Khatri et al. report that JAK-STAT activation in airways following human lung transplantation contributes to upregulation of MHC-I in donor basal cells and alloimmune cytotoxic T cell–mediated basal cell death. The cover image shows a bronchiole with epithelial cell loss accompanied by peribronchiolar fibrosis, a defining histologic feature in bronchiolitis obliterans, a form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction after lung transplant.
Low Club Cell 16 kDa protein (CC16) plasma levels are linked to accelerated lung function decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke–exposed (CS-exposed) Cc16–/– mice have exaggerated COPD-like disease associated with increased NF-κB activation in their lungs. It is unclear whether CC16 augmentation can reverse exaggerated COPD in CS-exposed Cc16–/– mice and whether increased NF-κB activation contributes to the exaggerated COPD in CS-exposed Cc16–/– lungs. CS-exposed WT and Cc16–/– mice were treated with recombinant human CC16 (rhCC16) or an NF-κB inhibitor versus vehicle beginning at the midpoint of the exposures. COPD-like disease and NF-κB activation were measured in the lungs. RhCC16 limited the progression of emphysema, small airway fibrosis, and chronic bronchitis-like disease in WT and Cc16–/– mice partly by reducing pulmonary inflammation (reducing myeloid leukocytes and/or increasing regulatory T and/or B cells) and alveolar septal cell apoptosis, reducing NF-κB activation in CS-exposed Cc16–/– lungs, and rescuing the reduced Foxj1 expression in CS-exposed Cc16–/– lungs. IMD0354 treatment reduced exaggerated lung inflammation and rescued the reduced Foxj1 expression in CS-exposed Cc16–/– mice. RhCC16 treatment reduced NF-κB activation in luciferase reporter A549 cells. Thus, rhCC16 treatment limits COPD progression in CS-exposed Cc16–/– mice partly by inhibiting NF-κB activation and represents a potentially novel therapeutic approach for COPD.
Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Maria Eugenia Laucho-Contreras, Xiaoyun Wang, Quynh-Anh Fucci, Patrick R. Burkett, Se-Jin Kim, Duo Zhang, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Yuhong Li, Abhiram R. Bhashyam, Zhang Li, Haider Khamas, Bartolome Celli, Aprile L. Pilon, Francesca Polverino, Caroline A. Owen
Coagulopathy contributes to the majority of deaths and disabilities associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to an abnormal coagulation state in the acute phase of TBI remains unknown. Our objectives were to demonstrate the definitive role of NETs in coagulopathy in TBI. We detected NET markers in 128 TBI patients and 34 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates were detected in blood samples from TBI patients and healthy individuals using flow cytometry and staining for CD41 and CD66b. Endothelial cells were incubated with isolated NETs and we detected the expression of vascular endothelial cadherin, syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor, phosphatidylserine, and tissue factor. In addition, we established a TBI mouse model to determine the potential role of NETs in TBI-associated coagulopathy. NET generation was mediated by high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from activated platelets and contributed to procoagulant activity in TBI. Furthermore, coculture experiments indicated that NETs damaged the endothelial barrier and caused these cells to assume a procoagulant phenotype. Moreover, the administration of DNase I before or after brain trauma markedly reduced coagulopathy and improved the survival and clinical outcome of mice with TBI.
Jiaqi Jin, Fang Wang, Jiawei Tian, Xinyi Zhao, Jiawei Dong, Nan Wang, Zhihui Liu, Hongtao Zhao, Wenqiang Li, Ge Mang, Shaoshan Hu
The pronounced choleretic properties of 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) to induce bicarbonate-rich bile secretion have been attributed to its ability to undergo cholehepatic shunting. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the choleretic actions of norUDCA and the role of the bile acid transporters. Here, we show that the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), organic solute transporter-α (OSTα), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a/1b (OATP1a/1b) transporters are dispensable for the norUDCA stimulation of bile flow and biliary bicarbonate secretion. Chloride channels in biliary epithelial cells provide the driving force for biliary secretion. In mouse large cholangiocytes, norUDCA potently stimulated chloride currents that were blocked by siRNA silencing and pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) but unaffected by ASBT inhibition. In agreement, blocking intestinal bile acid reabsorption by coadministration of an ASBT inhibitor or bile acid sequestrant did not impact norUDCA stimulation of bile flow in WT mice. The results indicate that these major bile acid transporters are not directly involved in the absorption, cholehepatic shunting, or choleretic actions of norUDCA. Additionally, the findings support further investigation of the therapeutic synergy between norUDCA and ASBT inhibitors or bile acid sequestrants for cholestatic liver disease.
