Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal precursor cells that demonstrate tissue-specific properties. In this study, by comparing human adipose and periosteal-derived pericyte microarrays, we identified TIAM1 as a key regulator of cell morphology and differentiation decisions. TIAM1 represents a tissue-specific determinant between predispositions for adipocytic versus osteoblastic differentiation in human pericytes. TIAM1 overexpression promotes an adipogenic phenotype, whereas its downregulation amplifies osteogenic differentiation. These results were replicated in vivo xenograft animal model, in which TIAM1 misexpression altered bone or adipose tissue generation in an intramuscular xenograft animal model. Changes in pericyte differentiation potential induced by TIAM1 misexpression correlated with actin organization and altered cytoskeletal morphology. Small molecule inhibitors of either Rac1 or RhoA/ROCK signaling reversed TIAM1-induced morphology and differentiation in pericytes. Finally, pericytes within calcified vessels demonstrated decreased TIAM1 expression in the diseased area compared to the healthy tissue. In summary, our results demonstrate that TIAM1 regulates the cellular morphology and differentiation potential of human pericytes, representing a molecular switch between osteogenic and adipogenic cell fates.
Ginny Ching-Yun Hsu, Yiyun Wang, Amy Z. Lu, Mario A. Gomez-Salazar, Jiajia Xu, Dongqing Li, Carolyn Meyers, Stefano Negri, Sintawat Wangsiricharoen, Kristen P. Broderick, Bruno Peault, Carol D. Morris, Aaron W. James
The intake of dietary phosphate far exceeds recommended levels however the long-term health consequences remain relatively unknown. Here, the chronic physiological response to sustained elevated and reduced dietary phosphate consumption was investigated in mice. Although serum phosphate levels were brought into homeostatic balance, the prolonged intake of a high-phosphate diet dramatically and negatively impacted bone volume, generated a sustained increase in the phosphate responsive circulating factors, FGF23, PTH, osteopontin and osteocalcin, and produced a chronic low grade inflammatory state in the bone marrow, marked by increased numbers of T cells expressing IL-17a, RANKL, and TNFα. In contrast, a low-phosphate diet preserved trabecular bone while increasing cortical bone volume over time and reduced inflammatory T cell populations. Cell-based studies identified a direct response of T cells to elevated extracellular phosphate. Neutralizing antibodies to pro-osteoclastic cytokines RANKL, TNFα, and IL-17a blunted the high-phosphate diet induced bone loss identifying bone resorption as a regulatory mechanism. Collectively, this study illuminates that habitual consumption of a high-phosphate diet in mice induces chronic inflammation in bone even in the absence of elevated serum phosphate. Further, the study supports the concept that a reduced phosphate diet may be a simple, yet effective strategy to reduce inflammation and improve bone health during aging
Joseph L. Roberts, Mingcan Yu, Manjula Viggeswarapu, Jamie L. Arnst, Roberto Pacifici, George R. Beck
Glycolysis is central to homeostasis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in the avascular intervertebral disc. Since the glucose importer, GLUT1, is a highly enriched phenotypic marker of NP cells, we hypothesized that it is vital for the development and post-natal maintenance of the disc. Surprisingly, primary NP cells treated with two well-characterized GLUT1 inhibitors maintained normal rates of glycolysis and ATP production, indicating intrinsic compensatory mechanisms. We show in vitro that NP cells mitigate GLUT1 loss by rewiring glucose import through GLUT3. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that substrates, such as glutamine and palmitate, do not compensate for glucose restriction resulting from dual inhibition of GLUT1/3 and inhibition compromises long-term cell viability. To investigate the redundancy of GLUT1 function in NP, we generated two NP-specific knockout mice: Krt19CreERT; Glut1f/f and Foxa2Cre; Glut1f/f. Noteworthy, there were no apparent defects in post-natal disc health or development and maturation in mutant mice. Microarray analysis confirmed that GLUT1 loss did not cause transcriptomic alterations in the NP, supporting that cells are refractory to GLUT1 loss. These observations provide the first evidence of functional redundancy in GLUT transporters in the physiologically hypoxic intervertebral disc and underscore the importance of glucose as the indispensable substrate for NP cells.
Shira N. Johnston, Elizabeth S. Silagi, Vedavathi Madhu, Duc H. Nguyen, Irving M. Shapiro, Makarand V. Risbud
Hypothalamic neurons regulate body homeostasis by sensing and integrating changes in the levels of key hormones and primary nutrients (amino acids, glucose, and lipids). However, the molecular mechanisms that enable hypothalamic neurons to detect primary nutrients remain elusive. Here, we identified L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in hypothalamic leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing neurons as being important for systemic energy and bone homeostasis. We observed LAT1-dependent amino acid uptake in the hypothalamus, which was compromised in a mouse model of obesity and diabetes. Mice lacking LAT1 (encoded by Slc7a5) in LepR-expressing neurons exhibited obesity-related phenotypes and higher bone mass. Slc7a5 deficiency caused sympathetic dysfunction and leptin insensitivity in LepR-expressing neurons before obesity onset. Importantly, restoring Slc7a5 expression selectively in LepR-expressing ventromedial hypothalamus neurons rescued energy and bone homeostasis in mice deficient for Slc7a5 in LepR-expressing cells. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) was found to be a crucial mediator of LAT1-dependent regulation of energy and bone homeostasis. These results suggest that the LAT1–mTORC1 axis in LepR-expressing neurons controls energy and bone homeostasis by fine-tuning sympathetic outflow, thus providing in vivo evidence of the implications of amino acid sensing by hypothalamic neurons in body homeostasis.
