catabolic pathways, increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerol content, and increase hepatic and plasma levels of FGF21. Given that these phenotypes mirror the effects of FGF21 to promote lipid oxidation, ketogenesis, and reduction in adiposity, we hypothesized that FGF21 is required for CANA action. Using FGF21-null mice, we demonstrate that FGF21 is not required for SGLT2i-mediated induction of lipid oxidation and ketogenesis but is required for reduction in fat mass and activation of lipolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SGLT2 inhibition triggers a fasting-like transcriptional and metabolic paradigm but requires FGF21 for reduction in adiposity.
Soravis Osataphan, Chiara Macchi, Garima Singhal, Jeremy Chimene-Weiss, Vicencia Sales, Chisayo Kozuka, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Hui Pan, Yanin Tangcharoenpaisan, Jordan Morningstar, Robert Gerszten, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
BACKGROUND. The relation between the menopause transition (MT) and changes in body composition or weight remains uncertain. We hypothesized that, independent of chronological aging, the MT would have a detrimental influence on body composition. METHODS. Participants were from the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) cohort. We assessed body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable mixed effects regressions fitted piece-wise linear models to repeated measures of outcomes as a function of time before or after the final menstrual period (FMP). Covariates were age at FMP, race, study site, and hormone therapy. RESULTS. Fat and lean mass increased prior to the MT. At the start of the MT, rate of fat gain doubled, and lean mass declined; gains and losses continued until 2 years after the FMP. After that, the trajectories of fat and lean mass decelerated to zero slope. Weight climbed linearly during premenopause without acceleration at the MT. Its trajectory became flat after the MT. CONCLUSION. Accelerated gains in fat mass and losses of lean mass are MT-related phenomena. The rate of increase in the sum of fat mass and lean mass does not differ between premenopause and the MT; thus, there is no discernable change in rate of weight gain at the start of the MT. FUNDING. NIH, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), through the National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Nursing Research, and NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health (U01NR004061, U01AG012505, U01AG012535, U01AG012531, U01AG012539, U01AG012546, U01AG012553, U01AG012554, and U01AG012495).
Gail A. Greendale, Barbara Sternfeld, MeiHua Huang, Weijuan Han, Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez, Kristine Ruppert, Jane A. Cauley, Joel S. Finkelstein, Sheng-Fang Jiang, Arun S. Karlamangla
Peripheral hyperinsulinemia resulting from subcutaneous insulin injection is associated with metabolic defects which include abnormal glucose metabolism. The first aim of this study was to quantify the impairments in liver and muscle glucose metabolism that occur when insulin is delivered via a peripheral vein compared to when it is given through its endogenous secretory route (the hepatic portal vein) in overnight fasted conscious dogs. The second aim was to determine if peripheral delivery of a hepato-preferential insulin analog could restore the physiologic response to insulin that occurs under meal feeding conditions. This study is the first to show that hepatic glucose uptake correlates with insulin’s direct effects on the liver under hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic conditions. In addition, glucose uptake was equally divided between the liver and muscle when insulin was infused into the portal vein, but when it was delivered into a peripheral vein the percentage of glucose taken up by muscle was 4-times greater than that going to the liver, with liver glucose uptake being less than half of normal. These defects could not be corrected by adjusting the dose of peripheral insulin. On the other hand, hepatic and non-hepatic glucose metabolism could be fully normalized by a hepato-preferential insulin analog.
Dale S. Edgerton, Melanie Scott, Ben Farmer, Phillip E. Williams, Peter Madsen, Thomas Kjeldsen, Christian L. Brand, Christian Fledelius, Erica Nishimura, Alan D. Cherrington
Diabetes mellitus is associated with various disorders of the locomotor system including the decline in mass and function of skeletal muscle. The mechanism underlying this association has remained ambiguous, however. We now show that the abundance of the transcription factor KLF15 as well as the expression of genes related to muscle atrophy are increased in skeletal muscle of diabetic model mice, and that mice with muscle-specific KLF15 deficiency are protected from the diabetes-induced decline of skeletal muscle mass. Hyperglycemia was found to upregulate the KLF15 protein in skeletal muscle of diabetic animals, which is achieved via downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 and consequent suppression of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of KLF15. Our results revealed that hyperglycemia, a central disorder in diabetes, promotes muscle atrophy via a WWP1/KLF15 pathway. This pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for decline in skeletal muscle mass accompanied by diabetes mellitus.
