Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is triggered mainly by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, but a significant proportion of patients lack a genetic diagnosis. We identified a novel mutation in the ryanodine receptor 2, RyR2-P1124L, in a patient from a genotype-negative HCM cohort. The aim of this study was to determine whether RyR2-P1124L triggers functional and structural alterations in isolated RyR2 channels and whole hearts. We found that P1124L induces significant conformational changes in the SPRY2 domain of RyR2. Recombinant RyR2-P1124L channels displayed a cytosolic loss-of-function phenotype, which contrasted with a higher sensitivity to luminal [Ca2+], indicating a luminal gain-of-function. Homozygous mice for RyR2-P1124L showed mild cardiac hypertrophy, similar to the human patient. This phenotype, evident at 1 yr of age, was accompanied by an increase in the expression of calmodulin (CaM). P1124L mice also showed higher susceptibility to arrhythmia at 8 mo of age, before the onset of hypertrophy. RyR2-P1124L has a distinct cytosolic loss-of-function and a luminal gain-of-function phenotype. This bifunctionally-divergent behavior triggers arrhythmias and structural cardiac remodeling, and involves overexpression of calmodulin as a potential hypertrophic mediator. This study is relevant to continue elucidating the possible causes of genotype-negative HCM and the role of RyR2 in cardiac hypertrophy.
Francisco J. Alvarado, J. Martijn Bos, Zhiguang Yuchi, Carmen R. Valdivia, Jonathan J. Hernandez, Yan-Ting Zhao, Dawn S. Henderlong, Yan Chen, Talia R. Booher, Cherisse A. Marcou, Filip Van Petegem, Michael J. Ackerman, Hector H. Valdivia
Sarcomeric disarray is a hallmark of gene mutations in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it is unknown when detrimental sarcomeric changes first occur and whether they originate in the developing embryonic heart. Furthermore, Rho Kinase (ROCK) is a serine threonine protein kinase that is critical for regulating the function of several sarcomeric proteins and therefore, our aim was to determine if disruption of ROCK signalling during the earliest stages of heart development would disrupt the integrity of sarcomeres altering heart development and function. Using a mouse model in which the function of ROCK is specifically disrupted in embryonic cardiomyocytes we demonstrate a progressive cardiomyopathy that first appeared as sarcomeric disarray during cardiogenesis. This led to abnormalities in the structure of embryonic ventricular wall and compensatory cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during foetal development. This sarcomeric disruption and hypertrophy persisted throughout adult life, triggering left ventricular concentric hypertrophy with systolic dysfunction, and re-activation of foetal gene expression and cardiac fibrosis, all typical features of HCM. Taken together, our findings establish a novel mechanism for the developmental origin of the sarcomeric phenotype of HCM and suggest that variants in the ROCK genes or disruption of ROCK signalling could, in part, contribute to its pathogenesis.
Kate E. Bailey, Guy A. MacGowan, Simon Tual-Chalot, Lauren Phillips, Tim J. Mohun, Deborah J. Henderson, Helen M. Arthur, Simon D. Bamforth, Helen M. Phillips
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide in industrialized countries. Disease progression and regression are associated with different activation states of macrophages derived from inflammatory monocytes entering the plaques. The features of monocyte-to-macrophage transition and the full spectrum of macrophage activation states during either plaque progression or regression, however, are incompletely established. Here, we use a combination of single-cell RNA sequencing and genetic fate mapping to profile, for the first time to our knowledge, plaque cells derived from CX3CR1+ precursors in mice during both progression and regression of atherosclerosis. The analyses revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states with greater complexity than the traditional M1 and M2 polarization states, with progression associated with differentiation of CXC3R1+ monocytes into more distinct states than during regression. We also identified an unexpected cluster of proliferating monocytes with a stem cell–like signature, suggesting that monocytes may persist in a proliferating self-renewal state in inflamed tissue, rather than differentiating immediately into macrophages after entering the tissue.
Jian-Da Lin, Hitoo Nishi, Jordan Poles, Xiang Niu, Caroline Mccauley, Karishma Rahman, Emily J. Brown, Stephen T. Yeung, Nikollaq Vozhilla, Ada Weinstock, Stephen A. Ramsey, Edward A. Fisher, P’ng Loke
Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS-1) is a morbid complication of acute cardiovascular disease. Heart-to-kidney signals transmitted by “cardiorenal connectors” have been postulated, but investigation into CRS-1 has been limited by technical limitations and a paucity of models. To address these limitations, we developed a translational model of CRS-1, cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR), and now report findings from nanoscale mass spectrometry proteomic exploration of glomerular filtrate 2 hours after CA/CPR or sham procedure. Filtrate acquisition was confirmed by imaging, molecular weight and charge distribution, and exclusion of protein specific to surrounding cells. Filtration of proteins specific to the heart was detected following CA/CPR and confirmed with mass spectrometry performed using urine collections from mice with deficient tubular endocytosis. Cardiac LIM protein was a CA/CPR-specific filtrate component. Cardiac arrest induced plasma release of cardiac LIM protein in mice and critically ill human cardiac arrest survivors, and administration of recombinant cardiac LIM protein to mice altered renal function. These findings demonstrate that glomerular filtrate is accessible to nanoscale proteomics and elucidate the population of proteins filtered 2 hours after CA/CPR. The identification of cardiac-specific proteins in renal filtrate suggests a novel signaling mechanism in CRS-1. We expect these findings to advance understanding of CRS-1.
