Ma et al. identify two pathogenic mutations in
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEAs) harbor recurrent amplification of KRAS, leading to marked overexpression of WT KRAS protein. We previously demonstrated that SHP2 phosphatase, which acts to promote KRAS and downstream MAPK pathway activation, is a target in these tumors when combined with MEK inhibition. We hypothesized that SHP2 inhibitors may serve as a foundation for developing novel combination inhibitor strategies for therapy of KRAS-amplified GEA, including with targets outside the MAPK pathway. Here, we explore potential targets to effectively augment the efficacy of SHP2 inhibition, starting with genome-wide CRISPR screens in KRAS-amplified GEA cell lines with and without SHP2 inhibition. We identify candidate targets within the MAPK pathway and among upstream RTKs that may enhance SHP2 efficacy in KRAS-amplified GEA. Additional in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potent cytotoxicity of pan-ERBB kinase inhibitions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, beyond targets within the MAPK pathway, we demonstrate that inhibition of CDK4/6 combines potently with SHP2 inhibition in KRAS-amplified GEA, with greater efficacy of this combination in KRAS-amplified, compared with KRAS-mutant, tumors. These results suggest therapeutic combinations for clinical study in KRAS-amplified GEAs.
Tianxia Li, Osamu Kikuchi, Jin Zhou, Yichen Wang, Babita Pokharel, Klavdija Bastl, Prafulla Gokhale, Aine Knott, Yanxi Zhang, John G. Doench, Zandra V. Ho, Daniel V.T. Catenacci, Adam J. Bass
In the progression phase of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the normal alveolar structure of the lung is lost and replaced by remodeled fibrotic tissue and by bronchiolized cystic airspaces. Although these are characteristic features of IPF, knowledge of specific interactions between these pathological processes is limited. Here, the interaction of lung epithelial and lung mesenchymal cells was investigated in a coculture model of human primary airway epithelial cells (EC) and lung fibroblasts (FB). Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that the starting EC population was heterogenous and enriched for cells with a basal cell signature. Furthermore, fractions of the initial EC and FB populations adopted distinct pro-fibrotic cell differentiation states upon cocultivation, resembling specific cell populations that were previously identified in lungs of patients with IPF. Transcriptomic analysis revealed active NF-κB signaling early in the cocultured EC and FB, and the identified NF-κB expression signatures were found in “HAS1 High FB” and “PLIN2+ FB” populations from IPF patient lungs. Pharmacological blockade of NF-κB signaling attenuated specific phenotypic changes of EC and prevented FB-mediated interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and CXC chemokine ligand 6 cytokine secretion, as well as collagen α-1(I) chain and α–smooth muscle actin accumulation. Thus, we identified NF-κB as a potential mediator, linking epithelial pathobiology with fibrogenesis.
Patrick Sieber, Anny Schäfer, Raphael Lieberherr, Silvia L. Caimi, Urs Lüthi, Jesper Ryge, Jan H. Bergmann, François Le Goff, Manuel Stritt, Peter Blattmann, Bérengère Renault, Patrick Rammelt, Bruno Sempere, Diego Freti, Rolf Studer, Eric S. White, Magdalena Birker-Robaczewska, Maxime Boucher, Oliver Nayler
HIV nonprogression despite persistent viremia is rare among adults who are naive to antiretroviral therapy (ART) but relatively common among ART-naive children. Previous studies indicate that ART-naive pediatric slow progressors (PSPs) adopt immune evasion strategies similar to those described in natural hosts of SIV. However, the mechanisms underlying this immunophenotype are not well understood. In a cohort of early-treated infants who underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) after 12 months of ART, expression of PD-1 on CD8+ T cells immediately before ATI was the main predictor of slow progression during ATI. PD-1+CD8+ T cell frequency was also negatively correlated with CCR5 and HLA-DR expression on CD4+ T cells and predicted stronger HIV-specific T lymphocyte responses. In the CD8+ T cell compartment of PSPs, we identified an enrichment of stem-like TCF-1+PD-1+ memory cells, whereas pediatric progressors and viremic adults had a terminally exhausted PD-1+CD39+ population. TCF-1+PD-1+ expression on CD8+ T cells was associated with higher proliferative activity and stronger Gag-specific effector functionality. These data prompted the hypothesis that the proliferative burst potential of stem-like HIV-specific cytotoxic cells could be exploited in therapeutic strategies to boost the antiviral response and facilitate remission in infants who received early ART with a preserved and nonexhausted T cell compartment.
