The bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) contributes to the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, though its role in age-associated lineage skewing is poorly understood. Here we show that dysfunction of aged marrow macrophages (Mφs) directs HSC platelet-bias. Mφs from the marrow of aged mice and humans exhibited an activated phenotype, with increased expression of inflammatory signals. Aged marrow Mφs also displayed decreased phagocytic function. Senescent neutrophils, typically cleared by marrow Mφs, were markedly increased in aged mice, consistent with functional defects in Mφ phagocytosis and efferocytosis. In aged mice, Interleukin 1B (IL1B) was elevated in the bone marrow and caspase 1 activity, which can process pro-IL1B, was increased in marrow Mφs and neutrophils. Mechanistically, IL1B signaling was necessary and sufficient to induce a platelet bias in HSCs. In young mice, depletion of phagocytic cell populations or loss of the efferocytic receptor Axl expanded platelet-biased HSCs. Our data support a model wherein increased inflammatory signals and decreased phagocytic function of aged marrow Mφs induce the acquisition of platelet bias in aged HSCs. This work highlights the instructive role of Mφs and IL1B in the age-associated lineage-skewing of HSCs, and reveals the therapeutic potential of their manipulation as antigeronic targets.
Benjamin J. Frisch, Corey M. Hoffman, Sarah E. Latchney, Mark W. LaMere, Jason Myers, John Ashton, Allison J. Li, Jerry Saunders, James Palis, Archibald S. Perkins, Amanda McCabe, Julianne N. Smith, Kathleen E. McGrath, Fatima Rivera-Escalera, Andrew McDavid, Jane L. Liesveld, Vyacheslav A. Korshunov, Michael R. Elliott, Katherine C. MacNamara, Michael W. Becker, Laura M. Calvi
Hypoxic tumor niches are chief causes of treatment resistance and tumor recurrence. Sickle erythrocytes’ (SSRBCs’) intrinsic oxygen-sensing functionality empowers them to access such hypoxic niches wherein they form microaggregates that induce focal vessel closure. In search of measures to augment the scale of SSRBC-mediated tumor vaso-occlusion, we turned to the vascular disrupting agent, combretastatin A-4 (CA-4). CA-4 induces selective tumor endothelial injury, blood stasis, and hypoxia but fails to eliminate peripheral tumor foci. In this article, we show that introducing deoxygenated SSRBCs into tumor microvessels treated with CA-4 and sublethal radiation (SR) produces a massive surge of tumor vaso-occlusion and broadly propagated tumor infarctions that engulfs treatment-resistant hypoxic niches and eradicates established lung tumors. Tumor regression was histologically corroborated by significant treatment effect. Treated tumors displayed disseminated microvessels occluded by tightly packed SSRBCs along with widely distributed pimidazole-positive hypoxic tumor cells. Humanized HbS-knockin mice (SSKI) but not HbA-knockin mice (AAKI) showed a similar treatment response underscoring SSRBCs as the paramount tumoricidal effectors. Thus, CA-4-SR–remodeled tumor vessels license SSRBCs to produce an unprecedented surge of tumor vaso-occlusion and infarction that envelops treatment-resistant tumor niches resulting in complete tumor regression. Strategically deployed, these innovative tools constitute a major conceptual advance with compelling translational potential.
Chiao-Wang Sun, Li-Chen Wu, Mamta Wankhede, Dezhi Wang, Jutta Thoerner, Lawrence Woody, Brian S. Sorg, Tim M. Townes, David S. Terman
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with frequent treatment failures and relapses, suggesting the existence of pathogenic myeloma stem/progenitor populations. However, the identity of MM stem cells remains elusive. We used a murine model of MM with transgenic overexpression of the unfolded protein response sensor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) in the B cell compartment to define MM stem cells. We herein report that a post–germinal center, pre–plasma cell population significantly expands as MM develops. This population has the following characteristics: (a) cell surface phenotype of B220+CD19+IgM–IgD–CD138–CD80+sIgG–AA4.1+FSChi; (b) high expression levels of Pax5 and Bcl6 with intermediate levels of Blimp1 and XBP1s; (c) increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase, Notch1, and c-Kit; and (d) ability to efficiently reconstitute antibody-producing capacity in B cell–deficient mice in vivo. We thus have defined a plasma cell progenitor population that resembles myeloma stem cells in mice. These results provide potentially novel insights into MM stem cell biology and may contribute to the development of novel stem cell–targeted therapies for the eradication of MM.
