The cohesin complex plays an essential role in chromosome maintenance and transcriptional regulation. Recurrent somatic mutations in the cohesin complex are frequent genetic drivers in cancer including myelodysplatic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, using genetic dependency screens of STAG2-mutant AML, we identified DNA damage repair and replication as genetic dependencies in cohesin-mutant cells. We demonstrated increased levels of DNA damage and sensitivity of cohesin-mutant cells to PARP inhibition. We developed a mouse model of MDS in which Stag2 mutations arise as clonal secondary lesions in the background of clonal hematopoiesis driven by Tet2 mutations, and demonstrated selective depletion of cohesin-mutant cells with PARP inhibition in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated a shift from STAG2- to STAG1-containing cohesin complexes in cohesin-mutant cells, which is associated with longer DNA loop extrusion, more intermixing of chromatin compartments, and increased interaction with PARP and RPA proteins. Our findings inform the biology and therapeutic opportunities for cohesin-mutant malignancies.
Zuzana Tothova, Anne-Laure Valton, Rebecca Gorelov, Mounica Vallurupalli, John M. Krill-Burger, Amie Holmes, Catherine C. Landers, J. Erika Haydu, Edyta Malolepsza, Christina R. Hartigan, Melanie Donahue, Katerina D. Popova, Sebastian H. J. Koochaki, Sergey V. Venev, Jeanne F. Rivera, Edwin Chen, Kasper Lage, Monica Schenone, Alan D. D'Andrea, Steven A. Carr, Elizabeth A. Morgan, Job Dekker, Benjamin L. Ebert
Clinical trials of biologic therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D) aim to mitigate autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells through immune perturbation and serve as resources to elucidate immunological mechanisms in health and disease. In the T1DAL trial of alefacept (LFA3-Ig) in recent onset T1D, endogenous insulin production was preserved in 30% of subjects for two years post-therapy. Given our previous findings linking exhausted CD8 T cells to beneficial response in T1D trials, we applied unbiased analyses to sorted CD8 T cells to evaluate their potential role in T1DAL. Using RNA-seq, we found that greater insulin C-peptide preservation was associated with a module of activation- and exhaustion-associated genes. This signature was dissected into two distinct CD8 memory populations through correlation with clustered cytometry data. Both populations were hypo-proliferative, shared expanded TCR junctions, and expressed exhaustion-associated markers including TIGIT and KLRG1. The populations were distinguished by reciprocal expression of CD8 T and NK cell markers (GZMB, CD57 and inhibitory KIR genes), versus T cell activation and differentiation markers (PD1 and CD28). These findings support previous evidence linking exhausted CD8 T cells to successful immune interventions for T1D, while suggesting multiple inhibitory mechanisms can promote this beneficial cell state.
Kirsten E. Diggins, Elisavet Serti, Virginia S. Muir, Mario G. Rosasco, TingTing Lu, Elisa Balmas, Gerald T. Nepom, S. Alice Long, Peter S. Linsley
Computational models based on recent maps of the red blood cell proteome suggest that mature erythrocytes may harbor targets for common drugs. This prediction is relevant to red blood cell storage in the blood bank, in which the impact of small molecule drugs or other xenometabolites deriving from dietary, iatrogenic or environmental exposures (“exposome”) may alter erythrocyte energy and redox metabolism and, in so doing, affect red cell storage quality and post-transfusion efficacy. To test this prediction, here we provide a comprehensive characterization of the blood donor exposome, including the detection of common prescription and over-the-counter drugs in 250 units donated by healthy volunteers from the REDS-III RBC Omics study. Based on high-throughput drug screenings of 1,366 FDA-approved drugs, we report a significant impact of ~65% of the tested drugs on erythrocyte metabolism. Machine learning models built using metabolites as predictors were able to accurately predict drugs for several drug classes/targets (bisphosphonates, anticholinergics, calcium channel blockers, adrenergics, proton-pump inhibitors, antimetabolites, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mTOR) suggesting that these drugs have a direct, conserved, and significant impact on erythrocyte metabolism. As a proof of principle, here we show that the antiacid ranitidine – though rarely detected in the blood donor population – has a strong effect on RBC markers of storage quality in vitro. We thus show that ranitidine supplementation to blood units could improve erythrocyte metabolism and storage quality when supplemented to blood bags, through mechanisms involving sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent modulation of erythrocyte glycolysis and/or direct binding to hemoglobin.