Vinicius Vieira, Nicholas Lim, Alveera Singh, Ellen Leitman, Reena Dsouza, Emily Adland, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Julia Roider, Miguel Marin Lopez, Julieta Carabelli, Jennifer Giandhari, Andreas Groll, Pieter Jooste, Julia G. Prado, Christina Thobakgale, Krista Dong, Photini Kiepiela, Andrew J. Prendergast, Gareth Tudor-Williams, John Frater, Bruce D. Walker, Thumbi Ndung’u, Veron Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Philip Goulder
The molecular mediators of cell death and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have yet to be fully elucidated. Caspase-8 is a critical regulator of several cell death and inflammatory pathways; however, its role in AD pathogenesis has not yet been examined in detail. In the absence of caspase-8, mice are embryonic lethal due to excessive receptor interacting protein kinase 3–dependent (RIPK3-dependent) necroptosis. Compound RIPK3 and caspase-8 mutants rescue embryonic lethality, which we leveraged to examine the roles of these pathways in an amyloid β–mediated (Aβ-mediated) mouse model of AD. We found that combined deletion of caspase-8 and RIPK3, but not RIPK3 alone, led to diminished Aβ deposition and microgliosis in the mouse model of AD carrying human presenilin 1 and amyloid precursor protein with 5 familial AD mutations (5xFAD). Despite its well-known role in cell death, caspase-8 did not appear to affect cell loss in the 5xFAD model. In contrast, we found that caspase-8 was a critical regulator of Aβ-driven inflammasome gene expression and IL-1β release. Interestingly, loss of RIPK3 had only a modest effect on disease progression, suggesting that inhibition of necroptosis or RIPK3-mediated cytokine pathways is not critical during midstages of Aβ amyloidosis. These findings suggest that therapeutics targeting caspase-8 may represent a novel strategy to limit Aβ amyloidosis and neuroinflammation in AD.
Sushanth Kumar, Sakar Budhathoki, Christopher B. Oliveira, August D. Kahle, O. Yipkin Calhan, John R. Lukens, Christopher D. Deppmann
To better characterize the heterogeneity of multiple myeloma (MM), we profiled plasma cells (PCs) and their B cell lymphopoiesis in the BM samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering MM, and active MM by mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis. Characterization of intra- and interneoplastic heterogeneity of malignant plasmablasts and PCs revealed overexpression of the MM SET domain (MMSET), Notch-1, and CD47. Variations in upregulation of B cell signaling regulators (IFN regulatory factor 4 [IRF-4], CXCR4, B cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], c-Myc, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 [MYD88], and spliced X box-binding protein 1 [sXBP-1]) and aberrant markers (CD319, CD269, CD200, CD117, CD56, and CD28) were associated with different clinical outcomes in clonal PC subsets. In addition, prognosis was related to heterogeneity in subclonal expression of stemness markers, including neuroepithelial stem cell protein (Nestin), SRY-box transcription factor 2 (Sox2), Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF-4), and Nanog. Furthermore, we have defined significantly elevated levels of MMSET, MYD88, c-Myc, CD243, Notch-1, and CD47 from hematopoietic stem cells to PCs in myeloma B cell lymphopoiesis, noted even in premalignant conditions, with variably modulated expression of B cell development regulators, including IRF-4, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, and sXBP-1; aberrant PC markers (such as CD52, CD44, CD200, CD81, CD269, CD117, and CXCR4); and stemness-controlling regulators, including Nanog, KLF-4, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4), Sox2, and retinoic acid receptor α2 (RARα2). This study provides the rationale for precise molecular profiling of patients with MM by CyTOF technology to define disease heterogeneity and prognosis.
