In this issue of JCI Insight, Glisinski and colleagues report that the inflammatory cytokine IL-13 markedly altered self-renewal and differentiation of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s), resulting in ectopic expression of bronchial cell-associated markers and a hyperplastic phenotype. The cover image shows expansion of a subset of AEC2s that express the bronchial lineage marker SCGB1A1 (red) in murine-derived organoids in response to IL-13 treatment. AEC1-like cells express podoplanin (green), and nuclei are stained blue with DAPI.
Recent discoveries demonstrate a critical role for circadian rhythms and sleep in immune system homeostasis. Both innate and adaptive immune responses — ranging from leukocyte mobilization, trafficking, and chemotaxis to cytokine release and T cell differentiation —are mediated in a time of day–dependent manner. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently sponsored an interdisciplinary workshop, “Sleep Insufficiency, Circadian Misalignment, and the Immune Response,” to highlight new research linking sleep and circadian biology to immune function and to identify areas of high translational potential. This Review summarizes topics discussed and highlights immediate opportunities for delineating clinically relevant connections among biological rhythms, sleep, and immune regulation.
Jeffrey A. Haspel, Ron Anafi, Marishka K. Brown, Nicolas Cermakian, Christopher Depner, Paula Desplats, Andrew E. Gelman, Monika Haack, Sanja Jelic, Brian S. Kim, Aaron D. Laposky, Yvonne C. Lee, Emmanuel Mongodin, Aric A. Prather, Brian J. Prendergast, Colin Reardon, Albert C. Shaw, Shaon Sengupta, Éva Szentirmai, Mahesh Thakkar, Wendy E. Walker, Laura A. Solt
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by cytopenia and extramedullary hematopoiesis, resulting in splenomegaly. Multiple pathological mechanisms (e.g., circulating cytokines and genetic alterations, such as JAKV617F mutation) have been implicated in the etiology of MF, but the molecular mechanism causing resistance to JAK2V617F inhibitor therapy remains unknown. Among MF patients who were treated with the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib, we compared noncoding RNA profiles of ruxolitinib therapy responders versus nonresponders and found miR-543 was significantly upregulated in nonresponders. We validated these findings by reverse transcription–quantitative PCR. in this same cohort, in 2 additional independent MF patient cohorts from the United States and Romania, and in a JAK2V617F mouse model of MF. Both in vitro and in vivo models were used to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-543 in MF. Here, we demonstrate that miR-543 targets the dioxygenases ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) and 2 (TET2) in patients and in vitro, causing increased levels of global 5-methylcytosine, while decreasing the acetylation of histone 3, STAT3, and tumor protein p53. Mechanistically, we found that activation of STAT3 by JAKs epigenetically controls miR-543 expression via binding the promoter region of miR-543. Furthermore, miR-543 upregulation promotes the expression of genes related to drug metabolism, including CYP3A4, which is involved in ruxolitinib metabolism. Our findings suggest miR-543 as a potentially novel biomarker for the prognosis of MF patients with a high risk of treatment resistance and as a potentially new target for the development of new treatment options.
Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Recep Bayraktar, Taghi Manshouri, Andreia M. Silva, Cristina Ivan, Diana Gulei, Linda Fabris, Nayra Soares do Amaral, Pilar Mur, Cristina Perez, Elizabeth Torres-Claudio, Mihnea P. Dragomir, Adriana Badillo-Perez, Erik Knutsen, Pranav Narayanan, Leonard Golfman, Masayoshi Shimizu, Xinna Zhang, Wanke Zhao, Wanting Tina Ho, Marcos Roberto Estecio, Geoffrey Bartholomeusz, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Patrick A. Zweidler-McKay, Zeev Estrov, Zhizhuang J. Zhao, Srdan Verstovsek, George A. Calin, Roxana S. Redis
Colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is caused by a variety of factors, but luminal microbiota are thought to play crucial roles in disease development and progression. Indole is produced by gut microbiota and is believed to protect the colon from inflammatory damage. In the current study, we investigated whether indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring plant product found in numerous cruciferous vegetables, can prevent colitis-associated microbial dysbiosis and attempted to identify the mechanisms. Treatment with I3C led to repressed colonic inflammation and prevention of microbial dysbiosis caused by colitis, increasing a subset of gram-positive bacteria known to produce butyrate. I3C was shown to increase production of butyrate, and when mice with colitis were treated with butyrate, there was reduced colonic inflammation accompanied by suppression of Th17 and induction of Tregs, protection of the mucus layer, and upregulation in Pparg expression. Additionally, IL-22 was increased only after I3C but not butyrate administration, and neutralization of IL-22 prevented the beneficial effects of I3C against colitis, as well as blocked I3C-mediated dysbiosis and butyrate induction. This study suggests that I3C attenuates colitis primarily through induction of IL-22, which leads to modulation of gut microbiota that promote antiinflammatory butyrate.