Jennifer K. Truong, Jianing Li, Qin Li, Kimberly Pachura, Anuradha Rao, Sanjeev Gumber, Claudia Daniela Fuchs, Andrew P. Feranchak, Saul J. Karpen, Michael Trauner, Paul A. Dawson
Metastatic progression of epithelial cancers can be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) including transcriptional inhibition of E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. Recently, EM plasticity (EMP) and E-cadherin–mediated, cluster-based metastasis and treatment resistance have become more appreciated. However, the mechanisms that maintain E-cadherin expression in this context are less understood. Through studies of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and a 3D tumor cell “emboli” culture paradigm, we discovered that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2; PTGS2), a target gene of C/EBPδ (CEBPD), or its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes protein stability of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and p120 catenin through inhibition of GSK3β. The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib downregulated E-cadherin complex proteins and caused cell death. Coexpression of E-cadherin and COX-2 was seen in breast cancer tissues from patients with poor outcome and, along with inhibitory GSK3β phosphorylation, in patient-derived xenografts (PDX) including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).Celecoxib alone decreased E-cadherin protein expression within xenograft tumors, though CDH1 mRNA levels increased, and reduced circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters. In combination with paclitaxel, celecoxib attenuated or regressed lung metastases. This study has uncovered a mechanism by which metastatic breast cancer cells can maintain E-cadherin–mediated cell-to-cell adhesions and cell survival, suggesting that some patients with COX-2+/E-cadherin+ breast cancer may benefit from targeting of the PGE2 signaling pathway.
Kuppusamy Balamurugan, Dipak K. Poria, Saadiya W. Sehareen, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Wei Tang, Lois McKennett, Veena Padmanaban, Kelli Czarra, Andrew J. Ewald, Naoto T. Ueno, Stefan Ambs, Shikha Sharan, Esta Sterneck
Keloids are considered the manifestation of a fibroproliferative disease characterized by chronic inflammation that is induced following skin injury. Deciphering the underlying mechanism of keloid formation is essential for improving treatment outcomes. Here, we found that more macrophages were activated toward the M2 subtype in keloid dermis when compared with normal dermis. Western blotting revealed that the level of phosphorylated STAT6 (p-STAT6), a known inducer of M2 polarization, was higher in keloid fibroblasts as opposed to fibroblasts from normal dermis. Moreover, keloid fibrosis was shown to be positively correlated with the level of p-STAT6. Further, we identified downregulation of IL-13RA2, a decoy receptor for IL-13, in keloid fibroblasts compared with fibroblasts from normal dermis. Ectopic expression of IL-13RA2 in keloid fibroblasts resulted in inhibition of STAT6 phosphorylation, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, extracellular matrix secretion, and myofibroblast marker expression, as well as an increase in apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of IL-13RA2 in normal fibroblasts induced a keloidal status. Furthermore, both in vitro application and intratumoral injection of p-STAT6 inhibitor AS1517499 in a patient-derived xenograft keloid-implantation mouse model resulted in proliferation inhibition and tissue necrosis, apoptosis, and myofibroblast marker reduction. Collectively, this study elucidates the key role of IL-13RA2 in keloid pathology and inspires further translational research of keloid treatment concerning JAK/STAT6 inhibition.
