ORM1-like 3 (ORMDL3) has strong genetic linkage to childhood onset asthma. To determine whether ORMDL3 selective expression in airway smooth muscle (ASM) influences ASM function, we used Cre-loxP techniques to generate transgenic mice (hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre), which express human ORMDL3 selectively in smooth muscle cells. In vitro studies of ASM cells isolated from the bronchi of hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice demonstrated that they developed hypertrophy (quantitated by FACS and image analysis), developed hyperplasia (assessed by BrdU incorporation), and expressed increased levels of tropomysin proteins TPM1 and TPM4. siRNA knockdown of TPM1 or TPM4 demonstrated their importance to ORMDL3-mediated ASM proliferation but not hypertrophy. In addition, ASM derived from hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice had increased contractility to histamine in vitro, which was associated with increased levels of intracellular Ca2+; increased cell surface membrane Orai1 Ca2+ channels, which mediate influx of Ca2+ into the cytoplasm; and increased expression of ASM contractile genes sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2b and smooth muscle 22. In vivo studies of hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice demonstrated that they had a spontaneous increase in ASM and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). ORMDL3 expression in ASM thus induces changes in ASM (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, increased contractility), which may explain the contribution of ORMDL3 to the development of AHR in childhood onset asthma, which is highly linked to ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q12-21.
Alexa K. Pham, Marina Miller, Peter Rosenthal, Sudipta Das, Ning Weng, Sunghoon Jang, Richard C. Kurten, Jana Badrani, Taylor A. Doherty, Brian Oliver, David H. Broide
Chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction play a key role in the development of non-AIDS–related comorbidities. The aim of our study was to characterize the functional phenotype of immune cells in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We enrolled a cross-sectional cohort study of PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and healthy controls. We assessed ex vivo cytokine production capacity and transcriptomics of monocytes and T cells upon bacterial, fungal, and viral stimulation. PLHIV exhibited an exacerbated proinflammatory profile in monocyte-derived cytokines, but not in lymphocyte-derived cytokines. Particularly, the production of the IL-1β to imiquimod, E. coli LPS, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased, and this production correlated with plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble CD14. This increase in monocyte responsiveness remained stable over time in subsequent blood sampling after more than 1 year. Transcriptome analyses confirmed priming of the monocyte IL-1β pathway, consistent with a monocyte-trained immunity phenotype. Increased plasma concentrations of β-glucan, a well-known inducer of trained immunity, were associated with increased innate cytokine responses. Monocytes of PLHIV exhibited a sustained proinflammatory immune phenotype with priming of the IL-1β pathway. Training of the innate immune system in PLHIV likely plays a role in long-term HIV complications and provides a promising therapeutic target for inflammation-related comorbidities.
Wouter A. van der Heijden, Lisa Van de Wijer, Farid Keramati, Wim Trypsteen, Sofie Rutsaert, Rob ter Horst, Martin Jaeger, Hans J.P.M. Koenen, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Irma Joosten, Paul E. Verweij, Jan van Lunzen, Charles A. Dinarello, Leo A.B. Joosten, Linos Vandekerckhove, Mihai G. Netea, André J.A.M. van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Gene replacement for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with micro-dystrophins has entered clinical trials, but efficacy in preventing heart failure is unknown. Although most patients with DMD die from heart failure, cardiomyopathy is undetectable until the teens, so efficacy from trials in young boys will be unknown for a decade. Available DMD animal models were sufficient to demonstrate micro-dystrophin efficacy on earlier onset skeletal muscle pathology underlying loss of ambulation and respiratory insufficiency in patients. However, no mouse models progressed into heart failure, and dog models showed highly variable progression insufficient to evaluate efficacy of micro-dystrophin or other therapies on DMD heart failure. To overcome this barrier, we have generated the first DMD mouse model to our knowledge that reproducibly progresses into heart failure. This model shows cardiac inflammation and fibrosis occur prior to reduced function. Fibrosis does not continue to accumulate, but inflammation persists after function declines. We used this model to test micro-dystrophin gene therapy efficacy on heart failure prevention for the first time. Micro-dystrophin prevented declines in cardiac function and prohibited onset of inflammation and fibrosis. This model will allow identification of committed pathogenic steps to heart failure and testing of genetic and nongenetic therapies to optimize cardiac care for patients with DMD.
