In this issue of JCI Insight, Escobar and colleagues show that loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding α-sarcoglycan, which cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2D, can be corrected in isolated patient-derived human muscle stem cells and that these cells retain their regenerative properties in a mouse model. The cover image shows patient-derived primary muscle stem cells that have fused into multinucleated myotubes in vitro following gene repair by base editing. The myotubes are stained with antibodies against fast skeletal myosin (red) and Desmin (green). Nuclei are counterstained with Hoechst (blue).
Endothelial cells are important in the maintenance of healthy blood vessels and in the development of vascular diseases. However, the origin and dynamics of endothelial precursors and remodeling at the single-cell level have been difficult to study in vivo owing to technical limitations. Therefore, we aimed to develop a direct visual approach to track the fate and function of single endothelial cells over several days and weeks in the same vascular bed in vivo using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of transgenic Cdh5-Confetti mice and the kidney glomerulus as a model. Individual cells of the vascular endothelial lineage were identified and tracked owing to their unique color combination, based on the random expression of cyan/green/yellow/red fluorescent proteins. Experimental hypertension, hyperglycemia, and laser-induced endothelial cell ablation rapidly increased the number of new glomerular endothelial cells that appeared in clusters of the same color, suggesting clonal cell remodeling by local precursors at the vascular pole. Furthermore, intravital MPM allowed the detection of distinct structural and functional alterations of proliferating endothelial cells. No circulating Cdh5-Confetti+ cells were found in the renal cortex. Moreover, the heart, lung, and kidneys showed more significant clonal endothelial cell expansion compared with the brain, pancreas, liver, and spleen. In summary, we have demonstrated that serial MPM of Cdh5-Confetti mice in vivo is a powerful technical advance to study endothelial remodeling and repair in the kidney and other organs under physiological and disease conditions.
Dorinne Desposito, Ina Maria Schiessl, Georgina Gyarmati, Anne Riquier-Brison, Audrey K. Izuhara, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Balint Der, Urvi Nikhil Shroff, Young-Kwon Hong, Janos Peti-Peterdi
Human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been used extensively to model inherited heart diseases, but hiPSC-CM models of ischemic heart disease are lacking. Here, our objective was to generate an hiPSC-CM model of ischemic heart disease. To this end, hiPSCs were differentiated into functional hiPSC-CMs and then purified using either a simulated ischemia media or by using magnetic antibody-based purification targeting the nonmyocyte population for depletion from the cell population. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that each purification approach generated hiPSC-CM cultures that had more than 94% cTnT+ cells. After purification, hiPSC-CMs were replated as confluent syncytial monolayers for electrophysiological phenotype analysis and protein expression by Western blotting. The phenotype of metabolic stress–selected hiPSC-CM monolayers recapitulated many of the functional and structural hallmarks of ischemic CMs, including elevated diastolic calcium, diminished calcium transient amplitude, prolonged action potential duration, depolarized resting membrane potential, hypersensitivity to chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, depressed SERCA2a expression, reduced maximal oxygen consumption rate, and abnormal response to β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation. These findings indicate that metabolic selection of hiPSC-CMs generated cell populations with phenotype similar to what is well known to occur in the setting of ischemic heart failure and thus provide a opportunity for study of human ischemic heart disease.
Justin Davis, Ahmad Chouman, Jeffery Creech, Andre Monteiro da Rocha, Daniela Ponce-Balbuena, Eric N. Jimenez Vazquez, Ruthann Nichols, Andrey Lozhkin, Nageswara R. Madamanchi, Katherine F. Campbell, Todd J. Herron
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a primary feature of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). miRNA-30 is an important posttranscriptional regulator of LVH, but it is unknown whether miRNA-30 participates in the process of CKD-induced LVH. In the present study, we found that CKD not only resulted in LVH but also suppressed miRNA-30 expression in the myocardium. Rescue of cardiomyocyte-specific miRNA-30 attenuated LVH in CKD rats without altering CKD progression. Importantly, in vivo and in vitro knockdown of miRNA-30 in cardiomyocytes led to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by upregulating the calcineurin signaling directly. Furthermore, CKD-related detrimental factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23, uremic toxin, angiotensin II, and transforming growth factor–β, suppressed cardiac miRNA-30 expression, while miRNA-30 supplementation blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by such factors. These results uncover a potentially novel mechanism of CKD-induced LVH and provide a potential therapeutic target for CKD patients with LVH.
