Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have resulted in durable clinical benefits in a subset of patients with advanced cancer, some patients who did not respond to initial anti–PD-1 therapy have been found to benefit from the addition of salvage chemotherapy. However, the mechanism responsible for the successful chemoimmunotherapy is not completely understood. Here we show that a subset of circulating CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are able to withstand the toxicity of chemotherapy and are increased in patients with metastatic melanoma who responded to chemoimmunotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin plus PD-1 blockade). These CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells have effector memory phenotypes and the ability to efflux chemotherapy drugs via the ABCB1 transporter. In line with clinical observation, our preclinical models identified an optimal sequencing of chemoimmunotherapy that resulted in an increase of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells. Taken together, we found a subset of PD-1 therapy–responsive CD8+ T cells that were capable of withstanding chemotherapy and executing tumor rejection with their unique abilities of drug efflux (ABCB1), cytolytic activity (granzyme B and perforin), and migration to and retention (CX3CR1 and CD11a) at tumor sites. Future strategies to monitor and increase the frequency of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells may help to design effective chemoimmunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
Yiyi Yan, Siyu Cao, Xin Liu, Susan M. Harrington, Wendy E. Bindeman, Alex A. Adjei, Jin Sung Jang, Jin Jen, Ying Li, Pritha Chanana, Aaron S. Mansfield, Sean S. Park, Svetomir N. Markovic, Roxana S. Dronca, Haidong Dong
A role for antigen-driven stimulation has been proposed in the pathogenesis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) based largely on the binding properties of monoclonal Ig. However, insights into antigen binding to clonal B cell receptors and in vivo responsiveness of the malignant clone to antigen-mediated stimulation are needed to understand the role of antigenic stimulation in tumor growth. Lysolipid-reactive clonal Ig were detected in Gaucher disease (GD) and some sporadic gammopathies. Here, we show that recombinant Ig (rIg) cloned from sort-purified single tumor cells from lipid-reactive sporadic and GD-associated gammopathy specifically bound lysolipids. Liposome sedimentation and binding assays confirmed specific interaction of lipid-reactive monoclonal Ig with lysolipids. The clonal nature of lysolipid-binding Ig was validated by protein sequencing. Gene expression profiling and cytogenetic analyses from 2 patient cohorts showed enrichment of nonhyperdiploid tumors in lipid-reactive patients. In vivo antigen-mediated stimulation led to an increase in clonal Ig and plasma cells (PCs) in GD gammopathy and also reactivated previously suppressed antigenically related nonclonal PCs. These data support a model wherein antigenic stimulation mediates an initial polyclonal phase, followed by evolution of monoclonal tumors enriched in nonhyperdiploid genomes, responsive to underlying antigen. Targeting underlying antigens may therefore prevent clinical MM.
Shiny Nair, Joel Sng, Chandra Sekhar Boddupalli, Anja Seckinger, Marta Chesi, Mariateresa Fulciniti, Lin Zhang, Navin Rauniyar, Michael Lopez, Natalia Neparidze, Terri Parker, Nikhil C. Munshi, Rachael Sexton, Bart Barlogie, Robert Orlowski, Leif Bergsagel, Dirk Hose, Richard A. Flavell, Pramod K. Mistry, Eric Meffre, Madhav V. Dhodapkar
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an incurable multisystem disease characterized by mTORC1-hyperactive tumors. TSC1/2 mutations also occur in other neoplastic disorders, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and bladder cancer. Whether TSC-associated tumors will respond to immunotherapy is unknown. We report here that the programmed death 1 coinhibitory receptor (PD-1) is upregulated on T cells in renal angiomyolipomas (AML) and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). In C57BL/6J mice injected with syngeneic TSC2-deficient cells, anti–PD-1 alone decreased 105K tumor growth by 67% (P < 0.0001); the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was even more effective in suppressing tumor growth. Anti–PD-1 induced complete rejection of TSC2-deficient 105K tumors in 37% of mice (P < 0.05). Double blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 induced rejection in 62% of mice (P < 0.01). TSC2 reexpression in TSC2-deficient TMKOC cells enhanced antitumor immunity by increasing T cell infiltration and production of IFN-γ/TNF-α by T cells, suggesting that TSC2 and mTORC1 play specific roles in the induction of antitumor immunity. Finally, 1 month of anti–PD-1 blockade reduced renal tumor burden by 53% (P < 0.01) in genetically engineered Tsc2+/– mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that checkpoint blockade may have clinical efficacy for TSC and LAM, and possibly other benign tumor syndromes, potentially yielding complete and durable clinical responses.