Rumie Wakasaki, Katsuyuki Matsushita, Kirsti Golgotiu, Sharon Anderson, Mahaba B. Eiwaz, Daniel J. Orton, Sang Jun Han, H. Thomas Lee, Richard D. Smith, Karin D. Rodland, Paul D. Piehowski, Michael P. Hutchens
BACKGROUND. Simultaneous noninvasively recorded skin sympathetic nerve activity (SKNA) and electrocardiogram (neuECG) can be used to estimate cardiac sympathetic tone. We tested the hypothesis that large and prolonged SKNA bursts are associated with temporal clustering arrhythmias. METHODS. We recorded neuECG in 10 patients (69 ± 10 years old) with atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes and in 6 patients (50 ± 13 years old) with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF) episodes. Clustering was defined by an arrhythmic episode followed within 1 minute by spontaneous recurrences of the same arrhythmia. The neuECG signals were bandpass filtered between 500–1000 Hz to display SKNA. RESULTS. There were 22 AF clusters, including 231 AF episodes from 6 patients, and 9 VT/VF clusters, including 99 VT/VF episodes from 3 patients. A total duration of SKNA bursts associated with AF was longer than that during sinus rhythm (78.9 min/hour [interquartile range (IQR) 17.5–201.3] vs. 16.3 min/hour [IQR 14.5–18.5], P = 0.022). The burst amplitude associated with AF in clustering patients was significantly higher than that in nonclustering patients (1.54 μV [IQR 1.35–1.89], n = 114, vs. 1.20 μV [IQR 1.05–1.42], n = 21, P < 0.001). The SKNA bursts associated with VT/VF clusters lasted 9.3 ± 3.1 minutes, with peaks that averaged 1.13 ± 0.38 μV as compared with 0.79 ± 0.11 μV at baseline (P = 0.041). CONCLUSION. Large and sustained sympathetic nerve activities are associated with the temporal clustering of AF and VT/VF. FUNDING. This study was supported in part by NIH grants R42DA043391 (THE), R56 HL71140, TR002208-01, R01 HL139829 (PSC), a Charles Fisch Cardiovascular Research Award endowed by Suzanne B. Knoebel of the Krannert Institute of Cardiology (TK and THE), a Medtronic-Zipes Endowment, and the Indiana University Health-Indiana University School of Medicine Strategic Research Initiative (PSC).
Takashi Kusayama, Juyi Wan, Anisiia Doytchinova, Johnson Wong, Ryan A. Kabir, Gloria Mitscher, Susan Straka, Changyu Shen, Thomas H. Everett IV, Peng-Sheng Chen
Iron deficiency is present in approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients. Large multi-center trials have shown that treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous iron benefits HF patients, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. To investigate the actions of iron deficiency on the heart, mice were fed an iron-depleted diet and some received intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), an iron supplementation used clinically. Iron-deficient animals became anemic and had reduced ventricular ejection fraction measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Ca2+ signaling, a pathway linked to the contractile deficit in failing hearts, was also significantly affected. Ventricular myocytes isolated from iron-deficient animals produced smaller Ca2+ transients from an elevated diastolic baseline, but had unchanged sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-load, trigger L-type Ca2+ current or cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. Reduced fractional release from the SR was due to downregulated RyR2 channels, detected at protein and message level. The constancy of diastolic SR Ca2+-load is explained by reduced RyR2 permeability in combination with right-shifted SERCA activity due dephosphorylation of its regulator phospholamban. Supplementing iron levels with FCM restored normal Ca2+ signaling and ejection fraction. Thus, two Ca2+-handling proteins previously implicated in HF become functionally impaired in iron-deficiency anemia, but their activity is rescued by intravenous iron supplementation.
Yu Jin Chung, Antao Luo, Kyung Chan Park, Aminah Loonat, Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Peter A. Robbins, Pawel Swietach
Heart failure (HF) is associated in humans and mice with increased circulating levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, chemokine ligands of the CXCR3 receptor, predominantly expressed on CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. Chemokine engagement of receptors is required for T cell integrin activation and recruitment to sites of inflammation. Th1 cells drive adverse cardiac remodeling in pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction, and mice lacking the integrin ligand ICAM-1 show defective T cell recruitment to the heart. Here, we show that CXCR3+ T cells infiltrate the heart in humans and mice with pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction. Genetic deletion of CXCR3 disrupts CD4+ T cell heart infiltration and prevents adverse cardiac remodeling. We demonstrate that cardiac myeloid cells that include resident and infiltrated macrophages, and cardiac fibroblasts are the source of CXCL9 and CXCL10; which, mechanistically promote Th1 cell adhesion to ICAM-1 under shear conditions in a CXCR3-dependent manner. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role for CXCR3 in Th1 cell recruitment into the heart in pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction.