Joshua Kellner, Caroline Wallace, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
Background: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a thiol isomerase secreted by vascular cells that is required for thrombus formation. Quercetin flavonoids inhibit PDI activity and block platelet accumulation and fibrin generation at the site of a vascular injury in mouse models but the clinical effect of targeting extracellular PDI in humans has not been studied. Methods: We conducted a multi-center phase 2 trial of sequential dosing cohorts to evaluate the efficacy of targeting PDI with isoquercetin to reduce hypercoagulability in cancer patients at high risk for thrombosis. Patients received isoquercetin at 500 mg (cohort A, N=28) or 1000 mg (cohort B, N=29) daily for 56 days with laboratory assays performed at baseline and end-of-study, along with bilateral lower extremity compression ultrasound. The primary efficacy endpoint was a reduction in D-dimer and the primary clinical endpoint included pulmonary embolism or proximal deep vein thrombosis. Results: The administration of isoquercetin 1000 mg decreased D-dimer plasma concentrations by a median of -21.9% (P=0.0002). There were no primary VTE events or major hemorrhages observed in either cohort. Isoquercetin increased PDI inhibitory activity in plasma (37.0% in cohort A, N=25, P<0.001; 73.3% in cohort B, N=22, P<0.001, respectively). Corroborating the antithrombotic efficacy, we also observed a significant decrease in platelet-dependent thrombin generation (cohort A median decrease -31.1%, P=0.007; cohort B median decrease -57.2%, P=0.004) and circulating soluble P-selectin at the 1000 mg isoquercetin dose (median decrease -57.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Isoquercetin represents first-in-class inhibitor of PDI demonstrating efficacy in improving markers of coagulation in advanced cancer patients. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02195232
Jeffrey I. Zwicker, Benjamin L. Schlechter, Jack D. Stopa, Howard Liebman, Anita Aggarwal, Maneka Puligandla, Thomas Caughey, Kenneth A. Bauer, Nancy Kuemmerle, Ellice Wong, Ted Wun, Marilyn McLaughlin, Manuel Hidalgo, Donna Neuberg, Bruce Furie, Robert Flaumenhaft
New techniques for single-cell analysis have led to insights into hematopoiesis and the immune system, but the ability of these techniques to cross-validate and reproducibly identify the biological variation in diverse human samples is currently unproven. We therefore performed a comprehensive assessment of human bone marrow cells using both single-cell RNA sequencing and multiparameter flow cytometry from 20 healthy adult human donors across a broad age range. These data characterize variation between healthy donors as well as age-associated changes in cell population frequencies. Direct comparison of techniques revealed discrepancy in the quantification of T lymphocyte and natural killer cell populations. Orthogonal validation of immunophenotyping using mass cytometry demonstrated a strong correlation with flow cytometry. Technical replicates using single-cell RNA sequencing matched robustly, while biological replicates showed variation. Given the increasing use of single-cell technologies in translational research, this resource serves as an important reference data set and highlights opportunities for further refinement.