Jingfu Bao, Yinghui Lu, Qinying She, Weijuan Dou, Rong Tang, Xiaodong Xu, Mingchao Zhang, Ling Zhu, Qing Zhou, Hui Li, Guohua Zhou, Zhongzhou Yang, Shaolin Shi, Zhihong Liu, Chunxia Zheng
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) provide frontline defense against infectious diseases and contribute to antitumor immunity; however, aside from the necessity of TGF-β, knowledge regarding TRM-inductive cues remains incomplete, particularly for human cells. Oxygen tension is an environmental cue that distinguishes peripheral tissues from the circulation, and here, we demonstrate that differentiation of human CD8+ T cells in the presence of hypoxia and TGF-β1 led to the development of a TRM phenotype, characterized by a greater than 5-fold increase in CD69+CD103+ cells expressing human TRM hallmarks and enrichment for endogenous human TRM gene signatures, including increased adhesion molecule expression and decreased expression of genes involved in recirculation. Hypoxia and TGF-β1 synergized to produce a significantly larger population of TRM phenotype cells than either condition alone, and comparison of these cells from the individual and combination conditions revealed distinct phenotypic and transcriptional profiles, indicating a programming response to milieu rather than a mere expansion. Our findings identify a likely previously unreported cue for the TRM differentiation program and can enable facile generation of human TRM phenotype cells in vitro for basic studies and translational applications such as adoptive cellular therapy.
Farah Hasan, Yulun Chiu, Rebecca M. Shaw, Junmei Wang, Cassian Yee
The recently proposed glymphatic pathway for solute transport and waste clearance from the brain has been the focus of intense debate. By exploiting an isotopically enriched MRI tracer, H217O, we directly imaged glymphatic water transport in the rat brain in vivo. Our results reveal glymphatic transport that is dramatically faster and more extensive than previously thought and unlikely to be explained by diffusion alone. Moreover, we confirm the critical role of aquaporin-4 channels in glymphatic transport.
Mohammed S. Alshuhri, Lindsay Gallagher, Lorraine M. Work, William M. Holmes
Transitions between cell fates commonly occur in development and disease. However, reversing an unwanted cell transition in order to treat disease remains an unexplored area. Here, we report a successful process of guiding ill-fated transitions toward normalization in vascular calcification. Vascular calcification is a severe complication that increases the all-cause mortality of cardiovascular disease but lacks medical therapy. The vascular endothelium is a contributor of osteoprogenitor cells to vascular calcification through endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, in which endothelial cells (ECs) gain plasticity and the ability to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. We created a high-throughput screening and identified SB216763, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), as an inducer of osteoblastic-endothelial transition. We demonstrated that SB216763 limited osteogenic differentiation in ECs at an early stage of vascular calcification. Lineage tracing showed that SB216763 redirected osteoblast-like cells to the endothelial lineage and reduced late-stage calcification. We also found that deletion of GSK3β in osteoblasts recapitulated osteoblastic-endothelial transition and reduced vascular calcification. Overall, inhibition of GSK3β promoted the transition of cells with osteoblastic characteristics to endothelial differentiation, thereby ameliorating vascular calcification.
Jiayi Yao, Xiuju Wu, Xiaojing Qiao, Daoqin Zhang, Li Zhang, Jocelyn A. Ma, Xinjiang Cai, Kristina I. Boström, Yucheng Yao
GWAS have shown that the common R325W variant of SLC30A8 (ZnT8) increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, ZnT8 haploinsufficiency is protective against T2D in humans, counterintuitive to earlier work in humans and mouse models. Therefore, whether decreasing ZnT8 activity is beneficial or detrimental to β cell function, especially under conditions of metabolic stress, remains unknown. In order to examine whether the existence of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a coresident of the insulin granule, affects the role of ZnT8 in regulating β cell function, hIAPP-expressing transgenics were generated with reduced ZnT8 (ZnT8B+/– hIAPP) or null ZnT8 (ZnT8B–/– hIAPP) expression specifically in β cells. We showed that ZnT8B–/– hIAPP mice on a high-fat diet had intensified amyloid deposition and further impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion compared with control, ZnT8B–/–, and hIAPP mice. This can in part be attributed to impaired glucose sensing and islet cell synchronicity. Importantly, ZnT8B+/– hIAPP mice were also glucose intolerant and had reduced insulin secretion and increased amyloid aggregation compared with controls. These data suggest that loss of or reduced ZnT8 activity in β cells heightened the toxicity induced by hIAPP, leading to impaired β cell function and glucose homeostasis associated with metabolic stress.