Jana Jakubikova, Danka Cholujova, Gabor Beke, Teru Hideshima, Lubos Klucar, Merav Leiba, Krzysztof Jamroziak, Paul G. Richardson, Efstathios Kastritis, David M. Dorfman, Kenneth C. Anderson
CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were recently implicated in immune-mediated inflammation and fibrosis progression of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). However, little is known about therapeutic targeting of CD4+ CTLs. Herein, we studied the effect of rapamycin, an approved mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, in a GO mouse model, in vitro, and in patients with refractory GO. In the adenovirus-induced model, rapamycin significantly decreased the incidence of GO. This was accompanied by the reduction of both CD4+ CTLs and the reduction of orbital inflammation, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. CD4+ CTLs from patients with active GO showed upregulation of the mTOR pathway, while rapamycin decreased their proportions and cytotoxic function. Low-dose rapamycin treatment substantially improved diplopia and the clinical activity score in steroid-refractory patients with GO. Single-cell RNA-Seq revealed that eye motility improvement was closely related to suppression of inflammation and chemotaxis in CD4+ CTLs. In conclusion, rapamycin is a promising treatment for CD4+ CTL-mediated inflammation and fibrosis in GO.
Meng Zhang, Kelvin K.L. Chong, Zi-yi Chen, Hui Guo, Yu-feng Liu, Yong-yong Kang, Yang-jun Li, Ting-ting Shi, Kenneth K.H. Lai, Ming-qian He, Kai Ye, George J. Kahaly, Bing-yin Shi, Yue Wang
Preterm birth results in low nephron endowment and increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To understand the pathogenesis of AKI and CKD in preterm humans, we generated potentially novel mouse models with a 30%–70% reduction in nephron number by inhibiting or deleting Ret tyrosine kinase in the developing ureteric bud. These mice developed glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, followed by the transition to CKD, recapitulating the renal pathological changes seen in humans born preterm. We injected neonatal mice with gentamicin, a ubiquitous nephrotoxic exposure in preterm infants, and detected more severe proximal tubular injury in mice with low nephron number compared with controls with normal nephron number. Mice with low nephron number had reduced proliferative repair with more rapid development of CKD. Furthermore, mice had more profound inflammation with highly elevated levels of MCP-1 and CXCL10, produced in part by damaged proximal tubules. Our study directly links low nephron endowment with postnatal renal hypertrophy, which in this model is maladaptive and results in CKD. Underdeveloped kidneys are more susceptible to gentamicin-induced AKI, suggesting that AKI in the setting of low nephron number is more severe and further increases the risk of CKD in this vulnerable population.
Pamela I. Good, Ling Li, Holly A. Hurst, Ileana Serrano Herrera, Katherine Xu, Meenakshi Rao, David A. Bateman, Qais Al-Awqati, Vivette D. D’Agati, Frank Costantini, Fangming Lin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic bacterial infections leading to progressive bronchiectasis and respiratory failure. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant opportunistic pathogen infecting the CF airways. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 plays a critical role in Pa adhesion to the CF airways by inducing luminal fibronectin deposition that favors bacteria trapping. Here we report that Vav3 overexpression in CF is caused by upregulation of the mRNA-stabilizing protein HuR. We found that HuR accumulates in the cytoplasm of CF airway epithelial cells and that it binds to and stabilizes Vav3 mRNA. Interestingly, disruption of the HuR-Vav3 mRNA interaction improved the CF epithelial integrity, inhibited the formation of the fibronectin-made bacterial docking platforms, and prevented Pa adhesion to the CF airway epithelium. These findings indicate that targeting HuR represents a promising antiadhesive approach in CF that can prevent initial stages of Pa infection in a context of emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens.
