A terminally differentiated cellular phenotype is thought to be maintained, at least in part, by both active and repressive histone marks. However, it is unclear whether regenerating cells after injury need to replicate such epigenetic marks to recover. To test whether renal epithelial cell regeneration is dependent on histone H3K4 methylation, we generated a mouse model that deleted the Paxip1 gene in mature renal proximal tubules. Paxip1 encodes PTIP, an essential protein in the Mll3/4 histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex. Mice with PTIP deletions in the adult kidney proximal tubules were viable and fertile. Upon acute kidney injury, such mice failed to regenerate damaged tubules, leading to scarring and interstitial fibrosis. The inability to repair damage was likely due to a failure to reenter mitosis and reactivate regulatory genes such as Sox9. PTIP deletion reduced histone H3K4 methylation in uninjured adult kidneys but did not significantly affect function or the expression of epithelial specific markers. Strikingly, cell lineage tracing revealed that surviving PTIP mutant cells could alter their phenotype and lose epithelial markers. These data demonstrate that PTIP and associated MLL3/4-mediated histone methylation are needed for regenerating proximal tubules and to maintain or reestablish the cellular epithelial phenotype.
Abdul Soofi, Ana P. Kutschat, Mohammad Azam, Ann M. Laszczyk, Gregory R. Dressler
Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that co-circulate in tropical regions and constitute major threats to global human health. Whether preexisting immunity to one virus affects disease caused by the other during primary or secondary infections is unknown but is critical in preparing for future outbreaks and predicting vaccine safety. Using a human skin explant model, we show that DENV-3 immune sera increased recruitment and infection of Langerhans cells, macrophages, and dermal dendritic cells following inoculation with DENV-2 or ZIKV. Similarly, ZIKV immune sera enhanced infection with DENV-2. Immune sera increased migration of infected Langerhans cells to the dermis and emigration of infected cells out of skin. Heterotypic immune sera increased viral RNA in the dermis almost 10-fold and reduced the amount of virus required to infect a majority of myeloid cells by 100- to 1000-fold. Enhancement was associated with cross-reactive IgG and induction of IL-10 expression and was mediated by both CD32 and CD64 Fcγ receptors. These findings reveal that preexisting heterotypic immunity greatly enhances DENV and ZIKV infection, replication, and spread in human skin. This relevant tissue model will be valuable in assessing the efficacy and risk of dengue and Zika vaccines in humans.
Priscila M. S. Castanha, Geza Erdos, Simon C. Watkins, Louis D. Falo Jr., Ernesto T. A. Marques, Simon M. Barratt-Boyes
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are characterized by muscle inflammation and weakness, myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs), and extramuscular organ damage. The role of neutrophil dysregulation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in IIM is unclear. We assessed whether pathogenic neutrophil subsets (low-density granulocytes [LDGs]) and NETs were elevated in IIM, associated with clinical presentation and MSAs, and their effect on skeletal myoblasts and myotubes. Circulating NETs and LDGs were quantified and correlated with clinical measures. Specific MSAs were tested for their ability to induce NETs. NETs and neutrophil gene expression were measured in IIM biopsies. Whether NETs damage skeletal myoblasts and myotubes was tested. Circulating LDGs and NETs were increased in IIM. IIM LDGs had an enhanced ability to form NETs. LDGs and NETs correlated with IIM disease activity and muscle damage. The serum MSA anti-MDA5 correlated with circulating and tissue NETs and directly enhanced NET formation. An enhanced neutrophil gene signature was present in IIM muscle and associated with muscle injury and tissue IFN gene signatures. IIM NETs decreased the viability of myotubes in a citrullinated histone-dependent manner. Dysregulated neutrophil pathways may play pathogenic roles in IIM through their ability to directly injure muscle cells and other affected tissues.
Nickie Seto, Jose Jiram Torres-Ruiz, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Katherine Pak, Monica M. Purmalek, Yuji Hosono, Catia Fernandes-Cerqueira, Prateek Gowda, Nathan Arnett, Alexander Gorbach, Olivier Benveniste, Diana Gómez-Martín, Albert Selva-O’Callaghan, José C. Milisenda, Josep M. Grau-Junyent, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Frederick W. Miller, Ingrid E. Lundberg, J. Michelle Kahlenberg, Adam I. Schiffenbauer, Andrew Mammen, Lisa G. Rider, Mariana J. Kaplan
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor α (IL-3Rα) is the α subunit of the ligand-specific IL-3R and initiates intracellular signaling in response to IL-3. IL-3 amplifies proinflammatory signaling and cytokine storm in murine sepsis models. Here we found that RNFT2 (RING finger transmembrane-domain containing protein 2, also TMEM118), a previously uncharacterized RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase, negatively regulated IL-3–dependent cellular responses through IL-3Rα ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome. In vitro, IL-3 stimulation promoted IL-3Rα proteasomal degradation dependent on RNFT2, and we identified IL-3Rα lysine 357 as a ubiquitin acceptor site. We determined that LPS priming reduces RNFT2 abundance, extends IL-3Rα half-life, and sensitizes cells to the effects of IL-3, acting synergistically to increase proinflammatory signaling. In vivo, IL-3 synergized with LPS to exacerbate lung inflammation in LPS and Pseudomonas aeruginosa–challenged mice; conversely, IL-3 neutralization reduced LPS-induced lung injury. Further, RNFT2 overexpression reduced lung inflammation and injury, whereas Rnft2 knockdown exacerbated inflammatory responses in LPS-induced murine lung injury. Last, we examined RNFT2 and IL-3Rα in human lung explants from patients with cystic fibrosis and also showed that IL-3 is elevated in mechanically ventilated critically ill humans at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. These results identify RNFT2 as a negative regulator of IL-3Rα and show a potential role for the RNFT2/IL-3Rα/IL-3 axis in regulating innate immune responses in the lung.