Jie Xu, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Romario Regeenes, Dana Al Rijjal, Anthony L. Piro, Youchen Song, Anne Wu, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Ying Liu, Lucy Marzban, Jonathan V. Rocheleau, Paul E. Fraser, Feihan F. Dai, Cheng Hu, Michael B. Wheeler
Individuals with heart failure (HF) frequently present with comorbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Many patients with HF experience cardiogenic dementia, yet the pathophysiology of this disease remains poorly understood. Using a swine model of cardiometabolic HF (Western diet+aortic banding; WD-AB), we tested the hypothesis that WD-AB would promote a multidementia phenotype involving cerebrovascular dysfunction alongside evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. The results provide evidence of cerebrovascular insufficiency coupled with neuroinflammation and amyloidosis in swine with experimental cardiometabolic HF. Although cardiac ejection fraction was normal, indices of arterial compliance and cerebral blood flow were reduced, and cerebrovascular regulation was impaired in the WD-AB group. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurred concomitantly with increased MAPK signaling and amyloidogenic processing (i.e., increased APP, BACE1, CTF, and Aβ40 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) in the WD-AB group. Transcriptomic profiles of the stellate ganglia revealed the WD-AB group displayed an enrichment of gene networks associated with MAPK/ERK signaling, AD, frontotemporal dementia, and a number of behavioral phenotypes implicated in cognitive impairment. These provide potentially novel evidence from a swine model that cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies likely both contribute to the dementia profile in a setting of cardiometabolic HF.
Bradley J. Baranowski, Matti D. Allen, Jennifer N.K. Nyarko, R. Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Darrell D. Mousseau, Christoph D. Rau, Yibin Wang, M. Harold Laughlin, Craig A. Emter, Rebecca E.K. MacPherson, T. Dylan Olver
There is an emerging need for accurate and rapid identification of bacteria in the human body to achieve diverse biomedical objectives. Copper homeostasis is vital for the survival of bacterial species owing to the roles of the metal as a nutrient, respiratory enzyme cofactor, and a toxin. Here, we report the development of a copper-64–labeled bacterial metal chelator, yersiniabactin, to exploit a highly conserved metal acquisition pathway for noninvasive and selective imaging of bacteria. Compared with traditional techniques used to manufacture probes, our strategy simplifies the process considerably by combining the function of metal attachment and cell recognition to the same molecule. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, how a copper-64 PET probe can be used to identify specific bacterial populations, monitor antibiotic treatment outcomes, and track bacteria in diverse niches in vivo.
Nabil A. Siddiqui, Hailey A. Houson, Nitin S. Kamble, Jose R. Blanco, Robert E. O’Donnell, Daniel J. Hassett, Suzanne E. Lapi, Nalinikanth Kotagiri
BACKGROUND Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition predominantly affecting obese women of reproductive age. Recent evidence suggests that IIH is a disease of metabolic dysregulation, androgen excess, and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Here we evaluate systemic and adipose specific metabolic determinants of the IIH phenotype.METHODS In fasted, matched IIH (n = 97) and control (n = 43) patients, we assessed glucose and insulin homeostasis and leptin levels. Body composition was assessed along with an interrogation of adipose tissue function via nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and RNA sequencing in paired omental and subcutaneous biopsies in a case-control study.RESULTS We demonstrate an insulin- and leptin-resistant phenotype in IIH in excess of that driven by obesity. Adiposity in IIH is preferentially centripetal and is associated with increased disease activity and insulin resistance. IIH adipocytes appear transcriptionally and metabolically primed toward depot-specific lipogenesis.CONCLUSION These data show that IIH is a metabolic disorder in which adipose tissue dysfunction is a feature of the disease. Managing IIH as a metabolic disease could reduce disease morbidity and improve cardiovascular outcomes.FUNDING This study was supported by the UK NIHR (NIHR-CS-011-028), the UK Medical Research Council (MR/K015184/1), Diabetes UK, Wellcome Trust (104612/Z/14/Z), the Sir Jules Thorn Award, and the Midlands Neuroscience Teaching and Research Fund.