Gyujin Park, Kazuya Fukasawa, Tetsuhiro Horie, Yusuke Masuo, Yuka Inaba, Takanori Tatsuno, Takanori Yamada, Kazuya Tokumura, Sayuki Iwahashi, Takashi Iezaki, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Yukio Kato, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Michihiro Mieda, Tomohiro Tanaka, Kazuma Ogawa, Hiroki Ochi, Shingo Sato, Yun-Bo Shi, Hiroshi Inoue, Hojoon Lee, Eiichi Hinoi
TGF-β signaling is crucial for modulating osteoarthritis (OA), and protein phosphatase magnesium–dependent 1A (PPM1A) has been reported as a phosphatase of SMAD2 and regulates TGF-β signaling, while the role of PPM1A in cartilage homeostasis and OA development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we found increased PPM1A expression in OA chondrocytes and confirmed the interaction between PPM1A and phospho-SMAD2 (p-SMAD2). Importantly, our data show that PPM1A KO substantially protected mice treated with destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) surgery against cartilage degeneration and subchondral sclerosis. Additionally, PPM1A ablation reduced the cartilage catabolism and cell apoptosis after the DMM operation. Moreover, p-SMAD2 expression in chondrocytes from KO mice was higher than that in WT controls with DMM induction. However, intraarticular injection with SD-208, repressing TGF-β/SMAD2 signaling, dramatically abolished protective phenotypes in PPM1A-KO mice. Finally, a specific pharmacologic PPM1A inhibitor, Sanguinarine chloride (SC) or BC-21, was able to ameliorate OA severity in C57BL/6J mice. In summary, our study identified PPM1A as a pivotal regulator of cartilage homeostasis and demonstrated that PPM1A inhibition attenuates OA progression via regulating TGF-β/SMAD2 signaling in chondrocytes and provided PPM1A as a potential target for OA treatment.
Qinwen Ge, Zhenyu Shi, Kai-ao Zou, Jun Ying, Jiali Chen, Wenhua Yuan, Weidong Wang, Luwei Xiao, Xia Lin, Di Chen, Xin-Hua Feng, Ping-er Wang, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
The energetic costs of bone formation require osteoblasts to coordinate their activities with tissues, like adipose, that can supply energy-dense macronutrients. In the case of intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment (PTH), a strategy used to reduce fracture risk, bone formation is proceeded by a change in systemic lipid homeostasis. To investigate the requirement for fatty acid oxidation by osteoblasts during PTH-induced bone formation, we subjected mice with osteoblast-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain β-oxidation as well as mice with adipocyte-specific deficiency for the PTH receptor or adipose triglyceride lipase to an anabolic treatment regime. PTH increased the release of fatty acids from adipocytes and B-oxidation by osteoblasts, while the genetic mouse models were resistant to the hormone’s anabolic effect. Collectively, these data suggest that PTH’s anabolic actions requires coordinated signaling between bone and adipose, wherein a lipolytic response liberates fatty acids that are oxidized by osteoblasts to fuel bone formation
Nathalie Alekos, Priyanka Kushwaha, Soohyun Kim, Zhu Li, Abdullah Abood, Naomi Dirckx, Susan Aja, Joe Kodama, Jean Garcia-Diaz, Satoru Otsuru, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Michael J. Wolfgang, Ryan C. Riddle
Bone metastases are a common complication of breast cancer. We have demonstrated that intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) reduces the incidence of bone metastases in murine models of breast cancer by acting on osteoblasts to alter the bone microenvironment. Here, we examined the role of PTH receptor (PTH1R)-mediated signaling in both osteoblasts and breast cancer cells in influencing bone metastases. In mice with impaired PTH1R signaling in osteoblasts, intermittent PTH did not reduce bone metastasis. Intermittent PTH also failed to reduce bone metastasis when expression of PTH1R was knocked down in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells by shRNA. In 4T1 breast cancer cells, PTH decreased expression of PTH-related protein (PTHrP), implicated in the vicious cycle of bone metastases. Knockdown of PTHrP in 4T1 cells significantly reduced migration towards MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and migration was further inhibited by treatment with intermittent PTH. Conversely, overexpression of PTHrP in 4T1 cells increased migration towards MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and this was not inhibited by PTH. In conclusion, PTH1R expression is crucial in both osteoblasts and breast cancer cells for PTH to reduce bone metastases and in breast cancer cells this may be mediated in part by suppression of PTHrP.