Njabulo Ngwenyama, Ane M. Salvador, Francisco Velázquez, Tania Nevers, Alexander Levy, Mark J. Aronovitz, Andrew D. Luster, Gordon S. Huggins, Pilar Alcaide
About one-third of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases are caused by mutations in sarcomere or cytoskeletal proteins. Yet treating the cytoskeleton directly is not possible because drugs that bind to actin are not well tolerated. Mutations in the actin binding protein CAP2 can cause DCM and knockout mice, either whole body (CAP2 KO) or cardiomyocyte-specific knockouts (CAP2 CKO), develop DCM with cardiac conduction disease. RNA-seq analysis of CAP2 KO hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes revealed over-activation of fetal genes including serum response factor (SRF) regulated genes such as Myl9 and Acta2 prior to the emergence of cardiac disease. To test if we could treat CAP2 KO mice, we synthesized and tested the SRF inhibitor CCG-1423-8u. CCG-1423-8u reduced expression of the SRF targets Myl9 and Acta2, as well as the biomarker of heart failure, Nppa. The median survival of CAP2 CKO mice was 98 days, while CCG-1423-8u treated CKO mice survived for 116 days and also maintain normal cardiac function longer. These results suggest that some forms of sudden cardiac death and cardiac conduction disease are under cytoskeletal stress and that inhibiting signaling through SRF may benefit DCM by reducing cytoskeletal stress.
Yao Xiong, Kenneth C. Bedi, Simon Berritt, Thomas G. Brooks, Bennette K. Attipoe, Kevin Wang, Kenneth B. Margulies, Jeffrey Field
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy and encompasses both skeletal muscle and cardiac complications. Myotonic dystrophy is nucleotide repeat expansion disorder in which type 1 (DM1) is due to a trinucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 19 and type 2 (DM2) arises from a tetranucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 3. Developing representative models of myotonic dystrophy in animals has been challenging due to instability of nucleotide repeat expansions, especially for DM2 which is characterized by nucleotide repeat expansions often greater than 5000 copies. To investigate mechanisms of human DM, we generated cellular models of DM1 and DM2. We used regulated MyoD expression to reprogram urine-derived cells into myotubes. In this myogenic cell model, we found impaired dystrophin expression, MBNL foci, and aberrant splicing in DM1 but not in DM2 cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from healthy controls, DM1 and DM2 subjects and differentiated these into cardiomyocytes. DM1 and DM2 cells displayed an increase in RNA foci concomitant with cellular differentiation. IPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from DM1 but not DM2 had aberrant splicing of known target genes and MBNL sequestration. High resolution imaging revealed tight association between MBNL clusters and RNA FISH foci in DM1. Ca2+ transients differed between DM1 and DM2 IPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and each differed from healthy control cells. RNA-sequencing from DM1 and DM2 iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes revealed distinct misregulation of gene expression as well as differential aberrant splicing patterns. Together these data support that DM1 and DM2, despite some shared clinical and molecular features, have distinct pathological signatures.
Ellis Y. Kim, David Y. Barefield, Andy H. Vo, Anthony M. Gacita, Emma J. Schuster, Eugene J. Wyatt, Janel L. Davis, Biqin Dong, Cheng Sun, Patrick Page, Lisa Dellefave-Castillo, Alexis Demonbreun, Hao F. Zhang, Elizabeth M. McNally
Kawasaki disease (KD), the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease among children, is often associated with myocarditis that may lead to long-term myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis. Although those myocardial changes develop during the acute phase, they may persist for decades and closely correlate with long-term myocardial sequelae. Using the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract–induced (LCWE-induced) KD vasculitis murine model, we investigated long-term cardiovascular sequelae, such as myocardial dysfunction, fibrosis, and coronary microvascular lesions following adrenergic stimuli after established KD vasculitis. We found that adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol following LCWE-induced KD vasculitis in mice was associated with increased risk of cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, diminished ejection fraction, and increased serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide. Myocardial fibrosis resulting from pharmacologic-induced exercise after KD development was IL-1 signaling dependent and was associated with a significant reduction in myocardial capillary CD31 expression, indicative of a rarefied myocardial capillary bed. These observations suggest that adrenergic stimulation after KD vasculitis may lead to cardiac hypertrophy and bridging fibrosis in the myocardium in the LCWE-induced KD vasculitis mouse model and that this process involves IL-1 signaling and diminished microvascular circulation in the myocardium.
Harry H. Matundan, Jon Sin, Magali Noval Rivas, Michael C. Fishbein, Thomas J. Lehman, Shuang Chen, Roberta A. Gottlieb, Timothy R. Crother, Masanori Abe, Moshe Arditi
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