Connar S.J. Westgate, Hannah F. Botfield, Zerin Alimajstorovic, Andreas Yiangou, Mark Walsh, Gabrielle Smith, Rishi Singhal, James L. Mitchell, Olivia Grech, Keira A. Markey, Daniel Hebenstreit, Daniel A. Tennant, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Susan P. Mollan, Christian Ludwig, Ildem Akerman, Gareth G. Lavery, Alexandra J. Sinclair
BACKGROUND Serum creatinine concentrations (SCrs) are used to determine the presence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). SCr is primarily eliminated by glomerular filtration; however, most mechanisms of AKI in critical illness involve kidney proximal tubules, where tubular secretion occurs. Proximal tubular secretory clearance is not currently estimated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our objective was to estimate the kidney clearance of secretory solutes in critically ill adults.METHODS We collected matched blood and spot urine samples from 170 ICU patients and from a comparison group of 70 adults with normal kidney function. We measured 7 endogenously produced secretory solutes using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We computed a composite secretion score incorporating all 7 solutes and evaluated associations with 28-day major adverse kidney events (MAKE28), defined as doubling of SCr, dialysis dependence, or death.RESULTS The urine-to-plasma ratios of 6 of 7 secretory solutes were lower in critically ill patients compared with healthy individuals after adjustment for SCr. The composite secretion score was moderately correlated with SCr and cystatin C (r = –0.51 and r = –0.53, respectively). Each SD higher composite secretion score was associated with a 25% lower risk of MAKE28 (95% CI 9% to 38% lower) independent of severity of illness, SCr, and tubular injury markers. Higher urine-to-plasma ratios of individual secretory solutes isovalerylglycine and tiglylglycine were associated with MAKE28 after accounting for multiple testing.CONCLUSION Among critically ill adults, tubular secretory clearance is associated with adverse outcomes, and its measurement could improve assessment of kidney function and dosing of essential ICU medications.FUNDING Grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK/NIH) K23DK116967, the University of Washington Diabetes Research Center P30DK017047, an unrestricted gift to the Kidney Research Institute from the Northwest Kidney Centers, and the Vanderbilt O’Brien Kidney Center (NIDDK 5P30 DK114809-03). The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Pavan K. Bhatraju, Xin-Ya Chai, Neha A. Sathe, John Ruzinski, Edward D. Siew, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Mark M. Wurfel, Bryan R. Kestenbaum
Antipsychotics often cause tardive dyskinesia, an adverse symptom of involuntary hyperkinetic movements. Analysis of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and JMDC insurance claims revealed that acetaminophen prevented the dyskinesia induced by dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. In vivo experiments further showed that a 21-day treatment with haloperidol increased the number of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats, an effect that was inhibited by oral acetaminophen treatment or intracerebroventricular injection of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonylamide (AM404), an acetaminophen metabolite that acts as an activator of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In mice, haloperidol-induced VCMs were also mitigated by treatment with AM404 applied to the dorsal striatum, an effect not seen in TRPV1-deficient mice. Acetaminophen prevented the haloperidol-induced decrease in the number of c-Fos+preproenkephalin+ striatal neurons in wild-type mice but not in TRPV1-deficient mice. Finally, chemogenetic stimulation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons in the dorsal striatum decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs. These results suggest that acetaminophen activates the indirect pathway neurons by activating TRPV1 channels via AM404.
Koki Nagaoka, Takuya Nagashima, Nozomi Asaoka, Hiroki Yamamoto, Chihiro Toda, Gen Kayanuma, Soni Siswanto, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yasuo Mori, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for enteric nervous system (ENS) development, since vitamin A deficiency or mutations in RA signaling profoundly reduce bowel colonization by ENS precursors. These RA effects could occur because of RA activity within the ENS lineage or via RA activity in other cell types. To define cell-autonomous roles for retinoid signaling within the ENS lineage at distinct developmental time points, we activated a potent floxed dominant-negative RA receptor α (RarαDN) in the ENS using diverse CRE recombinase–expressing mouse lines. This strategy enabled us to block RA signaling at premigratory, migratory, and postmigratory stages for ENS precursors. We found that cell-autonomous loss of RA receptor (RAR) signaling dramatically affected ENS development. CRE activation of RarαDN expression at premigratory or migratory stages caused severe intestinal aganglionosis, but at later stages, RarαDN induced a broad range of phenotypes including hypoganglionosis, submucosal plexus loss, and abnormal neural differentiation. RNA sequencing highlighted distinct RA-regulated gene sets at different developmental stages. These studies show complicated context-dependent RA-mediated regulation of ENS development.
Tao Gao, Elizabeth C. Wright-Jin, Rajarshi Sengupta, Jessica B. Anderson, Robert O. Heuckeroth
Skeletal muscle can regenerate from muscle stem cells and their myogenic precursor cell progeny, myoblasts. However, precise gene editing in human muscle stem cells for autologous cell replacement therapies of untreatable genetic muscle diseases has not yet been reported. Loss-of-function mutations in SGCA, encoding α-sarcoglycan, cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2D/R3, an early-onset, severe, and rapidly progressive form of muscular dystrophy affecting both male and female patients. Patients suffer from muscle degeneration and atrophy affecting the limbs, respiratory muscles, and heart. We isolated human muscle stem cells from 2 donors, with the common SGCA c.157G>A mutation affecting the last coding nucleotide of exon 2. We found that c.157G>A is an exonic splicing mutation that induces skipping of 2 coregulated exons. Using adenine base editing, we corrected the mutation in the cells from both donors with > 90% efficiency, thereby rescuing the splicing defect and α-sarcoglycan expression. Base-edited patient cells regenerated muscle and contributed to the Pax7+ satellite cell compartment in vivo in mouse xenografts. Here, we provide the first evidence to our knowledge that autologous gene–repaired human muscle stem cells can be harnessed for cell replacement therapies of muscular dystrophies.