Srilatha Swami, Hui Zhu, Aria Nisco, Takaharu Kimura, Matthew J. Kim, Vaisakh Nair, Joy Y. Wu
Antibiotic-induced shifts in the indigenous gut microbiota influence normal skeletal maturation. Current theory implies that gut microbiota actions on bone occur through a direct gut-bone signaling axis. However, our prior work supports that a gut-liver signaling axis contributes to gut microbiota effects on bone. Purpose was to investigate the effects of minocycline, a systemic antibiotic treatment for adolescent acne, on pubertal/post-pubertal skeletal maturation. Sex-matched specific-pathogen-free(SPF) and germ-free(GF) C57BL/6T mice were administered a clinically relevant minocycline dose from age 6-12 weeks. Minocycline caused dysbiotic shifts in the gut bacteriome and impaired skeletal maturation in SPF mice, but did not alter the skeletal phenotype in GF mice. Minocycline administration in SPF mice disrupted the intestinal farnesoid X receptor(FXR)-fibroblast growth factor 15(FGF15) axis, a gut-liver endocrine axis supporting systemic bile acid homeostasis. Minocycline-treated SPF mice had increased serum conjugated bile acids that are FXR antagonists, suppressed osteoblast function, decreased bone mass, impaired bone microarchitecture and fracture resistance. Stimulating osteoblasts with the serum bile acid profile from minocycline-treated SPF mice recapitulated the suppressed osteogenic phenotype found in vivo, which was mediated through attenuated FXR-signaling. This work introduces bile acids as a novel mediator of gut-liver signaling actions contributing to gut microbiota effects on bone.
Matthew D. Carson, Amy J. Warner, Jessica D. Hathaway-Schrader, Vincenza L. Geiser, Joseph D. Kim, Joy E. Gerasco, William D. Hill, John J. Lemasters, Alexander V. Alekseyenko, Yongren Wu, Hai Yao, Jose I. Aguirre, Caroline Westwater, Chad M. Novince
The central physiological role of the bone marrow renders the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) particularly sensitive to aging. With bone aging, BMSCs acquire a differentiation potential bias in favor of adipogenesis over osteogenesis, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the factors underlying age-related changes in the bone marrow, and their roles in BMSCs differentiation. Antibody array revealed that C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) accumulation occurred in the serum of naturally aged mice along with bone aging phenotypes, including bone loss, bone marrow adiposity, and imbalanced BMSCs differentiation. In vivo Ccl3 deletion could rescue these phenotypes in aged mice. CCL3 improved the adipogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs, with a positive feedback loop between CCL3 and C/EBPα. CCL3 activated C/EBPα expression via STAT3, while C/EBPα activated CCL3 expression through direct promoter binding, facilitated by DNA hypo-methylation. Moreover, CCL3 inhibited BMSCs osteogenic differentiation potential by blocking β-catenin activity mediated by ERK-activated DKK-1 upregulation. Blocking CCL3 in vivo via neutralization antibodies ameliorated trabecular bone loss and bone marrow adiposity in aged mice. This study provides insights regarding age-related bone loss and bone marrow adiposity pathogenesis, and lays a foundation for the identification of new targets for senile osteoporosis treatment.
Degang Yu, Shuhong Zhang, Chao Ma, Sen Huang, Long Xu, Jun Liang, Huiwu Li, Qiming Fan, Guangwang Liu, Zanjing Zhai
BACKGROUND The effects of insulin resistance on bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear.METHODS In Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) participants, we used multivariable regression to test average insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and rate of change in insulin resistance as predictors of rate of change in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in 3 stages: premenopause (n = 861), menopause transition (MT) (n = 571), and postmenopause (n = 693). Models controlled for age, average BW, change in BW, cigarette use, race and ethnicity, and study site.RESULTS The relation between HOMA-IR and BMD decline was biphasic. When average log2HOMA-IR was less than 1.5, greater HOMA-IR was associated with slower BMD decline; i.e., each doubling of average HOMA-IR in premenopause was associated with a 0.0032 (P = 0.01, LS) and 0.0041 (P = 0.004, FN) g/cm2 per year slower BMD loss. When greater than or equal to 1.5, average log2HOMA-IR was not associated with BMD change. In women in whom HOMA-IR decreased in premenopause, the association between the HOMA-IR change rate and BMD change rate was positive; i.e, slower HOMA-IR decline was associated with slower BMD loss. In women in whom insulin resistance increased in premenopause, the association was negative; i.e, faster HOMA-IR rise was associated with faster BMD decline. Associations of average HOMA-IR and HOMA-IR change rate with BMD change rate were similar in postmenopause, but weaker during the MT.CONCLUSION When it decreases, insulin resistance is associated with BMD preservation; when it increases, insulin resistance is associated with BMD loss.FUNDING The SWAN has grant support from the NIH of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) through the NIH National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), and Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) (grants U01NR004061, U01AG012505, U01AG012535, U01AG012531, U01AG012539, U01AG012546, U01AG012553, U01AG012554, U01AG012495, and U19AG063720).
Albert Shieh, Gail A. Greendale, Jane A. Cauley, Preethi Srikanthan, Arun S. Karlamangla
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