Limitations in cell proliferation are important for normal function of differentiated tissues and essential for the safety of cell replacement products made from pluripotent stem cells, which have unlimited proliferative potential. To evaluate whether these limitations can be established pharmacologically, we exposed pancreatic progenitors differentiating from human pluripotent stem cells to small molecules that interfere with cell cycle progression either by inducing G1 arrest or by impairing S phase entry or S phase completion and determined growth potential, differentiation, and function of insulin-producing endocrine cells. We found that the combination of G1 arrest with a compromised ability to complete DNA replication promoted the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells toward insulin-producing cells and could substitute for endocrine differentiation factors. Reduced replication fork speed during differentiation improved the stability of insulin expression, and the resulting cells protected mice from diabetes without the formation of cystic growths. The proliferative potential of grafts was proportional to the reduction of replication fork speed during pancreatic differentiation. Therefore, a compromised ability to enter and complete S phase is a functionally important property of pancreatic endocrine differentiation, can be achieved by reducing replication fork speed, and is an important determinant of cell-intrinsic limitations of growth.
Lina Sui, Yurong Xin, Qian Du, Daniela Georgieva, Giacomo Diedenhofen, Leena Haataja, Qi Su, Michael V. Zuccaro, Jinrang Kim, Jiayu Fu, Yuan Xing, Yi He, Danielle Baum, Robin S. Goland, Yong Wang, Jose Oberholzer, Fabrizio Barbetti, Peter Arvan, Sandra Kleiner, Dieter Egli
TAK-243 is a first-in-class inhibitor of ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 that catalyzes ubiquitin activation, the first step in the ubiquitylation cascade. Based on its preclinical efficacy and tolerability, TAK-243 has been advanced to phase I clinical trials in advanced malignancies. Nonetheless, the determinants of TAK-243 sensitivity remain largely unknown. Here, we conducted a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in the presence of TAK-243 to identify genes essential for TAK-243 action. We identified BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3), a transcriptional repressor and a regulator of chromatin organization, as the top gene whose knockout confers resistance to TAK-243 in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of BEND3 dampened TAK-243 effects on ubiquitylation, proteotoxic stress, and DNA damage response. BEND3 knockout upregulated the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) and reduced the intracellular levelsof TAK-243. TAK-243 sensitivity correlated with BCRP expression in cancer cell lines of different origins. Moreover, chemical inhibition and genetic knockdown of BCRP sensitized intrinsically resistant high-BCRP cells to TAK-243. Thus, our data demonstrate that BEND3 regulates the expression of BCRP for which TAK-243 is a substrate. Moreover, BCRP expression could serve as a predictor of TAK-243 sensitivity.
Samir H. Barghout, Ahmed Aman, Kazem Nouri, Zachary Blatman, Karen Arevalo, Geethu E. Thomas, Neil MacLean, Rose Hurren, Troy Ketela, Mehakpreet Saini, Moustafa Abohawya, Taira Kiyota, Rima Al-Awar, Aaron D. Schimmer
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are implicated in the crosstalk between adipocytes and other metabolic organs, and an altered biological cargo has been observed in EVs from human obese adipose tissue (AT). Yet, the role of adipocyte-derived EVs in pancreatic β cells remains to be determined. Here, we explored the effects of EVs released from adipocytes isolated from both rodents and humans and human AT explants on survival and function of pancreatic β cells and human pancreatic islets. EVs from healthy 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased survival and proliferation and promoted insulin secretion in INS-1E β cells and human pancreatic islets, both those untreated or exposed to cytokines or glucolipotoxicity, whereas EVs from inflamed adipocytes caused β cell death and dysfunction. Human lean adipocyte-derived EVs produced similar beneficial effects, whereas EVs from obese AT explants were harmful for human EndoC-βH3 β cells. We observed differential expression of miRNAs in EVs from healthy and inflamed adipocytes, as well as alteration in signaling pathways and expression of β cell genes, adipokines, and cytokines in recipient β cells. These in vitro results suggest that, depending on the physiopathological state of AT, adipocyte-derived EVs may influence β cell fate and function.
