Myelofibrosis (MF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by cytopenia and extramedullary hematopoiesis, resulting in splenomegaly. Multiple pathological mechanisms (e.g., circulating cytokines and genetic alterations, such as JAKV617F mutation) have been implicated in the etiology of MF, but the molecular mechanism causing resistance to JAK2V617F inhibitor therapy remains unknown. Among MF patients who were treated with the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib, we compared noncoding RNA profiles of ruxolitinib therapy responders versus nonresponders and found miR-543 was significantly upregulated in nonresponders. We validated these findings by reverse transcription–quantitative PCR. in this same cohort, in 2 additional independent MF patient cohorts from the United States and Romania, and in a JAK2V617F mouse model of MF. Both in vitro and in vivo models were used to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-543 in MF. Here, we demonstrate that miR-543 targets the dioxygenases ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) and 2 (TET2) in patients and in vitro, causing increased levels of global 5-methylcytosine, while decreasing the acetylation of histone 3, STAT3, and tumor protein p53. Mechanistically, we found that activation of STAT3 by JAKs epigenetically controls miR-543 expression via binding the promoter region of miR-543. Furthermore, miR-543 upregulation promotes the expression of genes related to drug metabolism, including CYP3A4, which is involved in ruxolitinib metabolism. Our findings suggest miR-543 as a potentially novel biomarker for the prognosis of MF patients with a high risk of treatment resistance and as a potentially new target for the development of new treatment options.
Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Recep Bayraktar, Taghi Manshouri, Andreia M. Silva, Cristina Ivan, Diana Gulei, Linda Fabris, Nayra Soares do Amaral, Pilar Mur, Cristina Perez, Elizabeth Torres-Claudio, Mihnea P. Dragomir, Adriana Badillo-Perez, Erik Knutsen, Pranav Narayanan, Leonard Golfman, Masayoshi Shimizu, Xinna Zhang, Wanke Zhao, Wanting Tina Ho, Marcos Roberto Estecio, Geoffrey Bartholomeusz, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Patrick A. Zweidler-McKay, Zeev Estrov, Zhizhuang J. Zhao, Srdan Verstovsek, George A. Calin, Roxana S. Redis