Interleukin-3 (IL3) receptor α (IL3Rα) is the alpha subunit of the ligand-specific IL3 receptor and initiates intracellular signaling in response to IL3. IL3 amplifies pro-inflammatory signaling and cytokine storm in murine sepsis models. Here we found that RNFT2 (RING finger transmembrane-domain containing protein 2, also TMEM118), a previously uncharacterized RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase, negatively regulated IL3-dependent cellular responses through IL3Rα ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome. In vitro, IL3 stimulation promoted IL3Rα proteasomal degradation dependent on RNFT2, and we identified IL3Rα Lysine 357 as a ubiquitin acceptor site. We determined that LPS-priming reduces RNFT2 abundance, extends IL3Rα half-life, and sensitizes cells to the effects of IL3, acting synergistically to increase pro-inflammatory signaling. In vivo, IL3 synergized with LPS to exacerbate lung inflammation in LPS and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-challenged mice; conversely, IL3 neutralization reduced LPS-induce lung injury. Further, RNFT2 over-expression reduced lung inflammation and injury, whereas Rnft2 knockdown exacerbated inflammatory responses in LPS-induced murine lung injury. Lastly, we examined RNFT2 and IL3Rα in human lung explants from patients with Cystic Fibrosis, and also showed that IL3 is elevated in mechanically-ventilated critically ill humans at risk for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). These results identify RNFT2 as a negative regulator of IL3Rα, and show a potential role for the RNFT2/IL3Rα/IL3 axis in regulating innate immune responses in the lung.
Yao Tong, Travis B. Lear, John Evankovich, Yanwen Chen, James D. Londino, Michael M. Myerburg, Yingze Zhang, Iulia D. Popescu, John F. McDyer, Bryan J. McVerry, Karina C. Lockwood, Michael J. Jurczak, Yuan Liu, Bill B. Chen
Community-acquired pneumonia is a widespread disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Alveolar macrophages are tissue-resident lung cells that play a crucial role in innate immunity against bacteria that cause pneumonia. We hypothesized that alveolar macrophages display adaptive characteristics after resolution of bacterial pneumonia. We studied mice one to six months after self-limiting lung infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Alveolar macrophages, but not other myeloid cells recovered from the lung, showed long-term modifications of their surface marker phenotype. The remodeling of alveolar macrophages was: (i) long-lasting (still observed 6 months post infection), (ii) regionally localized (only observed in the affected lobe after lobar pneumonia), and (iii) associated with macrophage-dependent enhanced protection against another pneumococcal serotype. Metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that alveolar macrophages of mice that recovered from pneumonia had new baseline activities and altered responses to infection that better resembled those of adult humans. The enhanced lung protection after mild and self-limiting bacterial respiratory infections includes a profound remodeling of the alveolar macrophage pool that is long-lasting, compartmentalized, and manifest across surface receptors, metabolites, and both resting and stimulated transcriptomes.
Antoine Guillon, Emad I. Arafa, Kimberly A. Barker, Anna C. Belkina, Ian M.C. Martin, Anukul T. Shenoy, Alicia K. Wooten, Carolina Lyon De Ana, Anqi Dai, Adam Labadorf, Jaileene Hernandez-Escalante, Hans Dooms, Helene Blasco, Katrina E. Traber, Matthew R. Jones, Lee J. Quinton, Joseph P. Mizgerd
Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide causing a wide range of preventable morbidity and mortality. In this translational study, we show that heavy drinking (HD) (≥6 standard drinks/day) is independently associated to a worse outcome of ischemic stroke patients. To study the underlying mechanisms of this deleterious effect of HD, we then performed an extensive analysis of the brain inflammatory responses of mice exposed or not to 10% alcohol before and after ischemic stroke. Inflammatory responses were analyzed at the parenchymal, perivascular and vascular levels by using transcriptomic, immunohistochemical, in vivo two-photon microscopy and molecular MRI analyses. Alcohol-exposed mice show, in the absence of any other insult, a neurovascular inflammatory priming [i.e., an abnormal inflammatory status including an increase in brain perivascular macrophages (PVM)] associated to exacerbated inflammatory responses after a secondary insult (ischemic stroke or LPS challenge). Similar to our clinical data, alcohol-exposed mice showed larger ischemic lesions. We show here that PVM are key players on this aggravating effect of alcohol, since their specific depletion blocks the alcohol-induced aggravation of ischemic lesions. This study opens new therapeutic avenues aiming at blocking alcohol-induced exacerbation of the neurovascular inflammatory responses triggered after ischemic stroke.