Yao Tong, Travis B. Lear, John Evankovich, Yanwen Chen, James D. Londino, Michael M. Myerburg, Yingze Zhang, Iulia D. Popescu, John F. McDyer, Bryan J. McVerry, Karina C. Lockwood, Michael J. Jurczak, Yuan Liu, Bill B. Chen
Chronic sympathoexcitation is implicated in ventricular arrhythmogenesis (VAs) following myocardial infarction (MI), but the critical neural pathways involved are not well understood. Cardiac adrenergic function is partly regulated by sympathetic afferent reflexes, transduced by spinal afferent fibers expressing the transient receptor potential cation subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) channel. The role of chronic TRPV1 afferent signaling in VAs is not known. We hypothesized that persistent TRPV1 afferent neurotransmission promotes VAs after MI. Using epicardial resiniferatoxin (RTX) to deplete cardiac TRPV1–expressing fibers, we dissected the role of this neural circuit in VAs after chronic MI in a porcine model. We examined the underlying mechanisms using molecular approaches, IHC, in vitro and in vivo cardiac electrophysiology, and simultaneous cardioneural mapping. Epicardial RTX depleted cardiac TRPV1 afferent fibers and abolished functional responses to TRPV1 agonists. Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) was readily inducible in MI subjects by programmed electrical stimulation or cesium chloride administration; however, TRPV1 afferent depletion prevented VT/VF induced by either method. Mechanistically, TRPV1 afferent depletion did not alter cardiomyocyte action potentials and calcium transients, the expression of ion channels, or calcium handling proteins. However, it attenuated fibrosis and mitigated electrical instability in the scar border zone. In vivo recordings of cardiovascular-related stellate ganglion neurons (SGNs) revealed that MI enhances SGN function and disrupts integrated neural processing. Depleting TRPV1 afferents normalized these processes. Taken together, these data indicate that, after MI, TRPV1 afferent–induced adrenergic dysfunction promotes fibrosis and adverse cardiac remodeling, and it worsens border zone electrical heterogeneity, resulting in electrically unstable ventricular myocardium. We propose targeting TRPV1-expressing afferent to reduce VT/VF following MI.
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S. Rajendran, Louis Massoud, Janki Mistry, M. Amer Swid, Xiaohui Wu, Tamer Sallam, Rui Zhang, Joshua I. Goldhaber, Siamak Salavatian, Olujimi A. Ajijola
Recovery from measles results in life-long protective immunity. To understand induction of long-term immunity, rhesus macaques were studied for 6 months after infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV). Infection caused viremia and rash, with clearance of infectious virus by day 14. MeV RNA persisted in PBMCs for 30–90 days and in lymphoid tissue for 6 months most often in B cells but was rarely detected in BM. Antibody with neutralizing activity and binding specificity for MeV nucleocapsid (N), hemagglutinin (H), and fusion proteins appeared with the rash and avidity matured over 3–4 months. Lymph nodes had increasing numbers of MeV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and germinal centers with late hyalinization. ASCs appeared in circulation with the rash and continued to appear along with peripheral T follicular helper cells for the study duration. ASCs in lymph nodes and PBMCs produced antibody against both H and N, with more H-specific ASCs in BM. During days 14–21, 20- to 100-fold more total ASCs than MeV-specific ASCs appeared in circulation, suggesting mobilization of preexisting ASCs. Therefore, persistence of MeV RNA in lymphoid tissue was accompanied by continued germinal center formation, ASC production, avidity maturation, and accumulation of H-specific ASCs in BM to sustain neutralizing antibody and protective immunity.
