Abnormal activation of neddylation modification and dysregulated energy metabolism are frequently seen in many types of cancer cells. Whether and how neddylation modification affects cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that MLN4924, a small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation modification, induces mitochondrial fission-to-fusion conversion in breast cancer cells via inhibiting ubiquitylation and degradation of fusion-promoting protein mitofusin 1 (MFN1) by SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase and blocking the mitochondrial translocation of fusion-inhibiting protein DRP1. Importantly, MLN4924-induced mitochondrial fusion is independent of cell cycle progression, but confers cellular survival. Mass-spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and mitochondrial functional assays reveal that MLN4924 inhibits the TCA cycle but promotes mitochondrial OXPHOS. MLN4924 also increases glycolysis by activating PKM2 via promoting its tetramerization. Biologically, MLN4924 coupled with the OXPHOS inhibitor metformin, or the glycolysis inhibitor shikonin, significantly inhibits cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Together, our study links neddylation modification and energy metabolism, and provides sound strategies for effective combined cancer therapies.
Qiyin Zhou, Hua Li, Yuanyuan Li, Mingjia Tan, Shaohua Fan, Cong Cao, Feilong Meng, Ling Zhu, Lili Zhao, Min-Xin Guan, Hongchuan Jin, Yi Sun
RNA binding proteins represent an emerging class of proteins with a role in cardiac dysfunction. We show that activation of the RNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) is increased in the failing human heart. To determine the functional role of HuR in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, we created an inducible cardiomyocyte-specific HuR-deletion mouse and showed that HuR deletion reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis while preserving cardiac function in a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model of pressure overload–induced hypertrophy. Assessment of HuR-dependent changes in global gene expression suggests that the mechanistic basis for this protection occurs through a reduction in fibrotic signaling, specifically through a reduction in TGF-β (Tgfb) expression. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of HuR at a clinically relevant time point following the initial development of pathological hypertrophy after TAC also yielded a significant reduction in pathological progression, as marked by a reduction in hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis and preserved function. In summary, this study demonstrates a functional role for HuR in the progression of pressure overload–induced cardiac hypertrophy and establishes HuR inhibition as a viable therapeutic approach for pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Lisa C. Green, Sarah R. Anthony, Samuel Slone, Lindsey Lanzillotta, Michelle L. Nieman, Xiaoqing Wu, Nathan Robbins, Shannon M. Jones, Sudeshna Roy, A. Phillip Owens III, Jeffrey Aube, Liang Xu, John N. Lorenz, Burns C. Blaxall, Jack Rubinstein, Joshua B. Benoit, Michael Tranter
Macrophage activation, i.e., classical M1 and the alternative M2, plays a critical role in many pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation and tissue injury and repair. Although the regulation of macrophage activation has been under extensive investigation, there is little knowledge about the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this event. In this study, we found that lncRNA Malat1 expression is distinctly regulated in differentially activated macrophages in that it is upregulated in LPS-treated and downregulated in IL-4–treated cells. Malat1 knockdown attenuates LPS-induced M1 macrophage activation. In contrast, Malat1 knockdown enhanced IL-4–activated M2 differentiation as well as a macrophage profibrotic phenotype. Mechanistically, Malat1 knockdown led to decreased expression of Clec16a, silencing of which phenocopied the regulatory effect of Malat1 on M1 activation. Interestingly, Malat1 knockdown promoted IL-4 induction of mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (MPCs) and their mediation of glucose-derived oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), which was crucial to the Malat1 regulation of M2 differentiation and profibrotic phenotype. Furthermore, mice with either global or conditional myeloid knockout of Malat1 demonstrated diminished LPS-induced systemic and pulmonary inflammation and injury. In contrast, these mice developed more severe bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, accompanied by alveolar macrophages displaying augmented M2 and profibrotic phenotypes. In summary, we have identified what we believe is a previously unrecognized role of Malat1 in the regulation of macrophage polarization. Our data demonstrate that Malat1 is involved in pulmonary pathogeneses in association with aberrant macrophage activation.
Huachun Cui, Sami Banerjee, Sijia Guo, Na Xie, Jing Ge, Dingyuan Jiang, Martin Zörnig, Victor J. Thannickal, Gang Liu
Diarrhea is a major side effect of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that the primary mechanism of ErbB TKI diarrhea is activation of basolateral membrane potassium (K+) channels and apical membrane chloride (Cl–) channels in intestinal epithelia and demonstrate the efficacy of channel blockers in a rat model of TKI diarrhea. Short-circuit current in colonic epithelial cells showed that the TKIs gefitinib, lapatinib, and afatinib do not affect basal secretion but amplify carbachol-stimulated secretion by 2- to 3-fold. Mechanistic studies with the second-generation TKI afatinib showed that the amplifying effect on Cl– secretion was Ca2+ and cAMP independent, was blocked by CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and K+ channel inhibitors, and involved EGFR binding and ERK signaling. Afatinib-amplified activation of basolateral K+ and apical Cl– channels was demonstrated by selective membrane permeabilization, ion substitution, and channel inhibitors. Rats that were administered afatinib orally at 60 mg/kg/day developed diarrhea with increased stool water from approximately 60% to greater than 80%, which was reduced by up to 75% by the K+ channel inhibitors clotrimazole or senicapoc or the CFTR inhibitor (R)-BPO-27. These results indicate a mechanism for TKI diarrhea involving K+ and Cl– channel activation and support the therapeutic efficacy of channel inhibitors.