Antoine Drieu, Anastasia Lanquetin, Damien Levard, Martina Glavan, Francisco Campos, Aurélien Quenault, Eloïse Lemarchand, Mikael Naveau, Anne Lise Pitel, José Castillo, Denis Vivien, Marina Rubio
ADPKD is the most common genetic cause of end stage kidney disease (ESRD). The treatment options for ADPKD are limited. We observed an upregulation in several IGF-1 pathway genes in the kidney of the Pkd1RC/RC mice. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a metalloproteinase which cleaves inhibitory insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), increasing the local bioactivity of IGF-1 was highly induced in the kideny of ADPKD mice. PAPP-A levels were high in cystic fluid and kidneys of humans with ADPKD. Our studies further showed the PAPP-A transcription in ADPKD is mainly regulated through the cAMP/CREB/CBP/p300 pathways. Pappa deficiency effectively inhibited the development of cysts in Pkd1RC/RC model of ADPKD. The role of PAPP-A in cystic disease appears to be regulation of the IGF-1 pathway and cellular proliferation in the kidney. Finally, preclinical studies demonstrated that treatment with monoclonal antibody that blocks the proteolytic activity of PAPP-A against IGFBP4 ameliorated ADPKD cystic disease in vivo in Pkd1RC/RC mice and ex vivo in embryonic kidneys. These data clearly indicated that the PAPP-A/IGF-1 pathway plays an important role in the growth and expansion of cysts in ADPKD. Our findings introduce a new therapeutic strategy for ADPKD that is the inhibition of PAPP-A.
Sonu Kashyap, Kyaw Zaw Hein, Claudia C.S. Chini, Jorgo Lika, Gina M. Warner, Laurie K. Bale, Vicente E. Torres, Peter C. Harris, Claus Oxvig, Cheryl A. Conover, Eduardo N. Chini
Adequate iron supply during pregnancy is essential for fetal development. However, how fetal or amniotic fluid iron levels are regulated during healthy pregnancy, or pregnancies complicated by intraamniotic infection or inflammation (IAI) is unknown. We evaluated amniotic fluid and fetal iron homeostasis in normal and complicated murine, macaque, and human pregnancy. In mice, fetal iron endowment was affected by maternal iron status but amniotic fluid iron concentrations changed little during maternal iron deficiency or excess. In murine and macaque models of inflamed pregnancy, the fetus responded to maternal systemic inflammation or IAI by rapidly upregulating hepcidin and lowering iron in fetal blood, without altering amniotic fluid iron. In humans, elevated cord blood hepcidin with accompanying hypoferremia was observed in pregnancies with antenatal exposure to IAI compared to those that were non-exposed. Hepcidin was also elevated in human amniotic fluid from pregnancies with IAI compared to those without IAI, but amniotic fluid iron levels did not differ between the groups. Our studies in mice, macaques, and humans demonstrate that amniotic fluid iron is largely unregulated but that the rapid induction of fetal hepcidin by inflammation and consequent fetal hypoferremia are conserved mechanisms that may be important in fetal host defense.