Philip B. Busbee, Lorenzo Menzel, Haider Rasheed Alrafas, Nicholas Dopkins, William Becker, Kathryn Miranda, Chaunbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Udai P. Singh, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S. Nagarkatti
Biallelic mutations of the gene encoding the transcription factor NEUROG3 are associated with a rare disorder that presents in neonates as generalized malabsorption — due to a complete absence of enteroendocrine cells — followed, in early childhood or beyond, by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The commonly delayed onset of IDDM suggests a differential requirement for NEUROG3 in endocrine cell generation in the human pancreas versus the intestine. However, previously identified human mutations were hypomorphic and, hence, may have had residual function in pancreas. We report 2 patients with biallelic functionally null variants of the NEUROG3 gene who nonetheless did not present with IDDM during infancy but instead developed permanent IDDM during middle childhood ages. The variants showed no evidence of function in traditional promoter-based assays of NEUROG3 function and also failed to exhibit function in a variety of potentially novel in vitro and in vivo molecular assays designed to discern residual NEUROG3 function. These findings imply that, unlike in mice, pancreatic endocrine cell generation in humans is not entirely dependent on NEUROG3 expression and, hence, suggest the presence of unidentified redundant in vivo pathways in human pancreas capable of yielding β cell mass sufficient to maintain euglycemia until early childhood.
R. Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Matthew Bjerknes, Jiafang Wang, S. Vincent Wu, Manuel G. Garcia-Careaga, Pisit Pitukcheewanont, Hazel Cheng, Michael S. German, Senta Georgia, Martín G. Martín
Gigaxonin (also known as KLHL16) is an E3 ligase adaptor protein that promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Mutations in human gigaxonin cause the fatal neurodegenerative disease giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), in which IF proteins accumulate and aggregate in axons throughout the nervous system, impairing neuronal function and viability. Despite this pathophysiological significance, the upstream regulation and downstream effects of normal and aberrant gigaxonin function remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that gigaxonin is modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a prevalent form of intracellular glycosylation, in a nutrient- and growth factor–dependent manner. MS analyses of human gigaxonin revealed 9 candidate sites of O-GlcNAcylation, 2 of which — serine 272 and threonine 277 — are required for its ability to mediate IF turnover in gigaxonin-deficient human cell models that we created. Taken together, the results suggest that nutrient-responsive gigaxonin O-GlcNAcylation forms a regulatory link between metabolism and IF proteostasis. Our work may have significant implications for understanding the nongenetic modifiers of GAN phenotypes and for the optimization of gene therapy for this disease.
Po-Han Chen, Jimin Hu, Jianli Wu, Duc T. Huynh, Timothy J. Smith, Samuel Pan, Brittany J. Bisnett, Alexander B. Smith, Annie Lu, Brett M. Condon, Jen-Tsan Chi, Michael Boyce
Lithium (Li) is the mainstay pharmacotherapeutic mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder. Its efficacious use is complicated by acute and chronic renal side effects, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway senses and coordinates cellular responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Here, we identify that graded genetic activation of Nrf2 protects against Li-induced NDI (Li-NDI) and volume wasting via an aquaporin 2–independent mechanism. Renal Nrf2 activity is differentially expressed on functional segments of the nephron, and its activation along the distal tubule and collecting duct directly modulates ion transporter expression, mimicking paradoxical effects of diuretics in mitigating Li-NDI. In addition, Nrf2 reduces cyclooxygenase expression and vasoactive prostaglandin biosynthesis. Pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 confers protective effects, confirming this pathway as a potentially novel druggable target for the prevention of acute and chronic renal sequelae of Li therapy.