Tianying Duan, Onur Cil, Jay R. Thiagarajah, Alan S. Verkman
Evidence has emerged that the failing heart increases utilization of ketone bodies. We sought to determine whether this fuel shift is adaptive. Mice rendered incapable of oxidizing the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) in the heart exhibited worsened heart failure in response to fasting or a pressure overload/ischemic insult compared with WT controls. Increased delivery of 3OHB ameliorated pathologic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice and in a canine pacing model of progressive heart failure. 3OHB was shown to enhance bioenergetic thermodynamics of isolated mitochondria in the context of limiting levels of fatty acids. These results indicate that the heart utilizes 3OHB as a metabolic stress defense and suggest that strategies aimed at increasing ketone delivery to the heart could prove useful in the treatment of heart failure.
Julie L. Horton, Michael T. Davidson, Clara Kurishima, Rick B. Vega, Jeffery C. Powers, Timothy R. Matsuura, Christopher Petucci, E. Douglas Lewandowski, Peter A. Crawford, Deborah M. Muoio, Fabio A. Recchia, Daniel P. Kelly
Allergic eosinophilic asthma is a chronic condition causing airway remodeling resulting in lung dysfunction. We observed that expression of sirtuin 2 (Sirt2), a histone deacetylase, regulates the recruitment of eosinophils after sensitization and challenge with a triple antigen: dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus fumigatus (DRA). Our data demonstrate that IL-4 regulates the expression of Sirt2 isoform 3/5. Pharmacological inhibition of Sirt2 by AGK2 resulted in diminished cellular recruitment, decreased CCL17/TARC, and reduced goblet cell hyperplasia. YM1 and Fizz1 expression was reduced in AGK2-treated, IL-4–stimulated lung macrophages in vitro as well as in lung macrophages from AGK2-DRA–challenged mice. Conversely, overexpression of Sirt2 resulted in increased cellular recruitment, CCL17 production, and goblet cell hyperplasia following DRA challenge. Sirt2 isoform 3/5 was upregulated in primary human alveolar macrophages following IL-4 and AGK2 treatment, which resulted in reduced CCL17 and markers of alternative activation. These gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies indicate that Sirt2 could be developed as a treatment for eosinophilic asthma.
Yong Gyu Lee, Brenda F. Reader, Derrick Herman, Adam Streicher, Joshua A. Englert, Mathias Ziegler, Sangwoon Chung, Manjula Karpurapu, Gye Young Park, John W. Christman, Megan N. Ballinger
The angiopoietin (Ang)/Tie2 signaling pathway is essential for maintaining vascular homeostasis, and its dysregulation is associated with several diseases. Interactions between Tie2 and α5β1 integrin have emerged as part of this control; however, the mechanism is incompletely understood. AXT107, a collagen IV–derived peptide, has strong antipermeability activity and has enabled the elucidation of this previously undetermined mechanism. Previously, AXT107 was shown to inhibit VEGFR2 and other growth factor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinase association with specific integrins. AXT107 disrupts α5β1 and stimulates the relocation of Tie2 and α5 to cell junctions. In the presence of Ang2 and AXT107, junctional Tie2 is activated, downstream survival signals are upregulated, F-actin is rearranged to strengthen junctions, and, as a result, endothelial junctional permeability is reduced. These data suggest that α5β1 sequesters Tie2 in nonjunctional locations in endothelial cell membranes and that AXT107-induced disruption of α5β1 promotes clustering of Tie2 at junctions and converts Ang2 into a strong agonist, similar to responses observed when Ang1 levels greatly exceed those of Ang2. The potentiation of Tie2 activation by Ang2 even extended to mouse models in which AXT107 induced Tie2 phosphorylation in a model of hypoxia and inhibited vascular leakage in an Ang2-overexpression transgenic model and an LPS-induced inflammation model. Because Ang2 levels are very high in ischemic diseases, such as diabetic macular edema, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, uveitis, and cancer, targeting α5β1 with AXT107 provides a potentially more effective approach to treat these diseases.
