Acute kidney failure and chronic kidney disease are global health issues steadily rising in incidence and prevalence. Animal models on a single genetic background have so far failed to recapitulate the clinical presentation of human nephropathies. Here, we used a simple model of folic acid–induced kidney injury in 7 highly diverse mouse strains. We measured plasma and urine parameters, as well as renal histopathology and mRNA expression data, at 1, 2, and 6 weeks after injury, covering the early recovery and long-term remission. We observed an extensive strain-specific response ranging from complete resistance of the CAST/EiJ to high sensitivity of the C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and PWK/PhJ strains. In susceptible strains, the severe early kidney injury was accompanied by the induction of mitochondrial stress response (MSR) genes and the attenuation of NAD+ synthesis pathways. This is associated with delayed healing and a prolonged inflammatory and adaptive immune response 6 weeks after insult, heralding a transition to chronic kidney disease. Through a thorough comparison of the transcriptomic response in mouse and human disease, we show that critical metabolic gene alterations were shared across species, and we highlight the PWK/PhJ strain as an emergent model of transition from acute kidney injury to chronic disease.
Jean-David Morel, Maroun Bou Sleiman, Terytty Yang Li, Giacomo von Alvensleben, Alexis M. Bachmann, Dina Hofer, Ellen Broeckx, Jing Ying Ma, Vinicius Carreira, Tao Chen, Nabil Azhar, Romer A. Gonzalez-Villalobos, Matthew Breyer, Dermot Reilly, Shannon Mullican, Johan Auwerx
Strain-dependent responses to folic acid–induced kidney injury and their kinetics.