Yu Hirata, Kazuhiro Nomura, Yoko Senga, Yuko Okada, Kenta Kobayashi, Shiki Okamoto, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Michihiro Imamura, Shin’ichi Takeda, Tetsuya Hosooka, Wataru Ogawa
Bariatric surgeries including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) ameliorate obesity and diabetes. Weight-loss and accompanying increases to insulin sensitivity contribute to improved glycemia after surgery, however, studies in humans also suggest weight-independent actions of bariatric procedures to lower blood glucose, possibly by improving insulin secretion. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared VSG operated mice with pair-fed, sham-surgical controls (PF-Sham) 2 weeks after surgery. This paradigm yielded similar post-operative body weight and insulin sensitivity between VSG and calorically restricted PF-Sham animals. However, VSG improved glucose tolerance and markedly enhanced insulin secretion during oral nutrient and intraperitoneal glucose challenges compared to controls. Islets from VSG mice displayed a unique transcriptional signature enriched for genes involved in Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion pathways. This finding suggests that bariatric surgery leads to intrinsic changes within the islet that alter function. Indeed, islets isolated from VSG mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a left-shifted glucose sensitivity curve compared to islets from PF-Sham mice. Isolated islets from VSG animals showed corresponding increases in the pulse duration of glucose-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. Together these findings demonstrate a weight-independent improvement in glycemic control following VSG, which is, in part, driven by improved insulin secretion and associated with substantial changes in islet gene expression. These results support a model in which β-cells play a key role in the adaptation to bariatric surgery and the improved glucose tolerance that is typical of these procedures.
Jonathan D. Douros, Jingjing Niu, Sophia M. Sdao, Trillian Gregg, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Manish S. Bharadwaj, Anthony Molina, Ramamani Arumugam, Mackenzie D. Martin, Enrico Petretto, Matthew J. Merrins, Mark A. Herman, Jenny Tong, Jonathan E. Campbell, David D'Alessio
Quetiapine, one of the most prescribed atypical antipsychotics, has been associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we identified quetiapine as a potent and selective agonist for pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key nuclear receptor that regulates xenobiotic metabolism in the liver and intestine. Recent studies have indicated that PXR also plays an important role in lipid homeostasis. We generated potentially novel tissue-specific PXR-KO mice and demonstrated that quetiapine induced hyperlipidemia by activating intestinal PXR signaling. Quetiapine-mediated PXR activation stimulated the intestinal expression of cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), leading to increased intestinal lipid absorption. While NPC1L1 is a known PXR target gene, we identified a DR-1–type PXR-response element in the MTP promoter and established MTP as a potentially novel transcriptional target of PXR. Quetiapine’s effects on PXR-mediated gene expression and cholesterol uptake were also confirmed in cultured murine enteroids and human intestinal cells. Our findings suggest a potential role of PXR in mediating adverse effects of quetiapine in humans and provide mechanistic insights for certain atypical antipsychotic-associated dyslipidemia.