Mehdi Badaoui, Cyril Sobolewski, Alexandre Luscher, Marc Bacchetta, Thilo Köhler, Christian van Delden, Michelangelo Foti, Marc Chanson
The genomic and immune landscapes of prostate cancer differ by self-identified race. However, few studies have examined the genome-wide copy number landscape and immune content of matched cohorts with genetic ancestry data and clinical outcomes. Here, we assessed prostate cancer somatic copy number alterations (sCNA) and tumor immune content of a grade-matched, surgically treated cohort of 145 self-identified Black (BL) and 145 self-identified White (WH) patients with genetic ancestry estimation. A generalized linear model adjusted with age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and Gleason Grade Group and filtered for germline copy number variations (gCNV) identified 143 loci where copy number varied significantly by percent African ancestry, clustering on chromosomes 6p, 10q, 11p, 12p, and 17p. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, preoperative PSA levels, and Gleason Grade Group revealed that chromosome 8q gains (including MYC) were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence and metastasis, independent of genetic ancestry. Finally, Treg density in BL and WH patients was significantly correlated with percent genome altered, and these findings were validated in the TCGA cohort. Taken together, our findings identify specific sCNA linked to genetic ancestry and outcome in primary prostate cancer and demonstrate that Treg infiltration varies by global sCNA burden in primary disease.
Thiago Vidotto, Eddie L. Imada, Farzana Faisal, Sanjana Murali, Adrianna A. Mendes, Harsimar Kaur, Siqun Zheng, Jianfeng Xu, Edward M. Schaeffer, William B. Isaacs, Karen S. Sfanos, Luigi Marchionni, Tamara L. Lotan
The widespread presence of autoantibodies in acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly recognized, but the prevalence of autoantibodies in non–SARS-CoV-2 infections and critical illness has not yet been reported. We profiled IgG autoantibodies in 267 patients from 5 independent cohorts with non–SARS-CoV-2 viral, bacterial, and noninfectious critical illness. Serum samples were screened using Luminex arrays that included 58 cytokines and 55 autoantigens, many of which are associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Samples positive for anti-cytokine antibodies were tested for receptor blocking activity using cell-based functional assays. Anti-cytokine antibodies were identified in > 50% of patients across all 5 acutely ill cohorts. In critically ill patients, anti-cytokine antibodies were far more common in infected versus uninfected patients. In cell-based functional assays, 11 of 39 samples positive for select anti-cytokine antibodies displayed receptor blocking activity against surface receptors for Type I IFN, GM-CSF, and IL-6. Autoantibodies against CTD-associated autoantigens were also commonly observed, including newly detected antibodies that emerged in longitudinal samples. These findings demonstrate that anti-cytokine and autoantibodies are common across different viral and nonviral infections and range in severity of illness.