Soma Jobbagy, Dario A. Vitturi, Sonia R. Salvatore, Maria F. Pires, Pascal Rowart, David R. Emlet, Mark Ross, Scott Hahn, Claudette St. Croix, Stacy G. Wendell, Arohan R. Subramanya, Adam C. Straub, Roderick J. Tan, Francisco J. Schopfer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has dismal 5-year survival (<9%). We hypothesize that exposure of tumors to conventional therapies may preferentially modulate immune biomarkers in the tumor microenvironment in PDAC. PDAC patients who underwent upfront surgical resection or who received neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy followed by surgical resection were selected for study. Total expression of immunologically relevant transcripts and spatially resolved expression of immunologically relevant proteins was quantitated using multiplexed methods (NanoString nCounter and GeoMX platforms). This analysis identified numerous differentially expressed transcripts associated with the type of neoadjuvant therapy received. Moreover, we identified significant alterations in the expression and/or spatial distribution of immunologically relevant proteins in different regions (tumor cell rich, immune cell rich, stromal cell rich) of the tumor microenvironment. These data provide insight into the immunological effects of clinically relevant neoadjuvant therapy for resectable/borderline-resectable PDAC by describing significant differences in the expression of key immunologic biomarkers within the PDAC microenvironment that were associated with the type of treatment patients received prior to surgical resection. This represents a comprehensive analysis of numerous biomarkers conducted on the PDAC microenvironment. This work may guide strategic new combination therapies for pancreatic cancer.
Matthew R. Farren, Layal Sayegh, Michael Brandon Ware, Hsiao-Rong Chen, Jingjing Gong, Yan Liang, Alyssa Krasinskas, Shishir K. Maithel, Mohammad Zaidi, Juan M. Sarmiento, David Kooby, Pretesh Patel, Bassel El-Rayes, Walid Shaib, Gregory B. Lesinski
BACKGROUND Serological tools for the accurate detection of recent malaria exposure are needed to guide and monitor malaria control efforts. IgG responses against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-10 (MSP10) were measured as a potential way to identify recent malaria exposure in the Peruvian Amazon.METHODS A field-based study included 470 participants in a longitudinal cohort who completed a comprehensive evaluation: light microscopy and PCR on enrollment, at least 1 monthly follow-up by light microscopy, a second PCR, and serum and dried blood spots for serological analysis at the end of the follow-up. IgG titers against novel mammalian cell–produced recombinant PvMSP10 and PfMSP10 were determined by ELISA.RESULTS During the follow-up period, 205 participants were infected, including 171 with P. vivax, 26 with P. falciparum, 6 with infections by both species but at different times, and 2 with mixed infections. Exposure to P. vivax was more accurately identified when serological responses to PvMSP10 were obtained from serum (sensitivity, 58.1%; specificity, 81.8%; AUC: 0.76) than from dried blood spots (sensitivity, 35.2; specificity, 83.5%; AUC: 0.64) (PAUC < 0.001). Sensitivity was highest (serum, 82.9%; dried blood spot, 45.7%) with confirmed P. vivax infections occurring 7–30 days before sample collection; sensitivity decreased significantly in relation to time since last documented infection. PvMSP10 serological data did not show evidence of interspecies cross-reactivity. Anti-PfMSP10 responses poorly discriminated between P. falciparum–exposed and nonexposed individuals (AUC = 0.59; P > 0.05).CONCLUSION Anti-PvMSP10 IgG indicates recent exposure to P. vivax at the population level in the Amazon region. Serum, not dried blood spots, should be used for such serological tests.FUNDING Cooperative agreement U19AI089681 from the United States Public Health Service, NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, as the Amazonian International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research.
Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Kailash P. Patra, Maritza Calderón, Katherine Torres, Dionicia Gamboa, Edith Arocutipa, Edith Málaga, Katherine Garro, Carlos Fernández, Grace Trompeter, Yossef Alnasser, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Robert H. Gilman, Joseph M. Vinetz
Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common and significant complication related to immunosuppressive agents required to prevent organ or cell transplant rejection. To elucidate the effects of 2 commonly used agents, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (SIR), on islet function and test whether these effects could be reversed or prevented, we investigated human islets transplanted into immunodeficient mice treated with TAC or SIR at clinically relevant levels. Both TAC and SIR impaired insulin secretion in fasted and/or stimulated conditions. Treatment with TAC or SIR increased amyloid deposition and islet macrophages, disrupted insulin granule formation, and induced broad transcriptional dysregulation related to peptide processing, ion/calcium flux, and the extracellular matrix; however, it did not affect regulation of β cell mass. Interestingly, these β cell abnormalities reversed after withdrawal of drug treatment. Furthermore, cotreatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist completely prevented TAC-induced β cell dysfunction and partially prevented SIR-induced β cell dysfunction. These results highlight the importance of both calcineurin and mTOR signaling in normal human β cell function in vivo and suggest that modulation of these pathways may prevent or ameliorate PTDM.
Chunhua Dai, John T. Walker, Alena Shostak, Ana Padgett, Erick Spears, Scott Wisniewski, Greg Poffenberger, Radhika Aramandla, E. Danielle Dean, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Alvin C. Powers
The T helper 2 (Th2) inflammatory cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been associated with both obstructive and fibrotic lung diseases; however, its specific effect on the epithelial stem cells in the gas exchange compartment of the lung (alveolar space) has not been explored. Here, we used in vivo lung models of homeostasis and repair, ex vivo organoid platforms, and potentially novel quantitative proteomic techniques to show that IL-13 disrupts the self-renewal and differentiation of both murine and human type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s). Significantly, we find that IL-13 promotes ectopic expression of markers typically associated with bronchiolar airway cells and commonly seen in the alveolar region of lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we identify a number of proteins that are differentially secreted by AEC2s in response to IL-13 and may provide biomarkers to identify subsets of patients with pulmonary disease driven by “Th2-high” biology.
Kristen M. Glisinski, Adam J. Schlobohm, Sarah V. Paramore, Anastasiya Birukova, M. Arthur Moseley, Matthew W. Foster, Christina E. Barkauskas
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain hundreds of lipid species and proteins and exert many potentially vasoprotective and antidiabetogenic activities on cells. To resolve structure-function-disease relationships of HDL, we characterized HDL of 51 healthy subjects and 98 patients with diabetes (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD), or both for protein and lipid composition, as well as functionality in 5 cell types. The integration of 40 clinical characteristics, 34 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) features, 182 proteins, 227 lipid species, and 12 functional read-outs by high-dimensional statistical modeling revealed, first, that CHD and T2DM are associated with different changes of HDL in size distribution, protein and lipid composition, and function. Second, different cellular functions of HDL are weakly correlated with each other and determined by different structural components. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) was no proxy of other functions. Third, 3 potentially novel determinants of HDL function were identified and validated by the use of artificially reconstituted HDL, namely the sphingadienine-based sphingomyelin SM 42:3 and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D1 for the ability of HDL to inhibit starvation-induced apoptosis of human aortic endothelial cells and apolipoprotein F for the ability of HDL to promote maximal respiration of brown adipocytes.
Mathias Cardner, Mustafa Yalcinkaya, Sandra Goetze, Edlira Luca, Miroslav Balaz, Monika Hunjadi, Johannes Hartung, Andrej Shemet, Nicolle Kränkel, Silvija Radosavljevic, Michaela Keel, Alaa Othman, Gergely Karsai, Thorsten Hornemann, Manfred Claassen, Gerhard Liebisch, Erick Carreira, Andreas Ritsch, Ulf Landmesser, Jan Krützfeldt, Christian Wolfrum, Bernd Wollscheid, Niko Beerenwinkel, Lucia Rohrer, Arnold von Eckardstein
Effective treatments and animal models for the most prevalent neurodegenerative form of blindness in elderly people, called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are lacking. Genome-wide association studies have identified lipid metabolism and inflammation as AMD-associated pathogenic pathways. Given liver X receptors (LXRs), encoded by the nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H members 2 and 3 (NR1H3 and NR1H2), are master regulators of these pathways, herein we investigated the role of LXR in human and mouse eyes as a function of age and disease and tested the therapeutic potential of targeting LXR. We identified immunopositive LXR fragments in human extracellular early dry AMD lesions and a decrease in LXR expression within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as a function of age. Aged mice lacking LXR presented with isoform-dependent ocular pathologies. Specifically, loss of the Nr1h3 isoform resulted in pathobiologies aligned with AMD, supported by compromised visual function, accumulation of native and oxidized lipids in the outer retina, and upregulation of ocular inflammatory cytokines, while absence of Nr1h2 was associated with ocular lipoidal degeneration. LXR activation not only ameliorated lipid accumulation and oxidant-induced injury in RPE cells but also decreased ocular inflammatory markers and lipid deposition in a mouse model, thereby providing translational support for pursuing LXR-active pharmaceuticals as potential therapies for dry AMD.