Hua Chao, Lisheng Zheng, Pojui Hsu, Jinyun He, Ridong Wu, Shuqia Xu, Ruixi Zeng, Yuan Zhou, Huisi Ma, Haibo Liu, Qing Tang
Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor, the prognosis of which remains dismal even with aggressive surgical, medical, and radiation therapies. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) promote therapeutic resistance and cellular heterogeneity due to their self-renewal properties and capacity for plasticity. To understand the molecular processes essential for maintaining GSCs, we performed an integrative analysis comparing active enhancer landscapes, transcriptional profiles, and functional genomics profiles of GSCs and non-neoplastic neural stem cells (NSCs). We identified sorting nexin 10 (SNX10), an endosomal protein sorting factor, as selectively expressed in GSCs compared with NSCs and essential for GSC survival. Targeting SNX10 impaired GSC viability and proliferation, induced apoptosis, and reduced self-renewal capacity. Mechanistically, GSCs utilized endosomal protein sorting to promote platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) proliferative and stem cell signaling pathways through posttranscriptional regulation of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase. Targeting SNX10 expression extended survival of orthotopic xenograft–bearing mice, and high SNX10 expression correlated with poor glioblastoma patient prognosis, suggesting its potential clinical importance. Thus, our study reveals an essential connection between endosomal protein sorting and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and suggests that targeting endosomal sorting may represent a promising therapeutic approach for glioblastoma treatment.
Ryan C. Gimple, Guoxin Zhang, Shuai Wang, Tengfei Huang, Jina Lee, Suchet Taori, Deguan Lv, Deobrat Dixit, Matthew E. Halbert, Andrew R. Morton, Reilly L. Kidwell, Zhen Dong, Briana C. Prager, Leo J.Y. Kim, Zhixin Qiu, Linjie Zhao, Qi Xie, Qiulian Wu, Sameer Agnihotri, Jeremy N. Rich
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critically involved in cancer metastasis and chemoresistance, acting as one major obstacle in clinical practice. While accumulating studies have implicated the metabolic reprogramming of CSCs, mitochondrial dynamics in such cells remain poorly understood. Here we pinpointed OPA1hi with mitochondrial fusion as a metabolic feature of human lung CSCs, licensing their stem-like properties. Specifically, human lung CSCs exerted enhanced lipogenesis, inducing OPA1 expression via transcription factor SAM Pointed Domain containing ETS transcription Factor (SPDEF). In consequence, OPA1hi promoted mitochondrial fusion and stemness of CSCs. Such lipogenesishi, SPDEFhi, and OPA1hi metabolic adaptions were verified with primary CSCs from lung cancer patients. Accordingly, blocking lipogenesis and mitochondrial fusion efficiently impeded CSC expansion and growth of organoids derived from patients with lung cancer. Together, lipogenesis regulates mitochondrial dynamics via OPA1 for controlling CSCs in human lung cancer.
Zhen Liu, Jiaxin Lei, Tong Wu, Weijie Hu, Ming Zheng, Ying Wang, Jingdong Song, Hang Ruan, Lin Xu, Tao Ren, Wei Xu, Zhenke Wen
Cardiac fibrosis is associated with an adverse prognosis in cardiovascular disease that results in a decreased cardiac compliance and, ultimately, heart failure. Recent studies have identified the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in cardiac fibrosis. However, the functions of many lncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis remain to be characterized. Through a whole-transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis on a mouse model of pressure overload–induced cardiac fibrosis, we screened a key lncRNA termed thrombospondin 1 antisense 1 (THBS1-AS1), which was positively associated with cardiac fibrosis. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that the silencing of THBS1-AS1 ameliorated TGF-β1 effects on cardiac fibroblast (CF) activation, and the overexpression of THBS1-AS1 displayed the opposite effect. A mechanistic study revealed that THBS1-AS1 could sponge miR-221/222 to regulate the expression of TGFBR1. Moreover, under TGF-β1 stimulation, the forced expression of miR-221/222 or the knockdown TGFBR1 significantly reversed the THBS1-AS1 overexpression induced by further CF activation. In vivo, specific knockdown of THBS1-AS1 in activated CFs significantly alleviated transverse aorta constriction–induced (TAC-induced) cardiac fibrosis in mice. Finally, we demonstrated that the human THBS1-AS1 can also affect the activation of CFs by regulating TGFBR1. In conclusion, this study reveals that lncRNA THBS1-AS1 is a potentially novel regulator of cardiac fibrosis and may serve as a target for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.