Ashley N. Nelson, Wen-Hsuan W. Lin, Rupak Shivakoti, Nicole E. Putnam, Lisa Mangus, Robert J. Adams, Debra Hauer, Victoria K. Baxter, Diane E. Griffin
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread and important mechanism in regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of the 3′ UTR cleavage and polyadenylation represents a common characteristic among many disease states, including lung fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the role of mammalian cleavage factor I–mediated (CFIm-mediated) APA in regulating extracellular matrix production in response to mechanical stimuli from stiffened matrix simulating the fibrotic lungs. We found that stiff matrix downregulated expression of CFIm68, CFIm59 and CFIm25 subunits and promoted APA in favor of the proximal poly(A) site usage in the 3′ UTRs of type I collagen (COL1A1) and fibronectin (FN1) in primary human lung fibroblasts. Knockdown and overexpression of each individual CFIm subunit demonstrated that CFIm68 and CFIm25 are indispensable attributes of stiff matrix–induced APA and overproduction of COL1A1, whereas CFIm did not appear to mediate stiffness-regulated FN1 APA. Furthermore, expression of the CFIm subunits was associated with matrix stiffness in vivo in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. These data suggest that stiff matrix instigates type I collagen biogenesis by selectively targeting mRNA transcripts for 3′ UTR shortening. The current study uncovered a potential mechanism for regulation of the CFIm complex by mechanical cues under fibrotic conditions.
Zijing Zhou, Jing Qu, Li He, Yi Zhu, Shan-Zhong Yang, Feng Zhang, Ting Guo, Hong Peng, Ping Chen, Yong Zhou
Current models of B lymphocyte biology posit that B cells continuously recirculate between lymphoid organs, without accumulating in peripheral healthy tissues. Nevertheless, B lymphocytes are one of the most prevalent leukocyte populations in the naive murine heart. To investigate this apparent inconsistency in the literature, we conducted a systematic analysis of myocardial B cell ontogeny, trafficking dynamics, histology, and gene expression patterns. We found that myocardial B cells represent a subpopulation of circulating B cells that make close contact with the microvascular endothelium of the heart and arrest their transit as they pass through the heart. The vast majority (>95%) of myocardial B cells remain intravascular, whereas few (<5%) myocardial B cells cross the endothelium into myocardial tissue. Analyses of mice with B cell deficiency or depletion indicated that B cells modulate the myocardial leukocyte pool composition. Analysis of B cell–deficient animals suggested that B cells modulate myocardial growth and contractility. These results transform our current understanding of B cell recirculation in the naive state and reveal a previously unknown relationship between B cells and myocardial physiology. Further work will be needed to assess the relevance of these findings to other organs.
Luigi Adamo, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Chieh-Yu Lin, Sarah Evans, Jesse Williams, Hao Dun, Wenjun Li, Cedric Mpoy, Prabhakar S. Andhey, Buck E. Rogers, Kory Lavine, Daniel Kreisel, Maxim Artyomov, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Douglas L. Mann
Ultrasound-induced microbubble (USMB) cavitation is widely used to promote drug delivery. Our previous study investigated USMB targeting the round window membrane by applying the ultrasound transducer to the tympanic bulla. In the present study, we further extended the use of this technology to enhance drug delivery to the inner ear by introducing the ultrasound transducer into the external auditory canal (EAC) or applying it to the skull. Using a 3-dimensional–printed diffusion apparatus mimicking the pathway for ultrasound passing through and reaching the middle ear cavity in vitro, the models simulating the transcanal and transcranial approach demonstrated 4.8-fold– and 3.7-fold–higher delivery efficiencies, respectively. In an in vivo model of guinea pigs, by filling tympanic bulla with microbubbles and biotin-FITC, USMB applied transcanally and transcranially induced 2.8-fold and 1.5-fold increases in biotin-FITC delivery efficiencies, respectively. In addition, the gentamicin uptake by cochlear and vestibular hair cells and gentamicin-induced hair cell loss were significantly enhanced following transcanal application of USMB. On the 28th day after transcanal USMB, safety assessment showed no significant changes in the hearing thresholds and the integrity of cochlea. These are the first results to our knowledge to demonstrate the feasibility and support the potential clinical application of applying USMB via EAC to facilitate drug delivery into the inner ear.
Ai-Ho Liao, Chih-Hung Wang, Ping-Yu Weng, Yi-Chun Lin, Hao Wang, Hang-Kang Chen, Hao-Li Liu, Ho-Chiao Chuang, Cheng-Ping Shih
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the progression of many autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED). IL-1β inhibition has been shown to result in clinical hearing improvement in a small cohort of corticosteroid-resistant patients with AIED. Canonical processing of pro–IL-1β by caspase-1 generates an active 17-kDa fragment, capable of instigating a proinflammatory microenvironment. However, in response to LPS, PBMCs from patients with AIED uniquely express a 28-kDa IL-1β fragment, as compared with PBMCs from control subjects. We synthesized and compared the biologic activity of the 28-kDa fragment to the 17-kDa IL-1β product and the pro–IL-1 31-kDa protein. The 28-kDa IL-1β fragment induces IL-6, TNF-α, and CCL3 in PBMCs. Uniquely, only caspase-7 treatment showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in 28-kDa band generation. Mass spectrometry confirmed the putative caspase-7 cleavage site of pro–IL-1β, which was used to generate the 28-kDa fragment used for PBMC stimulation studies. Collectively, these results provide insight into the function of a poorly understood, processed 28-kDa form of IL-1β in patients with AIED that is uniquely generated by caspase-7 and is capable of activating further downstream proinflammatory cytokines. Further investigation may provide novel pharmacologic targets for the treatment of this rare disease.
Shresh Pathak, Andrea Vambutas
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