Heng-Jia Liu, Patrick H. Lizotte, Heng Du, Maria C. Speranza, Hilaire C. Lam, Spencer Vaughan, Nicola Alesi, Kwok-Kin Wong, Gordon J. Freeman, Arlene H. Sharpe, Elizabeth P. Henske
Colon cancer is a complex disease affected by a combination of genetic and epigenetic factors. Here we demonstrate that nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase; NRDC), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, regulates intestinal tumorigenesis via its nuclear functions. NRDC is highly expressed in human colorectal cancers. Deletion of the Nrdc gene in ApcMin mice crucially suppressed intestinal tumor development. In ApcMin mice, epithelial cell–specific deletion of Nrdc recapitulated the tumor suppression observed in Nrdc-null mice. Moreover, epithelial cell–specific overexpression of Nrdc significantly enhanced tumor formation in ApcMin mice. Notably, epithelial NRDC controlled cell apoptosis in a gene dosage–dependent manner. In human colon cancer cells, nuclear NRDC directly associated with HDAC1, and controlled both acetylation and stabilization of p53, with alterations of p53 target apoptotic factors. These findings demonstrate that NRDC is critically involved in intestinal tumorigenesis through its epigenetic regulatory function, and targeting NRDC may lead to a novel prevention or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer.
Keitaro Kanda, Jiro Sakamoto, Yoshihide Matsumoto, Kozo Ikuta, Norihiro Goto, Yusuke Morita, Mikiko Ohno, Kiyoto Nishi, Koji Eto, Yuto Kimura, Yuki Nakanishi, Kanako Ikegami, Takaaki Yoshikawa, Akihisa Fukuda, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai, Akihiro Ito, Minoru Yoshida, Takeshi Kimura, Tsutomu Chiba, Eiichiro Nishi, Hiroshi Seno
Pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular breast cancer that is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Limited molecular data are available to explain the mechanistic basis for PILC behavior. To address this issue, targeted sequencing was performed to identify molecular alterations that define PILC. This sequencing analysis identified genes that distinguish PILC from classic ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma by the incidence of their genomic changes. In particular, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is recurrently mutated in PILC, and pathway analysis reveals a role for the insulin receptor (IR)/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R)/IRS2 signaling pathway in PILC. IRS2 mutations identified in PILC enhance invasion, revealing a role for this signaling adaptor in the aggressive nature of PILC.
Sha Zhu, B. Marie Ward, Jun Yu, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Jenny Janusis, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Keith Tomaszewicz, Lloyd Hutchinson, Lihua Julie Zhu, Dina Kandil, Leslie M. Shaw
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles produced by all cells with a remarkable ability to efficiently transfer genetic material, including exogenously loaded siRNA, to cancer cells. Here, we report on a bioreactor-based, large-scale production of clinical-grade exosomes employing good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards. A standard operating procedure was established to generate engineered exosomes with the ability to target oncogenic Kras (iExosomes). The clinical-grade GMP iExosomes were tested in multiple in vitro and in vivo studies to confirm suppression of oncogenic Kras and an increase in the survival of several mouse models with pancreatic cancer. We perform studies to determine the shelf life, biodistribution, toxicology profile, and efficacy in combination with chemotherapy to inform future clinical testing of GMP iExosomes. Collectively, this report illustrates the process and feasibility of generating clinical-grade exosomes for various therapies of human diseases.
Mayela Mendt, Sushrut Kamerkar, Hikaru Sugimoto, Kathleen M. McAndrews, Chia-Chin Wu, Mihai Gagea, Sujuan Yang, Elena V. Rodriges Blanko, Qian Peng, Xiaoyan Ma, Joseph R. Marszalek, Anirban Maitra, Cassian Yee, Katayoun Rezvani, Elizabeth Shpall, Valerie S. LeBleu, Raghu Kalluri
BACKGROUND. Multiple myeloma is usually fatal due to serial relapses that become progressively refractory to therapy. CD19 is typically absent on the dominant multiple myeloma cell population but may be present on minor subsets with unique myeloma-propagating properties. To target myeloma-propagating cells, we clinically evaluated autologous T cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) against CD19 (CTL019). METHODS. Subjects received CTL019 following salvage high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). All subjects had relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and had previously undergone ASCT with less than 1 year progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS. ASCT + CTL019 was safe and feasible, with most toxicity attributable to ASCT and no severe cytokine release syndrome. Two of 10 subjects exhibited significantly longer PFS after ASCT + CTL019 compared with prior ASCT (479 vs. 181 days; 249 vs. 127 days). Correlates of favorable clinical outcome included peak CTL019 frequency in bone marrow and emergence of humoral and cellular immune responses against the stem-cell antigen Sox2. Ex vivo treatment of primary myeloma samples with a combination of CTL019 and CAR T cells against the plasma cell antigen BCMA reliably inhibited myeloma colony formation in vitro, whereas treatment with either CAR alone inhibited colony formation inconsistently. CONCLUSION. CTL019 may improve duration of response to standard multiple myeloma therapies by targeting and precipitating secondary immune responses against myeloma-propagating cells. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02135406. FUNDING. Novartis, NIH, Conquer Cancer Foundation.