Mayur Choudhary, Ebraheim N. Ismail, Pei-Li Yao, Faryan Tayyari, Roxana A. Radu, Steven Nusinowitz, Michael E. Boulton, Rajendra S. Apte, Jeffrey W. Ruberti, James T. Handa, Peter Tontonoz, Goldis Malek
Influenza is a highly contagious viral pathogen with more than 200,000 cases reported in the United States during the 2017–2018 season. Annual vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization, with the goal to reduce influenza severity and transmission. Currently available vaccines are about 60% effective, and vaccine effectiveness varies from season to season, as well as between different influenza subtypes within a single season. Immunological imprinting from early-life influenza infection can prominently shape the immune response to subsequent infections. Here, the impact of preexisting B cell memory in the response to quadrivalent influenza vaccine was assessed using blood samples collected from healthy subjects (18–85 years old) prior to and 21–28 days following influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccination increased both HA-specific antibodies and memory B cell frequency. Despite no apparent differences in antigenicity between vaccine components, most individuals were biased toward one of the vaccine strains. Specifically, responses to H3N2 were reduced in magnitude relative to the other vaccine components. Overall, this study unveils a potentially new mechanism underlying differential vaccine effectiveness against distinct influenza subtypes.
Rodrigo B. Abreu, Greg A. Kirchenbaum, Emily F. Clutter, Giuseppe A. Sautto, Ted M. Ross
Subpial demyelination is a specific hallmark of multiple sclerosis and a correlate of disease progression. Although the mechanism(s) that mediate pathogenesis in the subpial compartment remain unclear, it has been speculated that inflammation in the overlying meninges may be associated with subpial injury. Here we show that adoptive transfer of proteolipid protein–primed Th17 cells into SJL/J recipient mice induces subpial demyelination associated with microglial/macrophage activation, disruption of the glial limitans, and evidence of an oxidative stress response. This pathology was topologically associated with foci of immune cells in the meninges and occurred in the absence of measurable anti–myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgM or IgG antibodies. To test the role of brain-infiltrating leukocytes on subpial injury, we modulated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 activity with BAF312 (siponimod) treatment. Administration of BAF312, even after adoptively transferred T cells had entered the brain, significantly ameliorated clinical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and diminished subpial pathology, concomitant with a selective reduction in the capacity of transferred T cells to make Th17 cytokines. We conclude that sustained subpial cortical injury is associated with the capacity for brain-resident T cells to produce Th17 cytokines, and this pathological process occurs in an S1P receptor1,5–dependent manner.
Lesley A. Ward, Dennis S.W. Lee, Anshu Sharma, Angela Wang, Ikbel Naouar, Xianjie I. Ma, Natalia Pikor, Barbara Nuesslein-Hildesheim, Valeria Ramaglia, Jennifer L. Gommerman
Small molecule inhibitors of dual specificity, tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), including harmine and others, are able to drive human β cell regeneration. While DYRK1A is certainly a target of this class, whether it is the only or the most important target is uncertain. Here, we employ a combined pharmacologic and genetic approach to refine the potential mitogenic targets of the DYRK1A inhibitor family in human islets. A combination of human β cell RNA sequencing, DYRK1A inhibitor kinome screens, pharmacologic inhibitors, and targeted silencing of candidate genes confirms that DYRK1A is a central target. Surprisingly, however, DYRK1B also proves to be an important target: silencing DYRK1A results in an increase in DYRK1B. Simultaneous silencing of both DYRK1A and DYRK1B yields greater β cell proliferation than silencing either individually. Importantly, other potential kinases, such as the CLK and the GSK3 families, are excluded as important harmine targets. Finally, we describe adenoviruses that are able to silence up to 7 targets simultaneously. Collectively, we report that inhibition of both DYRK1A and DYRK1B is required for induction of maximal rates of human β cell proliferation, and we provide clarity for future efforts in structure-based drug design for human β cell regenerative drugs.