Adam C. Mirando, Jikui Shen, Raquel Lima e Silva, Zenny Chu, Nicholas C. Sass, Valeria E. Lorenc, Jordan J. Green, Peter A. Campochiaro, Aleksander S. Popel, Niranjan B. Pandey
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation refers to the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose to protein, generating branched, long chains of ADP-ribose moieties, known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is the main polymerase and acceptor of PAR in response to DNA damage. Excessive intracellular PAR accumulation due to PARP1 activation leads cell death in a pathway known as parthanatos. PAR degradation is mainly controlled by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolase 3 (ARH3). Our previous results demonstrated that ARH3 confers protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, by lowering cytosolic and nuclear PAR levels and preventing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. We identified a family with an ARH3 gene mutation that resulted in a truncated, inactive protein. The 8-year-old proband exhibited a progressive neurodegeneration phenotype. In addition, parthanatos was observed in neurons of the patient’s deceased sibling, and an older sibling exhibited a mild behavioral phenotype. Consistent with the previous findings, the patient’s fibroblasts and ARH3-deficient mice were more sensitive, respectively, to H2O2 stress and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced PAR accumulation and cell death. Further, PARP1 inhibition alleviated cell death and injury resulting from oxidative stress and ischemia/reperfusion. PARP1 inhibitors may attenuate the progression of neurodegeneration in affected patients with ARH3 deficiency.
Masato Mashimo, Xiangning Bu, Kazumasa Aoyama, Jiro Kato, Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo, Linda A. Stevens, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Lynne A. Wolfe, Camilo Toro, David Adams, Thomas Markello, William A. Gahl, Joel Moss
Newly emerging viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome CoVs (MERS-CoV), and H7N9, cause fatal acute lung injury (ALI) by driving hypercytokinemia and aggressive inflammation through mechanisms that remain elusive. In SARS-CoV/macaque models, we determined that anti–spike IgG (S-IgG), in productively infected lungs, causes severe ALI by skewing inflammation-resolving response. Alveolar macrophages underwent functional polarization in acutely infected macaques, demonstrating simultaneously both proinflammatory and wound-healing characteristics. The presence of S-IgG prior to viral clearance, however, abrogated wound-healing responses and promoted MCP1 and IL-8 production and proinflammatory monocyte/macrophage recruitment and accumulation. Critically, patients who eventually died of SARS (hereafter referred to as deceased patients) displayed similarly accumulated pulmonary proinflammatory, absence of wound-healing macrophages, and faster neutralizing antibody responses. Their sera enhanced SARS-CoV–induced MCP1 and IL-8 production by human monocyte–derived wound-healing macrophages, whereas blockade of FcγR reduced such effects. Our findings reveal a mechanism responsible for virus-mediated ALI, define a pathological consequence of viral specific antibody response, and provide a potential target for treatment of SARS-CoV or other virus-mediated lung injury.
Li Liu, Qiang Wei, Qingqing Lin, Jun Fang, Haibo Wang, Hauyee Kwok, Hangying Tang, Kenji Nishiura, Jie Peng, Zhiwu Tan, Tongjin Wu, Ka-Wai Cheung, Kwok-Hung Chan, Xavier Alvarez, Chuan Qin, Andrew Lackner, Stanley Perlman, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
GPR55, a lipid-sensing receptor, is implicated in cell cycle control, malignant cell mobilization, and tissue invasion in cancer. However, a physiological role for GPR55 is virtually unknown for any tissue type. Here, we localize GPR55 to self-renewing ductal epithelial cells and their terminally differentiated progeny in both human and mouse salivary glands. Moreover, we find GPR55 expression downregulated in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas and GPR55 reinstatement by antitumor irradiation, suggesting that GPR55 controls renegade proliferation. Indeed, GPR55 antagonism increases cell proliferation and function determination in quasiphysiological systems. In addition, Gpr55–/– mice present ~50% enlarged submandibular glands with many more granulated ducts, as well as disordered endoplasmic reticuli and with glycoprotein content. Next, we hypothesized that GPR55 could also modulate salivation and glycoprotein content by entraining differentiated excretory progeny. Accordingly, GPR55 activation facilitated glycoprotein release by itself, inducing low-amplitude Ca2+ oscillations, as well as enhancing acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ responses. Topical application of GPR55 agonists, which are ineffective in Gpr55–/– mice, into adult rodent submandibular glands increased salivation and saliva glycoprotein content. Overall, we propose that GPR55 signaling in epithelial cells ensures both the life-long renewal of ductal cells and the continuous availability of saliva and glycoproteins for oral health and food intake.
Solomiia Korchynska, Mirjam I. Lutz, Erzsébet Borók, Johannes Pammer, Valentina Cinquina, Nataliya Fedirko, Andrew J. Irving, Ken Mackie, Tibor Harkany, Erik Keimpema
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