Travis Nemkov, Davide Stefanoni, Aarash Bordbar, Aaron Issaian, Bernhard O. Palsson, Larry J. Dumont, Ariel M. Hay, Anren Song, Yang Xia, Jasmina S. Redzic, Elan Z. Eisenmesser, James C. Zimring, Steve Kleinman, Kirk C. Hansen, Michael Busch, Angelo D’Alessandro
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) enables the maintenance of a stem cell population while simultaneously generating differentiated progeny. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) undergo multiple modes of cell division during tumor expansion and in response to therapy, yet the functional consequences of these division modes remain to be determined. Using a fluorescent reporter for cell surface receptor distribution during mitosis, we found that ACD generated a daughter cell with enhanced therapeutic resistance and increased co-enrichment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) from a glioblastoma CSC. Stimulation of both receptors antagonized differentiation induction and promoted self-renewal capacity. p75NTR knockdown enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibition, indicating that co-inheritance of p75NTR and EGFR promotes resistance to EGFR inhibition through a redundant mechanism. These data demonstrate that ACD produces progeny with co-enriched growth factor receptors, which contributes to the generation of a more therapeutically resistant CSC population.
Masahiro Hitomi, Anastasia P. Chumakova, Daniel J. Silver, Arnon M. Knudsen, W. Dean Pontius, Stephanie Murphy, Neha S. Anand, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Justin Lathia
Paucity of the Glucose Transporter1 (Glut1) protein resulting from haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene arrests cerebral angiogenesis and disrupts brain function to cause Glucose Transporter1 Deficiency Syndrome (Glut1 DS). Restoring Glut1 to Glut1 DS model mice prevents disease but the precise cellular sites of action of the transporter, its temporal requirements and the mechanism(s) linking scarcity of the protein to brain cell dysfunction remain poorly understood. Here we show that Glut1 functions in a cell-autonomous manner in the cerebral microvasculature to affect endothelial tip cells and thus brain angiogenesis. Moreover, brain endothelial cell-specific Glut1 depletion not only triggers a severe neuro-inflammatory response in the Glut1 DS brain but also reduces levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and causes overt disease. Reduced BDNF correlated with fewer neurons in the Glut1 DS brain. Controlled depletion of the protein demonstrated that brain pathology and disease severity was greatest when Glut1 scarcity was induced neonatally, during brain angiogenesis. Reducing Glut1 at later stages had mild or little effect. Our results suggest that targeting brain endothelial cells during early development is important to ensure proper brain angiogenesis, prevent neuro-inflammation, maintain BDNF levels and preserve neuron numbers. This requirement will be essential for any disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for Glut1 DS.
Maoxue Tang, Sarah H. Park, Sabrina Petri, Hang Yu, Carlos B. Rueda, E. Dale Abel, Carla Y. Kim, Elizabeth M. C. Hillman, Fanghua Li, Yeojin Lee, Lei Ding, Smitha Jagadish, Wayne N. Frankel, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani
Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a variety of human inflammatory diseases, however currently no pharmacological NLRP3 inhibitor has been approved in clinic. In this study, we showed that echinatin, the ingredient of the traditional herbal medicine licorice, effectively suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that echinatin exerts its inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome by binding to heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), inhibiting its ATPase activity, and disrupting the association between the cochaperone SGT1 and HSP90-NLRP3. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrated that administration of echinatin obviously inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates LPS-induced septic shock and DSS-induced colitis in mice. Moreover, echinatin exerted favorable pharmacological effects on liver inflammation and fibrosis in mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Collectively, our study identified echinatin as a novel inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome and may be developed as a potentially therapeutic approach for the treatment of NLRP3-driven diseases.
Guang Xu, Shubin Fu, Xiaoyan Zhan, Zhilei Wang, Ping Zhang, Wei Shi, Nan Qin, Yuanyuan Chen, Chunyu Wang, Ming Niu, Yuming Guo, Jia-bo Wang, Zhaofang Bai, Xiaohe Xiao
Tumor antigen-specific CD4 T cells accumulate at tumor sites evoking their involvement in antitumor effector functions in situ. Contrarily to CD8 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte exhaustion, that of CD4 T cells remains poorly appreciated. Here, using phenotypic, transcriptomic and functional approaches, we characterized CD4 T-cell exhaustion in head and neck, cervical and ovarian cancer patients. We identified a CD4 tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) population, defined by high PD-1 and CD39 expression, which contained high proportions of cytokine-producing cells, although the quantity of cytokines produced by these cells was low evoking an exhausted state. Terminal exhaustion of CD4 TILs was instated regardless of TIM-3 expression suggesting divergence with CD8 T-cell exhaustion. ScRNA-Seq and further phenotypic analyses uncovered, however, similarities with the CD8 T-cell exhaustion program. In particular, PD-1hiCD39+ CD4 TILs expressed the exhaustion transcription factor TOX and the chemokine CXCL13 and were tumor antigen-specific. In vitro, PD-1 blockade enhanced CD4 TIL activation, as evidenced by increased CD154 expression and cytokine secretion, leading to improved dendritic cell maturation and consequently to higher tumor-specific CD8 T-cell proliferation. Our data identify CD4 TIL exhaustion as a player of responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade.