Allison L. Fisher, Veena Sangkhae, Pietro Presicce, Claire A. Chougnet, Alan H. Jobe, Suhas G. Kallapur, Sammy M. Tabbah, Catalin S. Buhimschi, Irina A. Buhimschi, Tomas Ganz, Elizabeta Nemeth
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that follows an unpredictable disease course and affects multiple organs and tissues. We performed an integrated, multi-cohort analysis of 7,471 transcriptomic profiles from 40 independent studies to identify robust gene expression changes associated with SLE. We identified a 93-gene signature (SLE MetaSignature) that is differentially expressed in the blood of SLE patients compared to healthy volunteers; distinguishes SLE from other autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases; and persists across diverse tissues and cell types. The SLE MetaSignature correlated significantly with disease activity and other clinical measures of inflammation. We prospectively validated the SLE MetaSignature in an independent cohort of pediatric SLE patients using a microfluidic RT-qPCR array. We found that 14 of the 93 genes in the SLE MetaSignature were independent of interferon-induced and neutrophil-related transcriptional profiles that have previously been associated with SLE. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation associated with nucleic acid biosynthesis and immunometabolism in SLE. We further refined a neutropoeisis signature and identified novel transcripts related to immune cells and oxidative stress. Our multi-cohort, transcriptomic analysis has uncovered novel genes and pathways associated with SLE pathogenesis, with the potential to advance clinical diagnosis, biomarker development, and targeted therapeutics for SLE.
Winston A. Haynes, David James Haddon, Vivian Diep, Avani Khatri, Erika Bongen, Gloria Yiu, Imelda Balboni, Christopher R. Bolen, Rong Mao, Paul J. Utz, Purvesh Khatri
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related, lung disease characterized by dendritic cell (DC) accumulation, bronchiolocentric nodule formation, and cystic lung remodeling. Approximately 50% of PLCH patients harbor somatic BRAF-V600E mutations in cells of the myeloid/monocyte lineage. However, the rarity of the disease and lack of animal models has impeded the study of PLCH pathogenesis. Here, we established a cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed, BRAF-V600E mutant mouse model that recapitulates many hallmark characteristics of PLCH. We show that CD11c-targeted expression of BRAF-V600E increases DC responsiveness to stimuli, including the chemokine CCL20, and that mutant DC accumulation in the lungs of CS-exposed mice is due to both increased cellular viability and enhanced recruitment. Moreover, we report that the chemokine CCL7 is secreted from DCs and human peripheral blood monocytes in a BRAF-V600E-dependent manner, suggesting a possible mechanism for recruitment of cells known to dominate PLCH lesions. Inflammatory lesions and airspace dilation in BRAF-V600E mice in response to CS are attenuated by transitioning animals to filtered air and treatment with a BRAF-V600E inhibitor, PLX4720. Collectively, this model provides mechanistic insights into the role of DCs, the BRAF-V600E mutation and CS exposure in PLCH pathogenesis, and provides a platform to develop therapeutic targets.
Huan Liu, Andrew R. Osterburg, Jennifer Flury, Zulma Swank, Dennis W. McGraw, Nishant Gupta, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Ashish Kumar, Abdellatif Tazi, Yoshikazu Inoue, Masaki Hirose, Francis X. McCormack, Michael Borchers
Extracellular matrix and osmolarity influence the development and homeostasis of skeletal tissues through Rho GTPase-mediated alteration of the actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated whether the actin-branching Arp2/3 complex, a downstream effector of the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1, plays a critical role in maintaining the health of matrix-rich and osmotically loaded intervertebral discs and cartilage. Mice with constitutive intervertebral disc and cartilage-specific deletion of the critical Arp2/3 subunit Arpc2 (Col2-Cre; Arpc2f/f) developed chondrodysplasia and spinal defects. Since these mice did not survive to adulthood, we generated mice with inducible Arpc2 deletion in disc and cartilage (Acan-CreERT2; Arpc2f/f). Inactivation of Arp2/3 at skeletal maturity resulted in growth plate closure, loss of proteoglycan content in articular cartilage, and degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc at 1 year of age. Chondrocytes with Arpc2 deletion showed compromised cell spreading on both collagen and fibronectin. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 and Arp2/3 prevented the osmoadaptive transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5 from recruiting co-factors in response to a hyperosmolarity challenge. Together, these findings suggest that Arp2/3 plays a critical role in cartilaginous tissues through the regulation of cell-extracellular matrix interactions and modulation of TonEBP-mediated osmoadaptation.