Helena Escobar, Anne Krause, Sandra Keiper, Janine Kieshauer, Stefanie Müthel, Manuel García de Paredes, Eric Metzler, Ralf Kühn, Florian Heyd, Simone Spuler
Flow-activated Na+ and HCO3– transport in kidney proximal tubules (PT) underlies relatively constant fractional reabsorption during changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or glomerulotubular balance (GTB). In view of hypothesized connections of epithelial cilia to flow sensing, we examined flow-activated transport in 3 polycystic kidney disease–related mouse models based on inducible conditional KO of Pkd1, Pkd2, and Kif3a. PTs were harvested from mice after gene inactivation but prior to cyst formation, and flow-mediated PT transport was measured. We confirm that higher flow increased both Na+ and HCO3– absorption in control mice, and we observed that this flow effect was preserved in PTs of Pkd1–/– and Kif3a–/–mice. However, flow activation was absent in Pkd2+/– and Pkd2–/– PT. In heterozygous (Pkd2+/–) mice, a dopamine receptor 1 (DA1) antagonist (SCH23390) restored transport flow sensitivity. When given chronically, this same antagonist reduced renal cyst formation in Pkd2–/–, as evidenced by reduced kidney weight, BUN, and the cystic index, when compared with untreated mice. In contrast, SCH23390 did not prevent cyst formation in Pkd1–/– mice. These results indicate that Pkd2 is necessary for normal GTB and that restoration of flow-activated transport by DA1 antagonist can slow renal cyst formation in Pkd2–/– mice.
Zhaopeng Du, Xin Tian, Ming Ma, Stefan Somlo, Alan M. Weinstein, Tong Wang
Emerging coronaviruses from zoonotic reservoirs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have been associated with human-to-human transmission and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we study both intradermal and intramuscular 2-dose delivery regimens of an advanced synthetic DNA vaccine candidate encoding a full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein, which induced potent binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular immune responses in rhesus macaques. In a MERS-CoV challenge, all immunized rhesus macaques exhibited reduced clinical symptoms, lowered viral lung load, and decreased severity of pathological signs of disease compared with controls. Intradermal vaccination was dose sparing and more effective in this model at protecting animals from disease. The data support the further study of this vaccine for preventing MERS-CoV infection and transmission, including investigation of such vaccines and simplified delivery routes against emerging coronaviruses.
Ami Patel, Emma L. Reuschel, Ziyang Xu, Faraz I. Zaidi, Kevin Y. Kim, Dana P. Scott, Janess Mendoza, Stephanie Ramos, Regina Stoltz, Friederike Feldmann, Atsushi Okumura, Kimberly Meade-White, Elaine Haddock, Tina Thomas, Rebecca Rosenke, Jamie Lovaglio, Patrick W. Hanley, Greg Saturday, Kar Muthumani, Heinz Feldmann, Laurent M. Humeau, Kate E. Broderick, David B. Weiner
BACKGROUND High circulating levels of ceramides (Cer) and sphingomyelins (SM) are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. The consumption of whole fat dairy products, naturally containing such polar lipids (PL), is associated with health benefits, but the impact on sphingolipidome remains unknown.METHODS In a 4-week randomized controlled trial, 58 postmenopausal women daily consumed milk PL-enriched cream cheese (0, 3, or 5 g of milk PL). Postprandial metabolic explorations were performed before and after supplementation. Analyses included SM and Cer species in serum, chylomicrons, and feces. The ileal contents of 4 ileostomy patients were also explored after acute milk PL intake.RESULTS Milk PL decreased serum atherogenic C24:1 Cer, C16:1 SM, and C18:1 SM species (Pgroup < 0.05). Changes in serum C16+18 SM species were positively correlated with the reduction of cholesterol (r = 0.706), LDL-C (r = 0.666), and ApoB (r = 0.705) (P < 0.001). Milk PL decreased chylomicron content in total SM and C24:1 Cer (Pgroup < 0.001), parallel to a marked increase in total Cer in feces (Pgroup < 0.001). Milk PL modulated some specific SM and Cer species in both ileal efflux and feces, suggesting differential absorption and metabolization processes in the gut.CONCLUSION Milk PL supplementation decreased atherogenic SM and Cer species associated with the improvement of cardiovascular risk markers. Our findings bring insights on sphingolipid metabolism in the gut, especially Cer, as signaling molecules potentially participating in the beneficial effects of milk PL.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02099032, NCT02146339.FUNDING ANR-11-ALID-007-01; PHRCI-2014: VALOBAB, no. 14-007; CNIEL; GLN 2018-11-07; HCL (sponsor).