Iacopo Gesmundo, Barbara Pardini, Eleonora Gargantini, Giacomo Gamba, Giovanni Birolo, Alessandro Fanciulli, Dana Banfi, Noemi Congiusta, Enrica Favaro, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Gabriele Togliatto, Gaia Zocaro, Maria Felice Brizzi, Raul M. Luque, Justo P. Castaño, Maria Alessandra Bocchiotti, Simone Arolfo, Stefania Bruno, Rita Nano, Mario Morino, Lorenzo Piemonti, Huy Ong, Giuseppe Matullo, Juan M. Falcón-Pérez, Ezio Ghigo, Giovanni Camussi, Riccarda Granata
Preterm birth increases the risk for pulmonary hypertension and heart failure in adulthood. Oxygen therapy can damage the immature cardiopulmonary system and may be partially responsible for the cardiovascular disease in adults born preterm. We previously showed that exposing newborn mice to hyperoxia causes pulmonary hypertension by 1 year of age that is preceded by a poorly understood loss of pulmonary vein cardiomyocyte proliferation. We now show that hyperoxia also reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival in the left atrium and causes diastolic heart failure by disrupting its filling of the left ventricle. Transcriptomic profiling showed that neonatal hyperoxia permanently suppressed fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1), and other fatty acid synthesis genes in the atria of mice, the HL-1 line of mouse atrial cardiomyocytes, and left atrial tissue explanted from human infants. Suppressing Fasn or Scd1 reduced HL-1 cell proliferation and increased cell death, while overexpressing these genes maintained their expansion in hyperoxia, suggesting that oxygen directly inhibits atrial cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival by repressing Fasn and Scd1. Pharmacologic interventions that restore Fasn, Scd1, and other fatty acid synthesis genes in atrial cardiomyocytes may, thus, provide a way of ameliorating the adverse effects of supplemental oxygen on preterm infants.
Ethan David Cohen, Min Yee, George A. Porter Jr., Erin Ritzer, Andrew N. McDavid, Paul S. Brookes, Gloria S. Pryhuber, Michael A. O’Reilly
The impact of respiratory virus infections on global health is felt not just during a pandemic, but endemic seasonal infections pose an equal and ongoing risk of severe disease. Moreover, vaccines and antiviral drugs are not always effective or available for many respiratory viruses. We investigated how induction of effective and appropriate antigen-independent innate immunity in the upper airways can prevent the spread of respiratory virus infection to the vulnerable lower airways. Activation of TLR2, when restricted to the nasal turbinates, resulted in prompt induction of innate immune–driven antiviral responses through action of cytokines, chemokines, and cellular activity in the upper but not the lower airways. We have defined how nasal epithelial cells and recruitment of macrophages work in concert and play pivotal roles to limit progression of influenza virus to the lungs and sustain protection for up to 7 days. These results reveal underlying mechanisms of how control of viral infection in the upper airways can occur and support the implementation of strategies that can activate TLR2 in nasal passages to provide rapid protection, especially for at-risk populations, against severe respiratory infection when vaccines and antiviral drugs are not always effective or available.
Georgia Deliyannis, Chinn Yi Wong, Hayley A. McQuilten, Annabell Bachem, Michele Clarke, Xiaoxiao Jia, Kylie Horrocks, Weiguang Zeng, Jason Girkin, Nichollas E. Scott, Sarah L. Londrigan, Patrick C. Reading, Nathan W. Bartlett, Katherine Kedzierska, Lorena E. Brown, Francesca Mercuri, Christophe Demaison, David C. Jackson, Brendon Y. Chua
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening degenerative vascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is implicated in AAA. Our group recently demonstrated that Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, at least partially through inhibition of EC inflammatory activation. However, the functions of endothelial KLF11 in AAA remain unknown. Here we found that endothelial KLF11 expression was reduced in the ECs from human aneurysms and was time dependently decreased in the aneurysmal endothelium from both elastase- and Pcsk9/AngII-induced AAA mouse models. KLF11 deficiency in ECs markedly aggravated AAA formation, whereas EC-selective KLF11 overexpression markedly inhibited AAA formation. Mechanistically, KLF11 not only inhibited the EC inflammatory response but also diminished MMP9 expression and activity and reduced NADPH oxidase 2–mediated production of reactive oxygen species in ECs. In addition, KLF11-deficient ECs induced smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation and apoptosis. Overall, we established endothelial KLF11 as a potentially novel factor protecting against AAA and a potential target for intervention in aortic aneurysms.
Guizhen Zhao, Ziyi Chang, Yang Zhao, Yanhong Guo, Haocheng Lu, Wenying Liang, Oren Rom, Huilun Wang, Jinjian Sun, Tianqing Zhu, Yanbo Fan, Lin Chang, Bo Yang, Minerva T. Garcia-Barrio, Y. Eugene Chen, Jifeng Zhang
Limitations of checkpoint inhibitor cancer immunotherapy include induction of autoimmune syndromes and resistance of many cancers. Since CD318, a novel CD6 ligand, is associated with the aggressiveness and metastatic potential of human cancers, we tested the effect of an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, UMCD6, on killing of cancer cells by human lymphocytes. UMCD6 augmented killing of breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells through direct effects on both CD8+ T cells and NK cells, increasing cancer cell death and lowering cancer cell survival in vitro more robustly than monoclonal antibody checkpoint inhibitors that interrupt the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis. UMCD6 also augmented in vivo killing by human peripheral blood lymphocytes of a human breast cancer line xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. Mechanistically, UMCD6 upregulated the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and downregulated expression of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A on both NK cells and CD8+ T cells, with concurrent increases in perforin and granzyme B production. The combined capability of an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody to control autoimmunity through effects on CD4+ lymphocyte differentiation while enhancing killing of cancer cells through distinct effects on CD8+ and NK cells opens a potential new approach to cancer immunotherapy that would suppress rather than instigate autoimmunity.