Junteng Zhou, Geer Tian, Yue Quan, Qihang Kong, Fangyang Huang, Junli Li, Wenchao Wu, Yong Tang, Zhichao Zhou, Xiaojing Liu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess strong immunoregulatory functions, one aspect of which is recruiting monocytes from peripheral vessels to local tissue by secreting monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1). However, the regulatory mechanisms of MCP1 secretion in MSCs are still unclear. Recently, the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification was reported to be involved in the functional regulation of MSCs. In this study, we demonstrated that methyltransferase-like 16 (METTL16) negatively regulated MCP1 expression in MSCs through the m6A modification. Specifically, the expression of METTL16 in MSCs decreased gradually and was negatively correlated with the expression of MCP1 after coculture with monocytes. Knocking down METTL16 markedly enhanced MCP1 expression and the ability to recruit monocytes. Mechanistically, knocking down METTL16 decreased MCP1 mRNA degradation, which was mediated by the m6A reader YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA-binding protein 2 (YTHDF2). We further revealed that YTHDF2 specifically recognized m6A sites on MCP1 mRNA in the CDS region and thus negatively regulated MCP1 expression. Moreover, an in vivo assay showed that MSCs transfected with METTL16 siRNA showed greater ability to recruit monocytes. These findings reveal a potential mechanism by which the m6A methylase METTL16 regulates MCP1 expression through YTHDF2-mediated mRNA degradation and suggest a potential strategy to manipulate MCP1 expression in MSCs.
Zhaoqiang Zhang, Zhongyu Xie, Jiajie Lin, Zehang Sun, Zhikun Li, Wenhui Yu, Yipeng Zeng, Guiwen Ye, Jinteng Li, Feng Ye, Zepeng Su, Yunshu Che, Peitao Xu, Chenying Zeng, Peng Wang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
As a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), elevated intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death compromises the gut barrier, activating the inflammatory response and triggering more IEC death. However, the precise intracellular machinery that prevents IEC death and breaks this vicious feedback cycle remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) expression is decreased in patients with IBD and inversely correlated with IBD severity. Gab1 deficiency in IECs accounted for the exacerbated colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate owing to sensitizing IECs to receptor-interaction protein kinase 3–mediated (RIPK3-mediated) necroptosis, which irreversibly disrupted the homeostasis of the epithelial barrier and promoted intestinal inflammation. Mechanistically, Gab1 negatively regulated necroptosis signaling through inhibiting the formation of RIPK1/RIPK3 complex in response to TNF-α. Importantly, administration of RIPK3 inhibitor revealed a curative effect in epithelial Gab1-deficient mice. Further analysis indicated mice with Gab1 deletion were prone to inflammation-associated colorectal tumorigenesis. Collectively, our study defines a protective role for Gab1 in colitis and colitis-driven colorectal cancer by negatively regulating RIPK3-dependent necroptosis, which may serve as an important target to address necroptosis and intestinal inflammation–related disease.
Jiaqi Xu, Shihao Li, Wei Jin, Hui Zhou, Tingting Zhong, Xiaoqing Cheng, Yujuan Fu, Peng Xiao, Hongqiang Cheng, Di Wang, Yuehai Ke, Zhinong Jiang, Xue Zhang
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) preferentially metastasizes in association with mesothelial cell–lined surfaces. We sought to determine if mesothelial cells are required for OvCa metastasis and detect alterations in mesothelial cell gene expression and cytokine secretion upon interaction with OvCa cells. Using omental samples from patients with high-grade serous OvCa and mouse models with Wt1-driven GFP-expressing mesothelial cells, we validated the intratumoral localization of mesothelial cells during human and mouse OvCa omental metastasis. Removing mesothelial cells ex vivo from human and mouse omenta or in vivo using diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation in Msln-Cre mice significantly inhibited OvCa cell adhesion and colonization. Human ascites induced angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) and stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) expression and secretion by mesothelial cells. Inhibition of STC1 or ANGPTL4 via RNAi obstructed OvCa cell-induced mesothelial cell to mesenchymal transition while inhibition of ANGPTL4 alone obstructed OvCa cell-induced mesothelial cell migration and glycolysis. Inhibition of mesothelial cell ANGPTL4 secretion via RNAi prevented mesothelial cell–induced monocyte migration, endothelial cell vessel formation, and OvCa cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. In contrast, inhibition of mesothelial cell STC1 secretion via RNAi prevented mesothelial cell–induced endothelial cell vessel formation and OvCa cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and invasion. Additionally, blocking ANPTL4 function with Abs reduced the ex vivo colonization of 3 different OvCa cell lines on human omental tissue explants and in vivo colonization of ID8p53–/–Brca2–/– cells on mouse omenta. These findings indicate that mesothelial cells are important to the initial stages of OvCa metastasis and that the crosstalk between mesothelial cells and the tumor microenvironment promotes OvCa metastasis through the secretion of ANGPTL4.