Allan Feng, Emily Y. Yang, Andrew Reese Moore, Shaurya Dhingra, Sarah Esther Chang, Xihui Yin, Ruoxi Pi, Elisabeth K.M. Mack, Sara Völkel, Reinhard Geßner, Margrit Gündisch, Andreas Neubauer, Harald Renz, Sotirios Tsiodras, Paraskevi C. Fragkou, Adijat A. Asuni, Joseph E. Levitt, Jennifer G. Wilson, Michelle Leong, Jennifer H. Lumb, Rong Mao, Kassandra Pinedo, Jonasel Roque, Christopher M. Richards, Mikayla Stabile, Gayathri Swaminathan, Maria L. Salagianni, Vasiliki Triantafyllia, Wilhelm Bertrams, Catherine A. Blish, Jan E. Carette, Jennifer Frankovich, Eric Meffre, Kari Christine Nadeau, Upinder Singh, Taia T. Wang, Eline T. Luning Prak, Susanne Herold, Evangelos Andreakos, Bernd Schmeck, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Angela J. Rogers, Paul J. Utz
Most overweight individuals do not develop diabetes due to compensatory islet responses to restore glucose homeostasis. Therefore, regulatory pathways that promote β cell compensation are potential targets for treatment of diabetes. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 protein (TRPM7), harboring a cation channel and a serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in controlling cell growth and proliferation. Here, we report that selective deletion of Trpm7 in β cells disrupted insulin secretion and led to progressive glucose intolerance. We indicate that the diminished insulinotropic response in β cell–specific Trpm7-knockout mice was caused by decreased insulin production because of impaired enzymatic activity of this protein. Accordingly, high-fat–fed mice with a genetic loss of TRPM7 kinase activity displayed a marked glucose intolerance accompanied by hyperglycemia. These detrimental glucoregulatory effects were engendered by reduced compensatory β cell responses because of mitigated protein kinase B (AKT)/ERK signaling. Collectively, our data identify TRPM7 kinase as a potentially novel regulator of insulin synthesis, β cell dynamics, and glucose homeostasis under obesogenic diet.
Noushafarin Khajavi, Andreas Beck, Klea Riçku, Philipp Beyerle, Katharina Jacob, Sabrina F. Syamsul, Anouar Belkacemi, Peter S. Reinach, Pascale C.F. Schreier, Houssein Salah, Tanja Popp, Aaron Novikoff, Andreas Breit, Vladimir Chubanov, Timo D. Müller, Susanna Zierler, Thomas Gudermann
Ocular surface diseases, including conjunctivitis, are recognized as common comorbidities in atopic dermatitis (AD) and occur at an increased frequency in patients with AD treated with biologics targeting IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) or IL-13. However, the inflammatory mechanisms underlying this pathology are unknown. Here, we developed a potentially novel mouse model of skin inflammation–evoked conjunctivitis and showed that it is dependent on CD4+ T cells and basophils. Blockade of IL-4Rα partially attenuated conjunctivitis development, downregulated basophil activation, and led to a reduction in expression of genes related to type 2 cytokine responses. Together, these data suggest that an IL-4Rα/basophil axis plays a role in the development of murine allergic conjunctivitis. Interestingly, we found a significant augmentation of a number of genes that encode tear proteins and enzymes in anti–IL-4Rα–treated mice, and it may underlie the partial efficacy in this model and may represent candidate mediators of the increased frequency of conjunctivitis following dupilumab in patients with AD.
Hongwei Han, Sheila Cummings, Kai-Ting C. Shade, Jennifer Johnson, George Qian, Joseph Gans, Srinivas Shankara, Javier Escobedo, Erik Zarazinski, Renee Bodinizzo, Dinesh Bangari, Paul Bryce, Alexandra Hicks
Patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (PF-ILDs) carry a poor prognosis and have limited therapeutic options. A hallmark feature is fibroblast resistance to apoptosis, leading to their persistence, accumulation, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. A complex balance of the B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein family controlling the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and fibroblast reliance on antiapoptotic proteins has been hypothesized to contribute to this resistant phenotype. Examination of lung tissue from patients with PF-ILD (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and silicosis) and mice with PF-ILD (repetitive bleomycin and silicosis) showed increased expression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members in α–smooth muscle actin–positive fibroblasts, suggesting that fibroblasts from fibrotic lungs may exhibit increased susceptibility to inhibition of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BCL-W with the BH3 mimetic ABT-263. We used 2 murine models of PF-ILD to test the efficacy of ABT-263 in reversing established persistent pulmonary fibrosis. Treatment with ABT-263 induced fibroblast apoptosis, decreased fibroblast numbers, and reduced lung collagen levels, radiographic disease, and histologically evident fibrosis. Our studies provide insight into how fibroblasts gain resistance to apoptosis and become sensitive to the therapeutic inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins. By targeting profibrotic fibroblasts, ABT-263 offers a promising therapeutic option for PF-ILDs.