Zachary M. Howard, Lisa E. Dorn, Jeovanna Lowe, Megan D. Gertzen, Pierce Ciccone, Neha Rastogi, Guy L. Odom, Federica Accornero, Jeffrey S. Chamberlain, Jill A. Rafael-Fortney
There are approximately 44,000 cases of human papillomavirus–associated (HPV-associated) cancer each year in the United States, most commonly caused by HPV types 16 and 18. Prophylactic vaccines successfully prevent healthy people from acquiring HPV infections via HPV-specific antibodies. In order to treat established HPV-associated malignancies, however, new therapies are necessary. Multiple recombinant gorilla adenovirus HPV vaccine constructs were evaluated in NSG-β2m–/– peripheral blood mononuclear cell–humanized mice bearing SiHa, a human HPV16+ cervical tumor, and/or in the syngeneic HPV16+ TC-1 model. PRGN-2009 is a therapeutic gorilla adenovirus HPV vaccine containing multiple cytotoxic T cell epitopes of the viral oncoproteins HPV 16/18 E6 and E7, including T cell enhancer agonist epitopes. PRGN-2009 treatment reduced tumor volume and increased CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of humanized mice bearing the human cervical tumor SiHa. PRGN-2009 monotherapy in the syngeneic TC-1 model also reduced tumor volumes and weights, generated high levels of HPV16 E6–specific T cells, and increased multifunctional CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. These studies provide the first evaluation to our knowledge of a therapeutic gorilla adenovirus HPV vaccine, PRGN-2009, showing promising preclinical antitumor efficacy and induction of HPV-specific T cells, along with the rationale for its evaluation in clinical trials.
Samuel T. Pellom, Claire Smalley Rumfield, Y. Maurice Morillon II, Nicholas Roller, Lisa K. Poppe, Douglas E. Brough, Helen Sabzevari, Jeffrey Schlom, Caroline Jochems
The increased incidence of whooping cough worldwide suggests that current vaccination against Bordetella pertussis infection has limitations in quality and duration of protection. The resurgence of infection has been linked to the introduction of acellular vaccines (aP), which have an improved safety profile compared with the previously used whole-cell (wP) vaccines. To determine immunological differences between aP and wP priming in infancy, we performed a systems approach of the immune response to booster vaccination. Transcriptomic, proteomic, cytometric, and serologic profiling revealed multiple shared immune responses with different kinetics across cohorts, including an increase of blood monocyte frequencies and strong antigen-specific IgG responses. Additionally, we found a prominent subset of aP-primed individuals (30%) with a strong differential signature, including higher levels of expression for CCL3, NFKBIA, and ICAM1. Contrary to the wP individuals, this subset displayed increased PT-specific IgE responses after boost and higher antigen-specific IgG4 and IgG3 antibodies against FHA and FIM2/3 at baseline and after boost. Overall, the results show that, while broad immune response patterns to Tdap boost overlap between aP- and wP-primed individuals, a subset of aP-primed individuals present a divergent response. These findings provide candidate targets to study the causes and correlates of waning immunity after aP vaccination.
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Ferran Soldevila, Mikhail Pomaznoy, Mariana Babor, Jason Bennett, Yuan Tian, Natalie Khalil, Yu Qian, Aishwarya Mandava, Richard H. Scheuermann, Mario Cortese, Bali Pulendran, Christopher D. Petro, Adrienne P. Gilkes, Lisa A. Purcell, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
Liver regeneration is critical to survival after traumatic injuries, exposure to hepatotoxins, or surgical interventions, yet the underlying signaling and metabolic pathways remain unclear. In this study, we show that hepatocyte-specific loss of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 drastically impairs regeneration and worsens mitochondrial function after partial hepatectomy. Sirtuins, including SIRT3, require NAD as a cosubstrate. We previously showed that the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) promotes liver regeneration, but whether this involves sirtuins has not been tested. Here, we show that despite their NAD dependence and critical roles in regeneration, neither SIRT3 nor its nuclear counterpart SIRT1 is required for NR to enhance liver regeneration. NR improves mitochondrial respiration in regenerating WT or mutant livers and rapidly increases oxygen consumption and glucose output in cultured hepatocytes. Our data support a direct enhancement of mitochondrial redox metabolism as the mechanism mediating improved liver regeneration after NAD supplementation and exclude signaling via SIRT1 and SIRT3. Therefore, we provide the first evidence to our knowledge for an essential role for a mitochondrial sirtuin during liver regeneration and insight into the beneficial effects of NR.
Sarmistha Mukherjee, James Mo, Lauren M. Paolella, Caroline E. Perry, Jade Toth, Mindy M. Hugo, Qingwei Chu, Qian Tong, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Joseph A. Baur
To identify small molecules that shield mammalian sensory hair cells from the ototoxic side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics, 10,240 compounds were initially screened in zebrafish larvae, selecting for those that protected lateral-line hair cells against neomycin and gentamicin. When the 64 hits from this screen were retested in mouse cochlear cultures, 8 protected outer hair cells (OHCs) from gentamicin in vitro without causing hair-bundle damage. These 8 hits shared structural features and blocked, to varying degrees, the OHC’s mechano-electrical transducer (MET) channel, a route of aminoglycoside entry into hair cells. Further characterization of one of the strongest MET channel blockers, UoS-7692, revealed it additionally protected against kanamycin and tobramycin and did not abrogate the bactericidal activity of gentamicin. UoS-7692 behaved, like the aminoglycosides, as a permeant blocker of the MET channel; significantly reduced gentamicin–Texas red loading into OHCs; and preserved lateral-line function in neomycin-treated zebrafish. Transtympanic injection of UoS-7692 protected mouse OHCs from furosemide/kanamycin exposure in vivo and partially preserved hearing. The results confirmed the hair-cell MET channel as a viable target for the identification of compounds that protect the cochlea from aminoglycosides and provide a series of hit compounds that will inform the design of future otoprotectants.