Preety Bajwa, Kasjusz Kordylewicz, Agnes Bilecz, Ricardo R. Lastra, Kristen Wroblewski, Yuval Rinkevich, Ernst Lengyel, Hilary A. Kenny
The transcription factor c-Maf has been widely studied and has been reported to play a critical role in embryonic kidney development; however, the postnatal functions of c-Maf in adult kidneys remain unknown as c-Maf–null C57BL/6J mice exhibit embryonic lethality. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Maf in adult mouse kidneys by comparing the phenotypes of tamoxifen-inducible (TAM-inducible) c-Maf–knockout mice (c-Maffl/fl; CAG-Cre-ERTM mice named “c-MafΔTAM”) with those of c-Maffl/fl control mice, 10 days after TAM injection [TAM(10d)]. In addition, we examined the effects of c-Maf deletion on diabetic conditions by injecting the mice with streptozotocin, 4 weeks before TAM injection. c-MafΔTAM mice displayed primary glycosuria caused by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (Sglt2) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) downregulation in the kidneys without diabetes, as well as morphological changes and life-threatening injuries in the kidneys on TAM(10d). Under diabetic conditions, c-Maf deletion promoted recovery from hyperglycemia and suppressed albuminuria and diabetic nephropathy by causing similar effects as did Sglt2 knockout and SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition to demonstrating the potentially unique gene regulation of c-Maf, these findings highlight the renoprotective effects of c-Maf deficiency under diabetic conditions and suggest that c-Maf could be a novel therapeutic target gene for treating diabetic nephropathy.
Mitsunori Fujino, Naoki Morito, Takuto Hayashi, Masami Ojima, Shun Ishibashi, Akihiro Kuno, Seizo Koshiba, Kunihiro Yamagata, Satoru Takahashi
We assessed vaccine-induced antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral virus and Omicron variant before and after booster immunization in 57 patients with B cell malignancies. Over one-third of vaccinated patients at the pre-booster time point were seronegative, and these patients were predominantly on active cancer therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. While booster immunization was able to induce detectable antibodies in a small fraction of seronegative patients, the overall booster benefit was disproportionately evident in patients already seropositive and not receiving active therapy. While ancestral virus– and Omicron variant–reactive antibody levels among individual patients were largely concordant, neutralizing antibodies against Omicron tended to be reduced. Interestingly, in all patients, including those unable to generate detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike, we observed comparable levels of EBV- and influenza-reactive antibodies, demonstrating that B cell–targeting therapies primarily impair de novo but not preexisting antibody levels. These findings support rationale for vaccination before cancer treatment.
Joseph H. Azar, John P. Evans, Madison H. Sikorski, Karthik B. Chakravarthy, Selah McKenney, Ian Carmody, Cong Zeng, Rachael Teodorescu, No-Joon Song, Jamie L. Hamon, Donna Bucci, Maria Velegraki, Chelsea Bolyard, Kevin P. Weller, Sarah A. Reisinger, Seema A. Bhat, Kami J. Maddocks, Nathan Denlinger, Narendranath Epperla, Richard J. Gumina, Anastasia N. Vlasova, Eugene M. Oltz, Linda J. Saif, Dongjun Chung, Jennifer A. Woyach, Peter G. Shields, Shan-Lu Liu, Zihai Li, Mark P. Rubinstein
Female cancer survivors are significantly more likely to experience infertility than the general population. It is well established that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can damage the ovary and compromise fertility, yet the ability of cancer treatments to induce uterine damage, and the underlying mechanisms, have been understudied. Here, we show that in mice total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) induced extensive DNA damage and apoptosis in uterine cells. We then transferred healthy donor embryos into ovariectomized adolescent female mice that were previously exposed to TBI to study the impacts of radiotherapy on the uterus independent from effects to ovarian endocrine function. Following TBI, embryo attachment and implantation were unaffected, but fetal resorption was evident at midgestation in 100% of dams, suggesting failed placental development. Consistent with this hypothesis, TBI impaired the decidual response in mice and primary human endometrial stromal cells. TBI also caused uterine artery endothelial dysfunction, likely preventing adequate blood vessel remodeling in early pregnancy. Notably, when pro-apoptotic protein Puma-deficient (Puma–/–) mice were exposed to TBI, apoptosis within the uterus was prevented, and decidualization, vascular function, and pregnancy were restored, identifying PUMA-mediated apoptosis as a key mechanism. Collectively, these data show that TBI damages the uterus and compromises pregnancy success, suggesting that optimal fertility preservation during radiotherapy may require protection of both the ovaries and uterus. In this regard, inhibition of PUMA may represent a potential fertility preservation strategy.