Joseph C. Cooley, Nomin Javkhlan, Jasmine A. Wilson, Daniel G. Foster, Benjamin L. Edelman, Luis A. Ortiz, David A. Schwartz, David W.H. Riches, Elizabeth F. Redente
Pathogenic SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2) variants typically cause severe ocular defects within a SOX2 disorder spectrum that includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We examined exome-sequencing data from a large, well-phenotyped cohort of patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) for pathogenic SOX2 variants to investigate the underlying pathogenic SOX2 spectrum and its associated phenotypes. We identified 8 IHH individuals harboring heterozygous pathogenic SOX2 variants with variable ocular phenotypes. These variant proteins were tested in vitro to determine whether a causal relationship between IHH and SOX2 exists. We found that Sox2 was highly expressed in the hypothalamus of adult mice and colocalized with kisspeptin 1 (KISS1) expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of adult female mice. In vitro, shRNA suppression of mouse SOX2 protein in Kiss-expressing cell lines increased the levels of human kisspeptin luciferase (hKiss-luc) transcription, while SOX2 overexpression repressed hKiss-luc transcription. Further, 4 of the identified SOX2 variants prevented this SOX2-mediated repression of hKiss-luc. Together, these data suggest that pathogenic SOX2 variants contribute to both anosmic and normosmic forms of IHH, attesting to hypothalamic defects in the SOX2 disorder spectrum. Our study describes potentially novel mechanisms contributing to SOX2-related disease and highlights the necessity of SOX2 screening in IHH genetic evaluation irrespective of associated ocular defects.
Jessica Cassin, Maria I. Stamou, Kimberly W. Keefe, Kaitlin E. Sung, Celine C. Bojo, Karen J. Tonsfeldt, Rebecca A. Rojas, Vanessa Ferreira Lopes, Lacey Plummer, Kathryn B. Salnikov, David L. Keefe Jr., Metin Ozata, Myron Genel, Neoklis A. Georgopoulos, Janet E. Hall, William F. Crowley Jr., Stephanie B. Seminara, Pamela L. Mellon, Ravikumar Balasubramanian
Chronic exposure to high-fat diets (HFD) worsens intestinal disease pathology, but acute effects of HFD in tissue damage remain unclear. Here, we used short-term HFD feeding in a model of intestinal injury and found sustained damage with increased cecal dead neutrophil accumulation, along with dietary lipid accumulation. Neutrophil depletion rescued enhanced pathology. Macrophages from HFD-treated mice showed reduced capacity to engulf dead neutrophils. Macrophage clearance of dead neutrophils activates critical barrier repair and antiinflammatory pathways, including IL-10, which was lost after acute HFD feeding and intestinal injury. IL-10 overexpression restored intestinal repair after HFD feeding and intestinal injury. Macrophage exposure to lipids from the HFD prevented tethering and uptake of apoptotic cells and Il10 induction. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8) is a bridging molecule that facilitates macrophage uptake of dead cells. MFGE8 also facilitates lipid uptake, and we demonstrate that dietary lipids interfere with MFGE8-mediated macrophage apoptotic neutrophil uptake and subsequent Il10 production. Our findings demonstrate that HFD promotes intestinal pathology by interfering with macrophage clearance of dead neutrophils, leading to unresolved tissue damage.