Alfred L. Garfall, Edward A. Stadtmauer, Wei-Ting Hwang, Simon F. Lacey, Jan Joseph Melenhorst, Maria Krevvata, Martin P. Carroll, William H. Matsui, Qiuju Wang, Madhav V. Dhodapkar, Kavita Dhodapkar, Rituparna Das, Dan T. Vogl, Brendan M. Weiss, Adam D. Cohen, Patricia A. Mangan, Emily C. Ayers, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Irina Kulikovskaya, Megan M. Davis, Anne Lamontagne, Karen Dengel, Naseem D.S. Kerr, Regina M. Young, Donald L. Siegel, Bruce L. Levine, Michael C. Milone, Marcela V. Maus, Carl H. June
Tumor-induced expansion of Tregs is a significant obstacle to cancer immunotherapy. However, traditional approaches to deplete Tregs are often inefficient, provoking autoimmunity. We show here that administration of IL-27–expressing recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV–IL-27) significantly inhibits tumor growth and enhances T cell responses in tumors. Strikingly, we found that AAV–IL-27 treatment causes rapid depletion of Tregs in peripheral blood, lymphoid organs, and — most pronouncedly — tumor microenvironment. AAV–IL-27–mediated Treg depletion is dependent on IL-27 receptor and Stat1 in Tregs and is a combined result of CD25 downregulation in Tregs and inhibition of IL-2 production by T cells. In combination with a GM-CSF vaccine, AAV–IL-27 treatment not only induced nearly complete tumor rejection, but also resulted in amplified neoantigen-specific T cell responses. AAV–IL-27 also dramatically increased the efficacy of anti–PD-1 therapy, presumably due to induction of PD-L1 in T cells and depletion of Tregs. Importantly, AAV–IL-27 therapy did not induce significant adverse events, partially due to its induction of IL-10. In a plasmacytoma mouse model, we found that IL-10 was required for AAV–IL-27–mediated tumor rejection. Thus, our study demonstrates the potential of AAV–IL-27 as an independent cancer therapeutic and as an efficient adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.
Jianmin Zhu, Jin-Qing Liu, Min Shi, Xinhua Cheng, Miao Ding, Jianchao C. Zhang, Jonathan P. Davis, Sanjay Varikuti, Abhay R. Satoskar, Lanchun Lu, Xueliang Pan, Pan Zheng, Yang Liu, Xue-Feng Bai
We generated a comprehensive atlas of the immunologic cellular networks within human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using mass cytometry. Data-driven analyses of these high-resolution single-cell data identified 2 distinct immunologic subtypes of MPM with vastly different cellular composition, activation states, and immunologic function; mass spectrometry demonstrated differential abundance of MHC-I and -II neopeptides directly identified between these subtypes. The clinical relevance of this immunologic subtyping was investigated with a discriminatory molecular signature derived through comparison of the proteomes and transcriptomes of these 2 immunologic MPM subtypes. This molecular signature, representative of a favorable intratumoral cell network, was independently associated with improved survival in MPM and predicted response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with MPM and melanoma. These data additionally suggest a potentially novel mechanism of response to checkpoint blockade: requirement for high measured abundance of neopeptides in the presence of high expression of MHC proteins specific for these neopeptides.
Hyun-Sung Lee, Hee-Jin Jang, Jong Min Choi, Jun Zhang, Veronica Lenge de Rosen, Thomas M. Wheeler, Ju-Seog Lee, Thuydung Tu, Peter T. Jindra, Ronald H. Kerman, Sung Yun Jung, Farrah Kheradmand, David J. Sugarbaker, Bryan M. Burt
BACKGROUND. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature immune cells with several protumorigenic functions. CD38 is a transmembrane receptor–ectoenzyme expressed by MDSCs in murine models of esophageal cancer. We hypothesized that CD38 could be expressed on MDSCs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), which might allow for a new perspective on therapeutic targeting of human MDSCs with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in this cancer. METHODS. Blood samples were collected from 41 CRC patients and 8 healthy donors, followed by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) separation. Polymorphonuclear (PMN-) and monocytic (M-) MDSCs and CD38 expression levels were quantified by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive capacity of M-MDSCs from 10 CRC patients was validated in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. RESULTS. A significant expansion of CD38+ M-MDSCs and a trend of expansion of CD38+ PMN-MDSCs (accompanied by a trend of increased CD38 expression on both M- and PMN-MDSCs) were observed in PBMCs of CRC patients when compared with healthy donors. The CD38+ M-MDSCs from CRC patients were found to be immunosuppressive when compared with mature monocytes. CD38+ M- and PMN-MDSC frequencies were significantly higher in CRC patients who previously received treatment when compared with treatment-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides a rationale for an attempt to target M-MDSCs with an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody in metastatic CRC patients. FUNDING. NCI P01-CA14305603, the American Cancer Society, Scott and Suzi Lustgarten Family Colon Cancer Research Fund, Hansen Foundation, and Janssen Research and Development.
Tatiana A. Karakasheva, George A. Dominguez, Ayumi Hashimoto, Eric W. Lin, Christopher Chiu, Kate Sasser, Jae W. Lee, Gregory L. Beatty, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich, Anil K. Rustgi
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