Steven Tessier, Alexandra C Doolittle, Kimheak Sao, Jeremy D. Rotty, James E. Bear, Veronica Ulici, Richard F. Loeser, Irving M. Shapiro, Brian O. Diekman, Makarand V. Risbud
Current models of B lymphocyte biology posit that B cells continuously recirculate between lymphoid organs without accumulating in peripheral healthy tissues. Nevertheless, B lymphocytes are one of the most prevalent leukocyte populations in the naive murine heart. To investigate this apparent inconsistency in the literature, we conducted a systematic analysis of myocardial B cell ontogeny, trafficking dynamics, histology, and gene expression patterns. We found that myocardial B cells represent a subpopulation of circulating B cells that make close contact with the microvascular endothelium of the heart and arrest their transit as they pass through the heart. The vast majority (> 95%) of myocardial B cells remain intravascular, whereas few (< 5%) myocardial B cells cross the endothelium into myocardial tissue. Analyses of mice with B cell deficiency or depletion indicated that B cells modulate the myocardial leukocyte pool composition. Analysis of B cell deficient animals suggested that B cells modulate myocardial growth and contractility. These results transform our current understanding of B cell recirculation in the naive state and reveal a previously unknown relationship between B cells and myocardial physiology. Further work will be needed to assess the relevance of these findings to other organs.
Luigi Adamo, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Chieh-Yu Lin, Sarah Evans, Jesse W. Williams, Hao Dun, Wenjun Li, Cedric Mpoy, Prabhakar Andhey, Buck E. Rogers, Kory Lavine, Daniel Kreisel, Maxim N. Artyomov, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Douglas Mann
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are characterized by muscle inflammation and weakness, myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and extramuscular organ damage. The role of neutrophil dysregulation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in IIM is unclear. We assessed if pathogenic neutrophil subsets (low-density granulocytes, LDGs) and NETs were elevated in IIM, associated with clinical presentation and MSAs, and their effect on skeletal myoblasts and myotubes.METHODS: Circulating NETs and LDGs were quantified and correlated with clinical measures. Specific MSAs were tested for their ability to induce NETs. NETs and neutrophil gene expression were measured in IIM biopsies. Whether NETs damage skeletal myoblasts and myotubes was tested.RESULTS: Circulating LDGs and NETs were increased in IIM. IIM LDGs had enhanced ability to form NETs. LDGs and NETs correlated with IIM disease activity and muscle damage. The serum MSA anti-MDA5 correlated with circulating and tissue NETs and directly enhanced NET formation. An enhanced neutrophil gene signature was present in IIM muscle and associated with muscle injury and tissue interferon gene signatures. IIM NETs decreased the viability of myotubes in a citrullinated histone-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Dysregulated neutrophil pathways may play pathogenic roles in IIM through their ability to directly injure muscle cells and other affected tissues.
Nickie L. Seto, Jose Jiram Torres-Ruiz, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Katherine Pak, Monica M. Purmalek, Yuji Hosono, Catia Fernandes-Cerqueira, Prateek C. Gowda, Nathan Arnett, Alexander Gorbach, Olivier Benveniste, Diana Gómez-Martín, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan, Jose C. Milisenda, Josep M. Grau-Junyent, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Frederick W. Miller, Ingrid E. Lundberg, J. Michelle Kahlenberg, Adam I. Schiffenbauer, Andrew L. Mammen, Lisa G. Rider, Mariana J. Kaplan
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