Emma J. Kenyon, Nerissa K. Kirkwood, Siân R. Kitcher, Richard J. Goodyear, Marco Derudas, Daire M. Cantillon, Sarah Baxendale, Antonio de la Vega de León, Virginia N. Mahieu, Richard T. Osgood, Charlotte Donald Wilson, James C. Bull, Simon J. Waddell, Tanya T. Whitfield, Simon E. Ward, Corné J. Kros, Guy P. Richardson
Vaccine delivery technologies are mainly designed to minimally invasively deliver vaccines to target tissues with little or no adjuvant effects. This study presents a prototype laser-based powder delivery (LPD) with inherent adjuvant effects for more immunogenic vaccination without incorporation of external adjuvants. LPD takes advantage of aesthetic ablative fractional laser to generate skin microchannels to support high-efficient vaccine delivery and at the same time creates photothermal stress in microchannel-surrounding tissues to boost vaccination. LPD could significantly enhance pandemic influenza 2009 H1N1 vaccine immunogenicity and protective efficacy as compared with needle-based intradermal delivery in murine models. The ablative fractional laser was found to induce host DNA release, activate NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome, and stimulate IL-1β release despite their dispensability for laser adjuvant effects. Instead, the ablative fractional laser activated MyD88 to mediate its adjuvant effects by potentiation of antigen uptake, maturation, and migration of dendritic cells. LPD also induced minimal local or systemic adverse reactions due to the microfractional and sustained vaccine delivery. Our data support the development of self-adjuvanted vaccine delivery technologies by intentional induction of well-controlled tissue stress to alert innate immune systems for more immunogenic vaccination.
Zhuofan Li, Yan Cao, Yibo Li, Yiwen Zhao, Xinyuan Chen
Both innate and adaptive immune cells are critical players in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β cells in type 1 diabetes. However, the early pathogenic events triggering the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells in islets remain obscure. Here we show that circulating fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) level was significantly elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes and their first-degree relatives and positively correlated with the titers of several islet autoantibodies. In nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, increased FABP4 expression in islet macrophages started from the neonatal period, well before the occurrence of overt diabetes. Furthermore, the spontaneous development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice was markedly reduced by pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of FABP4 or adoptive transfer of FABP4-deficient bone marrow cells. Mechanistically, FABP4 activated innate immune responses in islets by enhancing the infiltration and polarization of macrophages to proinflammatory M1 subtype, thus creating an inflammatory milieu required for activation of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells and shift of CD4+ helper T cells toward Th1 subtypes. These findings demonstrate FABP4 as a possible early mediator for β cell autoimmunity by facilitating crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune cells, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diabetes.
Yang Xiao, Lingling Shu, Xiaoping Wu, Yang Liu, Lai Yee Cheong, Boya Liao, Xiaoyu Xiao, Ruby L.C. Hoo, Zhiguang Zhou, Aimin Xu
Here, we report on the identification of Itga7-expressing muscle-resident glial cells activated by loss of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity. Gene expression analysis at the bulk and single-cell level revealed that these cells are distinct from Itga7-expressing muscle satellite cells. We show that a selective activation and expansion of Itga7+ glial cells occur in response to muscle nerve lesion. Upon activation, muscle glial–derived progenies expressed neurotrophic genes, including nerve growth factor receptor, which enables their isolation by FACS. We show that activated muscle glial cells also expressed genes potentially implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling at NMJs. We found that tenascin C, which was highly expressed by muscle glial cells, activated upon nerve injury and preferentially localized to NMJ. Interestingly, we observed that the activation of muscle glial cells by acute nerve injury was reversible upon NMJ repair. By contrast, in a mouse model of ALS, in which NMJ degeneration is progressive, muscle glial cells steadily increased over the course of the disease. However, they exhibited an impaired neurotrophic activity, suggesting that pathogenic activation of glial cells may be implicated in ALS progression.
Daisy Proietti, Lorenzo Giordani, Marco De Bardi, Chiara D’Ercole, Biliana Lozanoska-Ochser, Susanna Amadio, Cinzia Volonté, Sara Marinelli, Antoine Muchir, Marina Bouché, Giovanna Borsellino, Alessandra Sacco, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Luca Madaro
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