Andrea A. Hill, Myunghoo Kim, Daniel F. Zegarra-Ruiz, Lin-Chun Chang, Kendra Norwood, Adrien Assié, Wan-Jung H. Wu, Michael C. Renfroe, Hyo Wong Song, Angela M. Major, Buck S. Samuel, Joseph M. Hyser, Randy S. Longman, Gretchen E. Diehl
Acute kidney failure and chronic kidney disease are global health issues steadily rising in incidence and prevalence. Animal models on a single genetic background have so far failed to recapitulate the clinical presentation of human nephropathies. Here, we used a simple model of folic acid–induced kidney injury in 7 highly diverse mouse strains. We measured plasma and urine parameters, as well as renal histopathology and mRNA expression data, at 1, 2, and 6 weeks after injury, covering the early recovery and long-term remission. We observed an extensive strain-specific response ranging from complete resistance of the CAST/EiJ to high sensitivity of the C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and PWK/PhJ strains. In susceptible strains, the severe early kidney injury was accompanied by the induction of mitochondrial stress response (MSR) genes and the attenuation of NAD+ synthesis pathways. This is associated with delayed healing and a prolonged inflammatory and adaptive immune response 6 weeks after insult, heralding a transition to chronic kidney disease. Through a thorough comparison of the transcriptomic response in mouse and human disease, we show that critical metabolic gene alterations were shared across species, and we highlight the PWK/PhJ strain as an emergent model of transition from acute kidney injury to chronic disease.
Jean-David Morel, Maroun Bou Sleiman, Terytty Yang Li, Giacomo von Alvensleben, Alexis M. Bachmann, Dina Hofer, Ellen Broeckx, Jing Ying Ma, Vinicius Carreira, Tao Chen, Nabil Azhar, Romer A. Gonzalez-Villalobos, Matthew Breyer, Dermot Reilly, Shannon Mullican, Johan Auwerx
Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have increased expression of liver monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but its cellular source and contribution to various aspects of NASH pathophysiology remain debated. We demonstrated increased liver CCL2 (which encodes MCP-1) expression in patients with NASH, and commensurately, a 100-fold increase in hepatocyte Ccl2 expression in a mouse model of NASH, accompanied by increased liver monocyte-derived macrophage (MoMF) infiltrate and liver fibrosis. To test repercussions of increased hepatocyte-derived MCP-1, we generated hepatocyte-specific Ccl2-knockout mice, which showed reduced liver MoMF infiltrate as well as decreased liver fibrosis. Forced hepatocyte MCP-1 expression provoked the opposite phenotype in chow-fed wild-type mice. Consistent with increased hepatocyte Notch signaling in NASH, we observed a close correlation between markers of Notch activation and CCL2 expression in patients with NASH. We found that an evolutionarily conserved Notch/recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region binding site in the Ccl2 promoter mediated transactivation of the Ccl2 promoter in NASH diet–fed mice. Increased liver MoMF infiltrate and liver fibrosis seen in opposite gain-of-function mice was ameliorated with concomitant hepatocyte Ccl2 knockout or CCR2 inhibitor treatment. Hepatocyte Notch activation prompts MCP-1–dependent increase in liver MoMF infiltration and fibrosis.
Jinku Kang, Jorge Postigo-Fernandez, KyeongJin Kim, Changyu Zhu, Junjie Yu, Marica Meroni, Brent Mayfield, Alberto Bartolomé, Dianne H. Dapito, Anthony W. Ferrante Jr., Paola Dongiovanni, Luca Valenti, Remi J. Creusot, Utpal B. Pajvani
Central integration of peripheral appetite-regulating signals ensures maintenance of energy homeostasis. Thus, plasticity of circulating molecule access to neuronal circuits involved in feeding behavior plays a key role in the adaptive response to metabolic changes. However, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood despite their relevance for therapeutic development. Here, we investigated the role of median eminence mural cells, including smooth muscle cells and pericytes, in modulating gut hormone effects on orexigenic/anorexigenic circuits. We found that conditional activation of median eminence vascular cells impinged on local blood flow velocity and altered ghrelin-stimulated food intake by delaying ghrelin access to target neurons. Thus, activation of median eminence vascular cells modulates food intake in response to peripheral ghrelin by reducing local blood flow velocity and access to the metabolic brain.