Jeffrey H. Ruth, Mikel Gurrea-Rubio, Kalana S. Athukorala, Stephanie M. Rasmussen, Daniel P. Weber, Peggy M. Randon, Rosemary J. Gedert, Matthew E. Lind, M. Asif Amin, Phillip L. Campbell, Pei-Suen Tsou, Yang Mao-Draayer, Qi Wu, Thomas M. Lanigan, Venkateshwar G. Keshamouni, Nora G. Singer, Feng Lin, David A. Fox
Agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy in combination with chemotherapy (chemoimmunotherapy) shows promise for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). To gain insight into immunological mechanisms of response and resistance to chemoimmunotherapy, we analyzed blood samples from patients (n = 22) with advanced PDA treated with an anti-CD40 mAb (CP-870,893) in combination with gemcitabine. We found a stereotyped cellular response to chemoimmunotherapy characterized by transient B cell, CD56+CD11c+HLA-DR+CD141+ cell, and monocyte depletion and CD4+ T cell activation. However, these cellular pharmacodynamics did not associate with outcomes. In contrast, we identified an inflammatory network in the peripheral blood consisting of neutrophils, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8), and acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A) that was associated with outcomes. Furthermore, monocytes from patients with elevated plasma IL-6 and IL-8 showed distinct transcriptional profiles, including upregulation of CCR2 and GAS6, genes associated with regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis and response to inflammation. Patients with systemic inflammation, defined by neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) greater than 3.1, had a shorter median overall survival (5.8 vs. 12.3 months) as compared with patients with NLR less than 3.1. Taken together, our findings identify systemic inflammation as a potential resistance mechanism to a CD40-based chemoimmunotherapy and suggest biomarkers for future studies.
Max M. Wattenberg, Veronica M. Herrera, Michael A. Giannone, Whitney L. Gladney, Erica L. Carpenter, Gregory L. Beatty
The molecular mechanisms that underlie the detrimental effects of particulate matter (PM) on skin barrier function are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of PM2.5 on filaggrin (FLG) and skin barrier function were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The levels of FLG degradation products, including pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, urocanic acid (UCA), and cis/trans-UCA, were significantly decreased in skin tape stripping samples of study subjects when they moved from Denver, an area with low PM2.5, to Seoul, an area with high PM2.5 count. Experimentally, PM2.5 collected in Seoul inhibited FLG, loricrin, keratin-1, desmocollin-1, and corneodesmosin but did not modulate involucrin or claudin-1 in keratinocyte cultures. Moreover, FLG protein expression was inhibited in human skin equivalents and murine skin treated with PM2.5. We demonstrate that this process was mediated by PM2.5-induced TNF-α and was aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent. PM2.5 exposure compromised skin barrier function, resulting in increased transepidermal water loss, and enhanced the penetration of FITC-dextran in organotypic and mouse skin. PM2.5-induced TNF-α caused FLG deficiency in the skin and subsequently induced skin barrier dysfunction. Compromised skin barrier due to PM2.5 exposure may contribute to the development and the exacerbation of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis.
Byung Eui Kim, Jihyun Kim, Elena Goleva, Evgeny Berdyshev, Jinyoung Lee, Kathryn A. Vang, Un Ha Lee, SongYi Han, Susan Leung, Clifton F. Hall, Na-Rae Kim, Irina Bronova, Eu Jin Lee, Hye-Ran Yang, Donald Y.M. Leung, Kangmo Ahn
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to trabecular meshwork (TM) damage is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Myocilin mutations resulting in elevated IOP are the most common genetic causes of POAG. We have previously shown that mutant myocilin accumulates in the ER and induces chronic ER stress, leading to TM damage and IOP elevation. However, it is not understood how chronic ER stress leads to TM dysfunction and loss. Here, we report that mutant myocilin activated autophagy but was functionally impaired in cultured human TM cells and in a mouse model of myocilin-associated POAG (Tg-MYOCY437H). Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy worsened mutant myocilin accumulation and exacerbated IOP elevation in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Remarkably, impaired autophagy was associated with chronic ER stress–induced transcriptional factor CHOP. Deletion of CHOP corrected impaired autophagy, enhanced recognition and degradation of mutant myocilin by autophagy, and reduced glaucoma in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Stimulating autophagic flux via tat-beclin 1 peptide or torin 2 promoted autophagic degradation of mutant myocilin and reduced elevated IOP in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Our study provides an alternate treatment strategy for myocilin-associated POAG by correcting impaired autophagy in the TM.
Ramesh B. Kasetti, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Charles Kiehlbauch, Shruti Patil, Charles C. Searby, Beth Levine, Val C. Sheffield, Gulab S. Zode
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