Karolyn A. Oetjen, Katherine E. Lindblad, Meghali Goswami, Gege Gui, Pradeep K. Dagur, Catherine Lai, Laura W. Dillon, J. Philip McCoy, Christopher S. Hourigan
BACKGROUND. Hypophosphatemia can complicate intravenous iron therapy, but no head-to-head trials compared the effects of newer intravenous iron formulations on risks and mediators of hypophosphatemia. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of adults with iron deficiency anemia from February 2016 to January 2017, we compared rates of hypophosphatemia in response to a single FDA-approved course of ferric carboxymaltose (n = 1,000) or ferumoxytol (n = 997). To investigate pathophysiological mediators of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia, we nested within the parent trial a physiological substudy (ferric carboxymaltose, n = 98; ferumoxytol, n = 87) in which we measured fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) at baseline and 1, 2, and 5 weeks later. RESULTS. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was significantly higher in the ferric carboxymaltose versus the ferumoxytol group (<2.0 mg/dl, 50.8% vs. 0.9%; <1.3 mg/dl, 10.0% vs. 0.0%; P < 0.001), and hypophosphatemia persisted through the end of the 5-week study period in 29.1% of ferric carboxymaltose–treated patients versus none of the ferumoxytol-treated patients (P < 0.001). Ferric carboxymaltose, but not ferumoxytol, increased circulating concentrations of biologically active FGF23 (mean within-patient percentage change from baseline to week 2 peak: +302.8 ± 326.2% vs. +10.1 ± 61.0%; P < 0.001), which was significantly associated with contemporaneous hypophosphatemia, renal phosphate wasting, and decreased serum calcitriol and calcium, and increased PTH concentrations. CONCLUSIONS. Ferric carboxymaltose rapidly increases biologically active FGF23 in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Paralleling hereditary and other acquired syndromes of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, ferric carboxymaltose–induced FGF23 elevation triggers a pathophysiological cascade of renal phosphate wasting, calcitriol deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism that frequently culminates in hypophosphatemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02694978 FUNDING. AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Role of the funding source: This study was supported by AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The academic investigators designed the clinical trial, performed the analyses, and authored the manuscript with input from the coauthors from AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Myles Wolf, Glenn M. Chertow, Iain C. Macdougall, Robert Kaper, Julie Krop, William Strauss
RBC alloimmunization represents a significant immunological challenge for patients requiring lifelong transfusion support. The majority of clinically relevant non-ABO(H) blood group antigens have been thought to drive antibody formation through T cell–dependent immune pathways. Thus, we initially sought to define the role of CD4+ T cells in formation of alloantibodies to KEL, one of the leading causes of hemolytic transfusion reactions. Unexpectedly, our findings demonstrated that KEL RBCs actually possess the ability to induce antibody formation independent of CD4+ T cells or complement component 3 (C3), two common regulators of antibody formation. However, despite the ability of KEL RBCs to induce anti-KEL antibodies in the absence of complement, removal of C3 or complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) rendered recipients completely reliant on CD4+ T cells for IgG anti-KEL antibody formation. Together, these findings suggest that C3 may serve as a novel molecular switch that regulates the type of immunological pathway engaged following RBC transfusion.
Amanda Mener, Seema R. Patel, Connie M. Arthur, Satheesh Chonat, Andreas Wieland, Manjula Santhanakrishnan, Jingchun Liu, Cheryl L. Maier, Ryan P. Jajosky, Kathryn Girard-Pierce, Ashley Bennett, Patricia E. Zerra, Nicole H. Smith, Jeanne E. Hendrickson, Sean R. Stowell
Mutations in the ER chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are common in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, activate the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), and mediate constitutive JAK/STAT signaling. The mechanisms by which CALR mutations cause myeloid transformation are incompletely defined. We used mass spectrometry proteomics to identify CALR-mutant interacting proteins. Mutant CALR caused mislocalization of binding partners and increased recruitment of FLI1, ERP57, and CALR to the MPL promoter to enhance transcription. Consistent with a critical role for CALR-mediated JAK/STAT activation, we confirmed the efficacy of JAK2 inhibition on CALR-mutant cells in vitro and in vivo. Due to the altered interactome induced by CALR mutations, we hypothesized that CALR-mutant MPNs may be vulnerable to disruption of aberrant CALR protein complexes. A synthetic peptide designed to competitively inhibit the carboxy terminal of CALR specifically abrogated MPL/JAK/STAT signaling in cell lines and primary samples and improved the efficacy of JAK kinase inhibitors. These findings reveal what to our knowledge is a novel potential therapeutic approach for patients with CALR-mutant MPN.