Nicola Romanò, Chrystel Lafont, Pauline Campos, Anne Guillou, Tatiana Fiordelisio, David J. Hodson, Patrice Mollard, Marie Schaeffer
TGF-β signaling is crucial for modulating osteoarthritis (OA), and protein phosphatase magnesium–dependent 1A (PPM1A) has been reported as a phosphatase of SMAD2 and regulates TGF-β signaling, while the role of PPM1A in cartilage homeostasis and OA development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we found increased PPM1A expression in OA chondrocytes and confirmed the interaction between PPM1A and phospho-SMAD2 (p-SMAD2). Importantly, our data show that PPM1A KO substantially protected mice treated with destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) surgery against cartilage degeneration and subchondral sclerosis. Additionally, PPM1A ablation reduced the cartilage catabolism and cell apoptosis after the DMM operation. Moreover, p-SMAD2 expression in chondrocytes from KO mice was higher than that in WT controls with DMM induction. However, intraarticular injection with SD-208, repressing TGF-β/SMAD2 signaling, dramatically abolished protective phenotypes in PPM1A-KO mice. Finally, a specific pharmacologic PPM1A inhibitor, Sanguinarine chloride (SC) or BC-21, was able to ameliorate OA severity in C57BL/6J mice. In summary, our study identified PPM1A as a pivotal regulator of cartilage homeostasis and demonstrated that PPM1A inhibition attenuates OA progression via regulating TGF-β/SMAD2 signaling in chondrocytes and provided PPM1A as a potential target for OA treatment.
Qinwen Ge, Zhenyu Shi, Kai-ao Zou, Jun Ying, Jiali Chen, Wenhua Yuan, Weidong Wang, Luwei Xiao, Xia Lin, Di Chen, Xin-Hua Feng, Ping-er Wang, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) are the most severe form of asthenozoospermia due to impaired axoneme structure in sperm flagella. Dynein arms are necessary components of the sperm flagellar axoneme. In this study, we recruited 3 unrelated consanguineous Pakistani families with multiple MMAF-affected individuals, who had no overt ciliary symptoms. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified 2 cilia and flagella associated protein 57 (CFAP57) loss-of-function mutations (c.2872C>T, p. R958*; and c.2737C>T, p. R913*) recessively segregating with male infertility. A mouse model mimicking the mutation (c.2872C>T) was generated and recapitulated the typical MMAF phenotype of CFAP57-mutated individuals. Both CFAP57 mutations caused loss of the long transcript-encoded CFAP57 protein in spermatozoa from MMAF-affected individuals or from the Cfap57-mutant mouse model while the short transcript was not affected. Subsequent examinations of the spermatozoa from Cfap57-mutant mice revealed that CFAP57 deficiency disrupted the inner dynein arm (IDA) assembly in sperm flagella and that single-headed IDAs were more likely to be affected. Thus, our study identified 2 pathogenic mutations in CFAP57 in MMAF-affected individuals and reported a conserved and pivotal role for the long transcript-encoded CFAP57 in IDAs’ assembly and male fertility.
Ao Ma, Jianteng Zhou, Haider Ali, Tanveer Abbas, Imtiaz Ali, Zubair Muhammad, Sobia Dil, Jing Chen, Xiongheng Huang, Hui Ma, Daren Zhao, Beibei Zhang, Yuanwei Zhang, Wasim Shah, Basit Shah, Ghulam Murtaza, Furhan Iqbal, Muzammil Ahmad Khan, Asad Khan, Qing Li, Bo Xu, Limin Wu, Huan Zhang, Qinghua Shi
Lucy V. Norling, Sarah E. Headland, Jesmond Dalli, Hildur H. Arnardottir, Oliver Haworth, Hefin R. Jones, Daniel Irimia, Charles N. Serhan, Mauro Perretti
Evan L. Reynolds, Gulcin Akinci, Mousumi Banerjee, Helen C. Looker, Adam Patterson, Robert G. Nelson, Eva L. Feldman, Brian C. Callaghan