Meaghan J. Griffiths, Sarah A. Marshall, Fiona L. Cousins, Lauren R. Alesi, Jordan Higgins, Saranya Giridharan, Urooza C. Sarma, Ellen Menkhorst, Wei Zhou, Alison S. Care, Jacqueline F. Donoghue, Sarah J. Holdsworth-Carson, Peter A.W. Rogers, Evdokia Dimitriadis, Caroline E. Gargett, Sarah A. Robertson, Amy L. Winship, Karla J. Hutt
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a familial heart disease partly caused by impaired desmosome turnover. Thus, stabilization of desmosome integrity may provide new treatment options. Desmosomes, apart from cellular cohesion, provide the structural framework of a signaling hub. Here, we investigated the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cardiomyocyte cohesion. We inhibited EGFR under physiological and pathophysiological conditions using the murine plakoglobin-KO AC model, in which EGFR was upregulated. EGFR inhibition enhanced cardiomyocyte cohesion. Immunoprecipitation showed an interaction of EGFR and desmoglein 2 (DSG2). Immunostaining and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed enhanced DSG2 localization and binding at cell borders upon EGFR inhibition. Enhanced area composita length and desmosome assembly were observed upon EGFR inhibition, confirmed by enhanced DSG2 and desmoplakin (DP) recruitment to cell borders. PamGene Kinase assay performed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes treated with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, revealed upregulation of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). Erlotinib-mediated desmosome assembly and cardiomyocyte cohesion were abolished upon ROCK inhibition. Thus, inhibiting EGFR and, thereby, stabilizing desmosome integrity via ROCK might provide treatment options for AC.
Maria Shoykhet, Orsela Dervishi, Philipp Menauer, Matthias Hiermaier, Sina Moztarzadeh, Colin Osterloh, Ralf J. Ludwig, Tatjana Williams, Brenda Gerull, Stefan Kääb, Sebastian Clauss, Dominik Schüttler, Jens Waschke, Sunil Yeruva
Rhesus cytomegalovirus–based (RhCMV-based) vaccine vectors induce immune responses that protect ~60% of rhesus macaques (RMs) from SIVmac239 challenge. This efficacy depends on induction of effector memory–based (EM-biased) CD8+ T cells recognizing SIV peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex-E (MHC-E) instead of MHC-Ia. The phenotype, durability, and efficacy of RhCMV/SIV-elicited cellular immune responses were maintained when vector spread was severely reduced by deleting the antihost intrinsic immunity factor phosphoprotein 71 (pp71). Here, we examined the impact of an even more stringent attenuation strategy on vector-induced immune protection against SIV. Fusion of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) degradation domain to Rh108, the orthologue of the essential human CMV (HCMV) late gene transcription factor UL79, generated RhCMV/SIV vectors that conditionally replicate only when the FK506 analog Shield-1 is present. Despite lacking in vivo dissemination and reduced innate and B cell responses to vaccination, Rh108-deficient 68-1 RhCMV/SIV vectors elicited high-frequency, durable, EM-biased, SIV-specific T cell responses in RhCMV-seropositive RMs at doses of ≥ 1 × 106 PFU. Strikingly, elicited CD8+ T cells exclusively targeted MHC-Ia–restricted epitopes and failed to protect against SIVmac239 challenge. Thus, Rh108-dependent late gene expression is required for both induction of MHC-E–restricted T cells and protection against SIV.