Mélanie Le Barz, Cécile Vors, Emmanuel Combe, Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles, Manon Lecomte, Florent Joffre, Michèle Trauchessec, Sandra Pesenti, Emmanuelle Loizon, Anne-Esther Breyton, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Karène Bertrand, Jocelyne Drai, Chloé Robert, Annie Durand, Charlotte Cuerq, Patrice Gaborit, Nadine Leconte, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Eddy Cotte, Martine Laville, Stéphanie Lambert-Porcheron, Lemlih Ouchchane, Hubert Vidal, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère, David Cheillan, Marie-Caroline Michalski
Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture and compromised function. Tuberculous pleurisy, asbestos injury, and rheumatoid pleurisy are main causes of pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a key role in pleural fibrosis. However, detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Serine/arginine-rich protein SRSF6 belongs to a family of highly conserved RNA-binding splicing-factor proteins. Based on its known functions, SRSF6 should be expected to play a role in fibrotic diseases. However, the role of SRSF6 in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, SRSF6 protein was found to be increased in cells of tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPE) from patients, and decellularized TBPE, bleomycin, and TGF-β1 were confirmed to increase SRSF6 levels in PMCs. In vitro, SRSF6 mediated PMC proliferation and synthesis of the main fibrotic protein COL1A2. In vivo, SRSF6 inhibition prevented mouse experimental pleural fibrosis. Finally, activated SMAD2/3, increased SOX4, and depressed miRNA-506-3p were associated with SRSF6 upregulation in PMCs. These observations support a model in which SRSF6 induces pleural fibrosis through a cluster pathway, including SRSF6/WNT5A and SRSF6/SMAD1/5/9 signaling. In conclusion, we propose inhibition of the splicing factor SRSF6 as a strategy for treatment of pleural fibrosis.
Li-Mei Liang, Liang Xiong, Pei-Pei Cheng, Shuai-Jun Chen, Xiao Feng, Ya-Ya Zhou, Qian Niu, Meng Wang, Qianlan Chen, Lin-Jie Song, Fan Yu, Xin-Liang He, Fei Xiang, Xiaorong Wang, Hong Ye, Wan-Li Ma
Obesity is the major driver of the worldwide epidemic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the obese state, chronically elevated plasma free fatty acid levels contribute to peripheral insulin resistance, which can ultimately lead to the development of T2D. For this reason, drugs that are able to regulate lipolytic processes in adipocytes are predicted to have considerable therapeutic potential. Gi-coupled P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R; endogenous agonist, UDP-glucose) is abundantly expressed in both mouse and human adipocytes. Because activated Gi-type G proteins exert an antilipolytic effect, we explored the potential physiological relevance of adipocyte P2Y14Rs in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis. Metabolic studies indicate that the lack of adipocyte P2Y14R enhanced lipolysis only in the fasting state, decreased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Mechanistic studies suggested that adipocyte P2Y14R inhibits lipolysis by reducing lipolytic enzyme activity, including ATGL and HSL. In agreement with these findings, agonist treatment of control mice with a P2Y14R agonist decreased lipolysis, an effect that was sensitive to inhibition by a P2Y14R antagonist. In conclusion, we demonstrate that adipose P2Y14Rs were critical regulators of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis, suggesting that P2Y14R antagonists might be beneficial for the therapy of obesity and T2D.
Shanu Jain, Sai P. Pydi, Young-Hwan Jung, Mirko Scortichini, Efrat L. Kesner, Tadeusz P. Karcz, Donald N. Cook, Oksana Gavrilova, Jürgen Wess, Kenneth A. Jacobson
Altered mitochondria activity in osteoblasts and osteoclasts has been implicated in the loss of bone mass associated with aging and estrogen deficiency — the 2 most common causes of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms that control mitochondrial metabolism in bone cells during health or disease remain unknown. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) has been earlier implicated in age-related diseases. Here, we show that deletion of Sirt3 had no effect on the skeleton of young mice but attenuated the age-related loss of bone mass in both sexes. This effect was associated with impaired bone resorption. Osteoclast progenitors from aged Sirt3-null mice were able to differentiate into osteoclasts, though the differentiated cells exhibited impaired polykaryon formation and resorptive activity, as well as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and mitophagy. The Sirt3 inhibitor LC-0296 recapitulated the effects of Sirt3 deletion in osteoclast formation and mitochondrial function, and its administration to aging mice increased bone mass. Deletion of Sirt3 also attenuated the increase in bone resorption and loss of bone mass caused by estrogen deficiency. These findings suggest that Sirt3 inhibition and the resulting impairment of osteoclast mitochondrial function could be a novel therapeutic intervention for the 2 most important causes of osteoporosis.