Zhaojie Meng, Taesik Gwag, Yipeng Sui, Se-Hyung Park, Xiangping Zhou, Changcheng Zhou
Intronic polymorphisms in the α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase gene (FTO) that are highly associated with increased body weight have been implicated in the transcriptional control of a nearby ciliary gene, retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L). Previous studies have shown that congenital Rpgrip1l hypomorphism in murine proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons causes obesity by increasing food intake. Here, we show by congenital and adult-onset Rpgrip1l deletion in Pomc-expressing neurons that the hyperphagia and obesity are likely due to neurodevelopmental effects that are characterized by a reduction in the Pomc/Neuropeptide Y (Npy) neuronal number ratio and marked increases in arcuate hypothalamic–paraventricular hypothalamic (ARH-PVH) axonal projections. Biallelic RPGRIP1L mutations result in fewer cilia-positive human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC-derived) neurons and blunted responses to Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). Isogenic human ARH-like embryonic stem cell–derived (ESc-derived) neurons homozygous for the obesity-risk alleles at rs8050136 or rs1421085 have decreased RPGRIP1L expression and have lower numbers of POMC neurons. RPGRIP1L overexpression increases POMC cell number. These findings suggest that apparently functional intronic polymorphisms affect hypothalamic RPGRIP1L expression and impact development of POMC neurons and their derivatives, leading to hyperphagia and increased adiposity.
Liheng Wang, Alain J. De Solis, Yossef Goffer, Kathryn E. Birkenbach, Staci E. Engle, Ross Tanis, Jacob M. Levenson, Xueting Li, Richard Rausch, Manika Purohit, Jen-Yi Lee, Jerica Tan, Maria Caterina De Rosa, Claudia A. Doege, Holly L. Aaron, Gabriela J. Martins, Jens C. Brüning, Dieter Egli, Rui Costa, Nicolas Berbari, Rudolph L. Leibel, George Stratigopoulos
Paracrine interactions between pancreatic islet cells have been proposed as a mechanism to regulate hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate the importance of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs) for α- to β-cell communication and control of insulin secretion. Signaling through this system occurs through both the glucagon-like peptide receptor (Glp1r) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr). Loss of PGDPs, or blockade of their receptors, decreases insulin secretion in response to both metabolic and non-metabolic stimulation of mouse and human islets. This effect is due to reduced β-cell cAMP and affects the quantity but not dynamics of insulin release, indicating that PGDPs dictate the magnitude of insulin output in an isolated islet. In healthy mice, additional factors that stimulate cAMP can compensate for loss of PGDP signaling; however, input from α-cells is essential to maintain glucose tolerance during the metabolic stress induced by high-fat feeding. These findings demonstrate an essential role for α-cell regulation of β-cells, raising the possibility that abnormal paracrine signaling contributes to impaired insulin secretion in diabetes. Moreover, these findings support reconsideration of the role for α-cells in postprandial glucose control.
Megan E. Capozzi, Berit Svendsen, Sara E. Encisco, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Mackenzie D. Martin, Haopeng Lin, Justin L. Jaffe, Reilly W. Coch, Jonathan M. Haldeman, Patrick E. MacDonald, Matthew J. Merrins, David A. D'Alessio, Jonathan E. Campbell
Abnormal activation of neddylation modification and dysregulated energy metabolism are frequently seen in many types of cancer cells. Whether and how neddylation modification affects cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of neddylation modification, induces mitochondrial fission-to-fusion conversion in breast cancer cells via inhibiting ubiquitylation and degradation of fusion-promoting protein mitofusin (MFN1) by SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase and blocking the mitochondrial translocation of fusion-inhibiting protein DRP1. Importantly, MLN4924-induced mitochondrial fusion is independent of cell cycle progression, but confers cellular survival. The Mass-Spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and mitochondrial functional assays reveal that MLN4924 inhibits TCA cycle, but promotes mitochondrial OXPHOS. MLN4924 also increases glycolysis by activating PKM2 via promoting its tetramerization. Biologically, MLN4924 coupled with OXPHOS inhibitor metformin, or glycolysis inhibitor shikonin, significantly inhibits cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Together, our study links neddylation modification and energy metabolism, and provides sound strategies for effective combinational cancer therapies.
Qiyin Zhou, Hua Li, Yuanyuan Li, Mingjia Tan, Shaohua Fan, Cong Cao, Feilong Meng, Ling Zhu, Lili Zhao, Min-Xin Guan, Hongchuan Jin, Yi Sun
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