Scott G. Hansen, Jennie L. Womack, Wilma Perez, Kimberli A. Schmidt, Emily Marshall, Ravi F. Iyer, Hillary Cleveland Rubeor, Claire E. Otero, Husam Taher, Nathan H. Vande Burgt, Richard Barfield, Kurt T. Randall, David Morrow, Colette M. Hughes, Andrea N. Selseth, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Julia C. Ford, Patrizia Caposio, Alice F. Tarantal, Cliburn Chan, Daniel Malouli, Peter A. Barry, Sallie R. Permar, Louis J. Picker, Klaus Früh
Anti-CD36 Abs have been suggested to induce transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) upon blood transfusion, particularly in Asian populations. However, little is known about the pathological mechanism of anti-CD36 Ab–mediated TRALI, and potential therapies have not yet been identified. Here, we developed a murine model of anti-CD36 Ab–mediated TRALI to address these questions. Administration of mouse mAb against CD36 (mAb GZ1) or human anti-CD36 IgG, but not GZ1 F(ab′)2 fragments, induced severe TRALI in Cd36+/+ male mice. Predepletion of recipient monocytes or complement, but not neutrophils or platelets, prevented the development of murine TRALI. Moreover, plasma C5a levels after TRALI induction by anti-CD36 Abs increased more than 3-fold, implying a critical role of complement C5 activation in the mechanism of Fc-dependent anti-CD36–mediated TRALI. Administration of GZ1 F(ab′)2, antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC), or C5 blocker (mAb BB5.1) before TRALI induction completely protected mice from anti-CD36–mediated TRALI. Although no significant amelioration in TRALI was observed when mice were injected with GZ1 F(ab′)2 after TRALI induction, significant improvement was achieved when mice were treated postinduction with NAC or anti-C5. Importantly, anti-C5 treatment completely rescued mice from TRALI, suggesting the potential role of existing anti-C5 drugs in the treatment of patients with TRALI caused by anti-CD36.
Da-Wei Chen, Tian Kang, Xiu-Zhang Xu, Wen-Jie Xia, Xin Ye, Yong-Bin Wu, Yao-Ri Xu, Jing Liu, Hui Ren, Jing Deng, Yang-Kai Chen, Hao-Qiang Ding, Muhammad Aslam, Wioleta M. Zelek, B. Paul Morgan, Rick Kapur, Sentot Santoso, Yong-Shui Fu
Epithelial organoids derived from intestinal tissue, called enteroids, recapitulate many aspects of the organ in vitro and can be used for biological discovery, personalized medicine, and drug development. Here, we interrogated the cell signaling environment within the developing human intestine to identify niche cues that may be important for epithelial development and homeostasis. We identified an EGF family member, EPIREGULIN (EREG), which is robustly expressed in the developing human crypt. Enteroids generated from the developing human intestine grown in standard culture conditions, which contain EGF, are dominated by stem and progenitor cells and feature little differentiation and no spatial organization. Our results demonstrate that EREG can replace EGF in vitro, and EREG leads to spatially resolved enteroids that feature budded and proliferative crypt domains and a differentiated villus-like central lumen. Multiomic (transcriptome plus epigenome) profiling of native crypts, EGF-grown enteroids, and EREG-grown enteroids showed that EGF enteroids have an altered chromatin landscape that is dependent on EGF concentration, downregulate the master intestinal transcription factor CDX2, and ectopically express stomach genes, a phenomenon that is reversible. This is in contrast to EREG-grown enteroids, which remain intestine like in culture. Thus, EREG creates a homeostatic intestinal niche in vitro, enabling interrogation of stem cell function, cellular differentiation, and disease modeling.