Courtney Ackeifi, Ethan Swartz, Kunal Kumar, Hongtao Liu, Suebsuwong Chalada, Esra Karakose, Donald K. Scott, Adolfo Garcia-Ocaña, Roberto Sanchez, Robert J. DeVita, Andrew F. Stewart, Peng Wang
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disease resulting in progressive muscle degeneration and wasting. Glucocorticoids, specifically prednisone/prednisolone and deflazacort, are commonly used by DMD patients. Emerging DMD therapeutics include those targeting the muscle-wasting factor, myostatin (Mstn). The aim of this study was to investigate how chronic glucocorticoid treatment impacts the efficacy of Mstn inhibition in the D2.mdx mouse model of DMD. We report that chronic treatment of dystrophic mice with prednisolone (Pred) causes significant muscle wasting, entailing both activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway and inhibition of muscle protein synthesis. Combining Pred with Mstn inhibition, using a modified Mstn propeptide (dnMstn), completely abrogates the muscle hypertrophic effects of Mstn inhibition independently of Mstn expression or SMAD3 activation. Transcriptomic analysis identified that combining Pred with dnMstn treatment affects gene expression profiles associated with inflammation, metabolism, and fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that Pred-induced muscle atrophy is not prevented by Mstn ablation. Therefore, glucocorticoids interfere with potential muscle mass benefits associated with targeting Mstn, and the ramifications of glucocorticoid use should be a consideration during clinical trial design for DMD therapeutics. These results have significant implications for past and future Mstn inhibition trials in DMD.
David W. Hammers, Cora C. Hart, Andreas Patsalos, Michael K. Matheny, Lillian A. Wright, Laszlo Nagy, H. Lee Sweeney
Autosis is a distinct form of cell death that requires both autophagy genes and the Na+,K+-ATPase pump. However, the relationship between the autophagy machinery and Na+,K+-ATPase is unknown. We explored the hypothesis that Na+,K+-ATPase interacts with the autophagy protein Beclin 1 during stress and autosis-inducing conditions. Starvation increased the Beclin 1/Na+,K+-ATPase interaction in cultured cells, and this was blocked by cardiac glycosides, inhibitors of Na+,K+-ATPase. Increases in Beclin 1/Na+,K+-ATPase interaction were also observed in tissues from starved mice, livers of patients with anorexia nervosa, brains of neonatal rats subjected to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and kidneys of mice subjected to renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Cardiac glycosides blocked the increased Beclin 1/Na+,K+-ATPase interaction during cerebral HI injury and renal IRI. In the mouse renal IRI model, cardiac glycosides reduced numbers of autotic cells in the kidney and improved clinical outcome. Moreover, blockade of endogenous cardiac glycosides increased Beclin 1/Na+,K+-ATPase interaction and autotic cell death in mouse hearts during exercise. Thus, Beclin 1/Na+,K+-ATPase interaction is increased in stress conditions, and cardiac glycosides decrease this interaction and autosis in both pathophysiological and physiological settings. This crosstalk between cellular machinery that generates and consumes energy during stress may represent a fundamental homeostatic mechanism.