Camille-Charlotte Balança, Anna Salvioni, Clara-Maria Scarlata, Marie Michelas, Carlos Martinez-Gomez, Carlos Gomez-Roca, Victor Sarradin, Marie Tosolini, Carine Valle, Frédéric Pont, Gwénaël Ferron, Laurence Gladieff, Sébastien Vergez, Agnès Dupret-Bories, Eliane Mery, Philippe Rochaix, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Jean-Pierre Delord, Christel Devaud, Alejandra Martinez, Maha Ayyoub
CIS43 is a potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets a highly conserved ‘junctional’ epitope in the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). Enhancing the durability of CIS43 in vivo will be important for clinical translation. Here, two approaches were used to improve the durability of CIS43 in vivo while maintaining potent neutralization. First, the Fc domain was modified with the “LS” mutations (CIS43LS) to increase CIS43 binding affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). CIS43LS and CIS43 showed comparable in vivo protective efficacy. CIS43LS had nine to thirteen-fold increased binding affinity for human (6.2 nM vs. 54.2 nM) and rhesus (25.1 nM vs. 325.8 nM) FcRn at endosomal pH 6.0 compared to CIS43. Importantly, the half-life of CIS43LS in macaques increased from 22 days to 39 days compared to CIS43. The second approach for sustaining antibody levels of CIS43 in vivo is through adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression. Mice administered once with AAV expressing CIS43 had sustained antibody levels of ~ 300 μg/mL and mediated protection against sequential malaria challenges up to 36 weeks. Based on these data, CIS43LS has advanced to Phase I clinical trials and AAV delivery provides a potential next generation approach.
Neville Kielau Kisalu, Lais Da Silva Pereira, Keenan J. Ernste, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Azza H. Idris, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Marlon Dillon, Scott MacDonald, Wei Shi, Xuejun Chen, Amarendra Pegu, Arne Schön, Fidel Zavala, Alejandro B. Balazs, Joseph R. Francica, Robert A. Seder
Subjects with obesity frequently have elevated serum vasopressin levels, noted by the stable analog, copeptin. Vasopressin acts primarily to reabsorb water via urinary concentration. However, fat is also a source of metabolic water, raising the possibility that vasopressin might have a role in fat accumulation. Fructose has also been reported to stimulate vasopressin. Here we tested the hypothesis that fructose induced metabolic syndrome is mediated by vasopressin. Orally administered fructose, glucose or high fructose corn syrup increased vasopressin (copeptin) concentrations and was mediated by fructokinase, an enzyme specific for fructose metabolism. Suppressing vasopressin with hydration both prevented and ameliorated fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. The vasopressin effects were mediated by the Vasopressin 1b receptor, as Vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice were completely protected while V1a knockout paradoxically showed worse metabolic syndrome. The mechanism is likely mediated in part by de novo expression of V1b in the liver that amplifies fructokinase expression in response to fructose. Thus, our studies document a new role for vasopressin in water conservation via the accumulation of fat as a source of metabolic water. Clinically, it also suggests that increased water intake may be a beneficial way to both prevent or treat metabolic syndrome.
Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas J. Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, David J. Orlicky, Christina Cicerchi, Nanxing Li, Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez, Gabriela E. Garcia, Takuji Ishimoto, Paul S. Maclean, Petter Bjornstad, Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Mehmet Kanbay, Takahiko Nakagawa, Richard Johnson, Miguel Lanaspa
The G/T transversion, rs35705950, located approximately 3 kb upstream of the MUC5B start site, is the cardinal risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we investigate the function and chromatin structure of this -3 kb region and provide evidence that it functions as a classically defined enhancer subject to epigenetic programming. We use nascent transcript analysis to show that RNA polymerase II loads within 10 bp of the G/T transversion site, definitively establishing enhancer function for the region. By integrating Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) analysis of fresh and cultured human airway epithelial cells with nuclease sensitivity data, we demonstrate that this region is in accessible chromatin that affects the expression of MUC5B. Through applying paired single nucleus RNA- and ATAC-seq to frozen tissue from IPF lungs, we extend these findings directly to disease, with results indicating that epigenetic programming of the -3 kb enhancer in IPF occurs in both MUC5B-expressing and non-expressing lineages. In aggregate, our results indicate that the MUC5B-associated variant, rs35705950, resides within an enhancer that is subject to epigenetic remodeling and contributes to pathologic misexpression in IPF.
Fabienne Gally, Sarah K. Sasse, Jonathan Kurche, Margaret A. Gruca, Jonathan H. Cardwell, Tsukasa Okamoto, Hong Wei Chu, Xiaomeng Hou, Olivier Poirion, Justin Buchanan, Sebastian Preissl, Bing Ren, Sean P. Colgan, Robin D. Dowell, Ivana V. Yang, David A. Schwartz, Anthony N. Gerber
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