Charlie J. Childs, Emily M. Holloway, Caden W. Sweet, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Angeline Wu, Abigail Vallie, Madeline K. Eiken, Meghan M. Capeling, Rachel K. Zwick, Brisa Palikuqi, Coralie Trentesaux, Joshua H. Wu, Oscar Pellón-Cardenas, Charles J. Zhang, Ian Glass, Claudia Loebel, Qianhui Yu, J. Gray Camp, Jonathan Z. Sexton, Ophir D. Klein, Michael P. Verzi, Jason R. Spence
The energetic costs of bone formation require osteoblasts to coordinate their activities with tissues, like adipose, that can supply energy-dense macronutrients. In the case of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment, a strategy used to reduce fracture risk, bone formation is preceded by a change in systemic lipid homeostasis. To investigate the requirement for fatty acid oxidation by osteoblasts during PTH-induced bone formation, we subjected mice with osteoblast-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain β-oxidation as well as mice with adipocyte-specific deficiency for the PTH receptor or adipose triglyceride lipase to an anabolic treatment regimen. PTH increased the release of fatty acids from adipocytes and β-oxidation by osteoblasts, while the genetic mouse models were resistant to the hormone’s anabolic effect. Collectively, these data suggest that PTH’s anabolic actions require coordinated signaling between bone and adipose, wherein a lipolytic response liberates fatty acids that are oxidized by osteoblasts to fuel bone formation.
Nathalie S. Alekos, Priyanka Kushwaha, Soohyun P. Kim, Zhu Li, Abdullah Abood, Naomi Dirckx, Susan Aja, Joe Kodama, Jean G. Garcia-Diaz, Satoru Otsuru, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Michael J. Wolfgang, Ryan C. Riddle
The molecular clock machinery regulates several homeostatic rhythms, including glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has a weight-independent effect on glucose homeostasis and transiently reduces food intake. In this study we investigate the effects of RYGB on diurnal eating behavior as well as on the molecular clock and this clock’s requirement for the metabolic effects of this bariatric procedure in obese mice. We find that RYGB reversed the high-fat diet–induced disruption in diurnal eating pattern during the early postsurgery phase of food reduction. Dark-cycle pair-feeding experiments improved glucose tolerance to the level of bypass-operated animals during the physiologic fasting phase (Zeitgeber time 2, ZT2) but not the feeding phase (ZT14). Using a clock gene reporter mouse model (mPer2Luc), we reveal that RYGB induced a liver-specific phase shift in peripheral clock oscillation with no changes to the central clock activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In addition, we show that weight loss effects were attenuated in obese ClockΔ19 mutant mice after RYGB that also failed to improve glucose metabolism after surgery, specifically hepatic glucose production. We conclude that RYGB reprograms the peripheral clock within the liver early after surgery to alter diurnal eating behavior and regulate hepatic glucose flux.
Yuanchao Ye, Marwa Abu El Haija, Reine Obeid, Hussein Herz, Liping Tian, Benjamin Linden, Yi Chu, Deng Fu Guo, Daniel C. Levine, Jonathan Cedernaes, Kamal Rahmouni, Joseph Bass, Mohamad Mokadem
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the leading cause of death in lung transplant recipients. CLAD is characterized clinically by a persistent decline in pulmonary function and histologically by the development of airway-centered fibrosis known as bronchiolitis obliterans. There are no approved therapies to treat CLAD, and the mechanisms underlying its development remain poorly understood. We performed single-cell RNA-Seq and spatial transcriptomic analysis of explanted tissues from human lung recipients with CLAD, and we performed independent validation studies to identify an important role of Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling in airway epithelial cells that contributes to airway-specific alloimmune injury. Specifically, we established that activation of JAK-STAT signaling leads to upregulation of major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC-I) in airway basal cells, an important airway epithelial progenitor population, which leads to cytotoxic T cell–mediated basal cell death. This study provides mechanistic insight into the cell-to-cell interactions driving airway-centric alloimmune injury in CLAD, suggesting a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for CLAD prevention or treatment.
Aaditya Khatri, Jamie L. Todd, Fran L. Kelly, Andrew Nagler, Zhicheng Ji, Vaibhav Jain, Simon G. Gregory, Kent J. Weinhold, Scott M. Palmer
Tomonori Tadokoro, Masataka Ikeda, Tomomi Ide, Hiroko Deguchi, Soichiro Ikeda, Kosuke Okabe, Akihito Ishikita, Shouji Matsushima, Tomoko Koumura, Ken-ichi Yamada, Hirotaka Imai, Hiroyuki Tsutsui