Álvaro F. Fernández, Yang Liu, Vanessa Ginet, Mingjun Shi, Jihoon Nah, Zhongju Zou, Anwu Zhou, Bruce A. Posner, Guanghua Xiao, Marion Tanguy, Valérie Paradis, Junichi Sadoshima, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Julien Puyal, Ming Chang Hu, Beth Levine
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that obesity-associated hepatosteatosis is a pathophysiological chemical depot for fat-soluble vitamins and altered normal physiology. Using α-tocopherol (vitamin E) as a model vitamin, pharmacokinetics and kinetics principles were used to determine whether excess liver fat sequestered α-tocopherol in women with obesity-associated hepatosteatosis versus healthy controls.METHODS Custom-synthesized deuterated α-tocopherols (d3- and d6-α-tocopherols) were administered to hospitalized healthy women and women with hepatosteatosis under investigational new drug guidelines. Fluorescently labeled α-tocopherol was custom-synthesized for cell studies.RESULTS In healthy subjects, 85% of intravenous d6-α-tocopherol disappeared from the circulation within 20 minutes but reappeared within minutes and peaked at 3–4 hours; d3- and d6-α-tocopherols localized to lipoproteins. Lipoprotein redistribution occurred only in vivo within 1 hour, indicating a key role of the liver in uptake and re-release. Compared with healthy subjects who received 2 mg, subjects with hepatosteatosis had similar d6-α-tocopherol entry rates into liver but reduced initial release rates (P < 0.001). Similarly, pharmacokinetics parameters were reduced in hepatosteatosis subjects, indicating reduced hepatic d6-α-tocopherol output. Reductions in kinetics and pharmacokinetics parameters in hepatosteatosis subjects who received 2 mg were echoed by similar reductions in healthy subjects when comparing 5- and 2-mg doses. In vitro, fluorescent-labeled α-tocopherol localized to lipid in fat-loaded hepatocytes, indicating sequestration.CONCLUSIONS The unique role of the liver in vitamin E physiology is dysregulated by excess liver fat. Obesity-associated hepatosteatosis may produce unrecognized hepatic vitamin E sequestration, which might subsequently drive liver disease. Our findings raise the possibility that hepatosteatosis may similarly alter hepatic physiology of other fat-soluble vitamins.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00862433.FUNDING National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and NIH grants DK053213-13, DK067494, and DK081761.
Pierre-Christian Violet, Ifechukwude C. Ebenuwa, Yu Wang, Mahtab Niyyati, Sebastian J. Padayatty, Brian Head, Kenneth Wilkins, Stacey Chung, Varsha Thakur, Lynn Ulatowski, Jeffrey Atkinson, Mikel Ghelfi, Sheila Smith, Hongbin Tu, Gerd Bobe, Chia-Ying Liu, David W. Herion, Robert D. Shamburek, Danny Manor, Maret G. Traber, Mark Levine
Overexpression and long terminal repeat (LTR) polymorphism of the HRES‑1/Rab4 human endogenous retrovirus locus have been associated with T cell activation and disease manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although genomic DNA methylation is diminished overall in SLE, its role in HRES-1/Rab4 expression is unknown. Therefore, we determined how lupus-associated polymorphic rs451401 alleles of the LTR regulate transcription from the HRES-1/Rab4 promoter and thus affect T cell activation. The results showed that cytosine–119 is hypermethylated while cytosine–51 of the promoter and the LTR enhancer are hypomethylated in SLE. Pharmacologic or genetic inactivation of DNA methyltransferase 1 augmented the expression of HRES-1/Rab4. The minimal promoter was selectively recognized by metabolic stress sensor NRF1 when cytosine–119 but not cytosine–51 was methylated, and NRF1 stimulated HRES-1/Rab4 expression in human T cells. In turn, IRF2 and PSIP1 bound to the LTR enhancer and exerted control over HRES-1/Rab4 expression in rs451401 genotype– and methylation-dependent manners. The LTR enhancer conferred markedly greater expression of HRES-1/Rab4 in subjects with rs451401CC over rs451401GG alleles that in turn promoted mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation upon T cell receptor stimulation. HRES-1/Rab4 alone robustly activated mTOR in human T cells. These findings identify HRES-1/Rab4 as a methylation- and rs451401 allele–dependent transducer of environmental stress and controller of T cell activation.
Aparna Godavarthy, Ryan Kelly, John Jimah, Miguel Beckford, Tiffany Caza, David Fernandez, Nick Huang, Manuel Duarte, Joshua Lewis, Hind J. Fadel, Eric M. Poeschla, Katalin Banki, Andras Perl