Elodie Pronier, Paolo Cifani, Tiffany R. Merlinsky, Katharine Barr Berman, Amritha Varshini Hanasoge Somasundara, Raajit K. Rampal, John LaCava, Karen E. Wei, Friederike Pastore, Jesper L.V. Maag, Jane Park, Richard Koche, Alex Kentsis, Ross L. Levine
The contribution of intracellular hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation to RBC-derived microparticle (MP) formation is poorly defined in sickle cell disease (SCD). Here we report that sickle Hb (HbS) oxidation, coupled with changes in cytosolic antioxidative proteins, is associated with membrane alterations and MP formation in homozygous Townes–sickle cell (Townes-SS) mice. Photometric and proteomic analyses confirmed the presence of high levels of Hb oxidation intermediates (ferric/ferryl) and consequent β-globin posttranslational modifications, including the irreversible oxidation of βCys93 and the ubiquitination of βLys96 and βLys145. This is the first report to our knowledge to link the UPS (via ubiquitinated Hb and other proteins) to oxidative stress. Ferryl Hb also induced complex formation with band 3 and RBC membrane proteins. Incubation of Townes-SS MPs with human endothelial cells caused greater loss of monolayer integrity, apoptotic activation, heme oxygenase-1 induction, and concomitant bioenergetic imbalance compared with control Townes-AA MPs. MPs obtained from Townes-SS mice treated with hydroxyurea produced fewer posttranslational Hb modifications. In vitro, hydroxyurea reduced the levels of ferryl Hb and shielded its target residue, βCys93, by a process of S-nitrosylation. These mechanistic analyses suggest potential antioxidative therapeutic modalities that may interrupt MP heme-mediated pathophysiology in SCD patients.
Sirsendu Jana, Michael Brad Strader, Fantao Meng, Wayne Hicks, Tigist Kassa, Ivan Tarandovskiy, Silvia De Paoli, Jan Simak, Michael R. Heaven, John D. Belcher, Gregory M. Vercellotti, Abdu I. Alayash
BACKGROUND. Our understanding of phenotypic and functional signatures of CD8+ T cell dysfunction in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is limited. Deciphering these deranged T cell functional states and how they are impacted by induction chemotherapy is essential for incorporation of novel immune-based strategies to restore and maintain antileukemia immunity. METHODS. We utilized high-dimensional immunophenotyping, gene expression, and functional studies to characterize peripheral blood and bone marrow CD8+ T cells in 72 AML patients at diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy. RESULTS. Our data suggest that multiple aspects of deranged T cell function are operative in AML at diagnosis, with exhaustion and senescence being the dominant processes. Following treatment, the phenotypic and transcriptional profile of CD8+ T cells diverged between responders and nonresponders. Response to therapy correlated with upregulation of costimulatory, and downregulation of apoptotic and inhibitory, T cell signaling pathways, indicative of restoration of T cell function. In functional studies, AML blasts directly altered CD8+ T cell viability, expansion, co-signaling and senescence marker expression. This CD8+ T cell dysfunction was in part reversible upon PD-1 blockade or OX40 costimulation in vitro. CONCLUSION. Our findings highlight the uniqueness of AML in sculpting CD8+ T cell responses and the plasticity of their signatures upon chemotherapy response, providing a compelling rationale for integration of novel immunotherapies to augment antileukemia immunity. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society grant no. 6449-13; NIH grants UM1-CA186691 and R01-HL110907-01; the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation New Investigator Award/Gabrielle’s Angel Foundation; the Vienna Fund for Innovative Cancer Research; and by fellowships from the Wenner-Gren Foundation and the Swedish Society for Medical Research.
Hanna A. Knaus, Sofia Berglund, Hubert Hackl, Amanda L. Blackford, Joshua F. Zeidner, Raúl Montiel-Esparza, Rupkatha Mukhopadhyay, Katrina Vanura, Bruce R. Blazar, Judith E. Karp, Leo Luznik, Ivana Gojo
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