Wen Ling, Kimberly Krager, Kimberly K. Richardson, Aaron D. Warren, Filipa Ponte, Nukhet Aykin-Burns, Stavros C. Manolagas, Maria Almeida, Ha-Neui Kim
BACKGROUND We aimed to determine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects longitudinal trajectories of diabetic complications, including neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), and kidney disease in American Indians with type 2 diabetes.METHODS We performed a prospective study where participants underwent annual metabolic phenotyping and outcome measurements. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used to define MetS and its individual components, using BMI instead of waist circumference. Neuropathy was defined using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument index, CAN with the expiration/inspiration ratio, and kidney disease with glomerular filtration rate. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between MetS and these outcomes.RESULTS We enrolled 141 participants: 73.1% female, a mean (±SD) age of 49.8 (12.3), and a diabetes duration of 19.6 years (9.7 years) who were followed for a mean of 3.1 years (1.7 years). MetS components were stable during follow-up except for declining obesity and cholesterol. Neuropathy (point estimate [PE]: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and kidney disease (PE: –14.2, 95% CI: –16.8, –11.4) worsened over time, but CAN did not (PE: –0.002, 95% CI: –0.006, 0.002). We found a significant interaction between the number of MetS components and time for neuropathy (PE: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01–0.10) but not CAN (PE: –0.003, 95% CI: –0.007, 0.001) or kidney disease (PE: –0.69, 95% CI: –3.16, 1.76). Systolic blood pressure (SBP, unit = 10 mmHg) was associated with each complication: neuropathy (PE: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.39), CAN (PE: –0.02, 95% CI: –0.03, –0.02), and kidney disease (PE: –10.2, 95% CI: –15.4, –5.1).CONCLUSION In participants with longstanding diabetes, neuropathy and kidney disease worsened during follow-up, despite stable to improving MetS components, suggesting that early metabolic intervention is necessary to prevent complications in such patients. Additionally, the number of MetS components was associated with an increased rate of neuropathy progression, and SBP was associated with each complication.FUNDING The following are funding sources: NIH T32NS0007222, NIH R24DK082841, NIH R21NS102924, NIH R01DK115687, the Intramural Program of the NIDDK, the NeuroNetwork for Emerging Therapies, the Robert and Katherine Jacobs Environmental Health Initiative, the Robert E. Nederlander Sr. Program for Alzheimer’s Research, and the Sinai Medical Staff Foundation.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00340678.
Evan L. Reynolds, Gulcin Akinci, Mousumi Banerjee, Helen C. Looker, Adam Patterson, Robert G. Nelson, Eva L. Feldman, Brian C. Callaghan
Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) remains a significant cause of in-stent restenosis. Integrins, which are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors, play a crucial role in SMC biology by binding to the extracellular matrix protein with the actin cytoskeleton within the SMC. Integrin α9 plays an important role in cell motility and autoimmune diseases; however, its role in SMC biology and remodeling remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that stimulated human coronary SMCs upregulate α9 expression. Targeting α9 in stimulated human coronary SMCs, using anti–integrin α9 antibody, suppresses synthetic phenotype and inhibits SMC proliferation and migration. To provide definitive evidence, we generated an SMC-specific α9-deficient mouse strain. Genetic ablation of α9 in SMCs suppressed synthetic phenotype and reduced proliferation and migration in vitro. Mechanistically, suppressed synthetic phenotype and reduced proliferation were associated with decreased focal adhesion kinase/steroid receptor coactivator signaling and downstream targets, including phosphorylated ERK, p38 MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and nuclear β-catenin, with reduced transcriptional activation of β-catenin target genes. Following vascular injury, SMC-specific α9-deficient mice or wild-type mice treated with murine anti–integrin α9 antibody exhibited reduced injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia at day 28 by limiting SMC migration and proliferation. Our findings suggest that integrin α9 regulates SMC biology, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in vascular remodeling.
Manish Jain, Rishabh Dev, Prakash Doddapattar, Shigeyuki Kon, Nirav Dhanesha, Anil K. Chauhan
The fact that the COVID-19 fatality rate varies by sex and age is poorly understood. Notably, the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly depends on the control of cytokine storm and the increasingly recognized pathological role of uncontrolled neutrophil activation. Here, we used an integrative approach with publicly available RNA-Seq data sets of nasopharyngeal swabs and peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with SARS-CoV-2, according to sex and age. Female and young patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 exhibited a larger number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) compared with male and elderly patients, indicating a stronger immune modulation. Among them, we found an association between upregulated cytokine/chemokine- and downregulated neutrophil-related DEGs. This was correlated with a closer relationship between female and young subjects, while the relationship between male and elderly patients was closer still. The association between these cytokine/chemokines and neutrophil DEGs is marked by a strongly correlated interferome network. Here, female patients exhibited reduced transcriptional levels of key proinflammatory/neutrophil-related genes, such as CXCL8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2), IL-1β, S100A9, ITGAM, and DBNL, compared with male patients. These genes are well known to be protective against inflammatory damage. Therefore, our work suggests specific immune-regulatory pathways associated with sex and age of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and provides a possible association between inverse modulation of cytokine/chemokine and neutrophil transcriptional signatures.
Paula P. Freire, Alexandre H.C. Marques, Gabriela C. Baiocchi, Lena F. Schimke, Dennyson L.M. Fonseca, Ranieri C. Salgado, Igor S. Filgueiras, Sarah M.S. Napoleao, Desirée R. Plaça, Karen T. Akashi, Thiago Dominguez Crespo Hirata, Nadia El Khawanky, Lasse M. Giil, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Robson F. Carvalho, Luis Carlos S. Ferreira, Antonio Condino-Neto, Helder I. Nakaya, Igor Jurisica, Hans D. Ochs, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Vera Lúcia G. Calich, Otavio Cabral-Marques
Despite the high morbidity and mortality among patients with extensive cutaneous burns in the intensive care unit due to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, effective therapeutics remain to be determined. This is primarily because the mechanisms leading to acute lung injury (ALI) in these patients remain unknown. We test the hypothesis that cutaneous chemical burns promote lung injury due to systemic activation of neutrophils, in particular, toxicity mediated by the deployment of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We also demonstrate the potential benefit of a peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibitor to prevent NETosis and to preserve microvascular endothelial barrier function, thus reducing the severity of ALI in mice. Our data demonstrated that phenylarsine oxide (PAO) treatment of neutrophils caused increased intracellular Ca2+-associated PAD4 activity. A dermal chemical burn by lewisite or PAO resulted in PAD4 activation, NETosis, and ALI. NETs disrupted the barrier function of endothelial cells in human lung microvascular endothelial cell spheroids. Citrullinated histone 3 alone caused ALI in mice. Pharmacologic or genetic abrogation of PAD4 inhibited lung injury following cutaneous chemical burns. Cutaneous burns by lewisite and PAO caused ALI by PAD4-mediated NETosis. PAD4 inhibitors may have potential as countermeasures to suppress detrimental lung injury after chemical burns.
Ranu Surolia, Fu Jun Li, Zheng Wang, Mahendra Kashyap, Ritesh Kumar Srivastava, Amie M. Traylor, Pooja Singh, Kevin G. Dsouza, Harrison Kim, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jaroslaw W. Zmijewski, Anupam Agarwal, Mohammad Athar, Aftab Ahmad, Veena B. Antony
Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for weight loss in morbid obesity. There is significant individual variability in the weight loss outcomes, yet factors leading to postoperative weight loss or weight regain remain elusive. Alterations in the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) systems are associated with obesity and appetite control, and the magnitude of initial brain receptor system perturbation may predict long-term surgical weight loss outcomes. We tested this hypothesis by studying 19 morbidly obese women (mean BMI 40) scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. We measured their preoperative MOR and D2R availabilities using positron emission tomography with [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride, respectively, and then assessed their weight development association with regional MOR and D2R availabilities at 24-month follow-up. MOR availability in the amygdala consistently predicted weight development throughout the follow-up period, but no associations were found for D2R. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate that neuroreceptor markers prior to bariatric surgery are associated with postoperative weight development. Postoperative weight regain may derive from dysfunction in the opioid system, and weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery may be partially predicted based on preoperative brain receptor availability, opening up new potential for treatment possibilities.
Henry K. Karlsson, Lauri Tuominen, Semi Helin, Paulina Salminen, Pirjo Nuutila, Lauri Nummenmaa
Effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are urgently needed. Although most vaccine strategies have focused on systemic immunization, here we compared the protective efficacy of 2 adjuvanted subunit vaccines with spike protein S1: an intramuscularly primed/boosted vaccine and an intramuscularly primed/intranasally boosted mucosal vaccine in rhesus macaques. The intramuscular-alum–only vaccine induced robust binding and neutralizing antibody and persistent cellular immunity systemically and mucosally, whereas intranasal boosting with nanoparticles, including IL-15 and TLR agonists, elicited weaker T cell and Ab responses but higher dimeric IgA and IFN-α. Nevertheless, following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, neither group showed detectable subgenomic RNA in upper or lower respiratory tracts versus naive controls, indicating full protection against viral replication. Although mucosal and systemic protective mechanisms may differ, results demonstrate both vaccines can protect against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 exposure. In summary, we have demonstrated that the mucosal vaccine was safe after multiple doses and cleared the input virus more efficiently in the nasal cavity and thus may act as a potent complementary reinforcing boost for conventional systemic vaccines to provide overall better protection.
Yongjun Sui, Jianping Li, Roushu Zhang, Sunaina Kiran Prabhu, Hanne Andersen, David Venzon, Anthony Cook, Renita Brown, Elyse Teow, Jason Velasco, Jack Greenhouse, Tammy Putman-Taylor, Tracey-Ann Campbell, Laurent Pessaint, Ian N. Moore, Laurel Lagenaur, Jim Talton, Matthew W. Breed, Josh Kramer, Kevin W. Bock, Mahnaz Minai, Bianca M. Nagata, Mark G. Lewis, Lai-Xi Wang, Jay A. Berzofsky