Background: Metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes have been associated with a decrease in insulin pulse frequency and amplitude. We hypothesized that the T-allele at rs7903146 in TCF7L2, previously associated with β–cell dysfunction, would be associated with changes in these insulin pulse characteristics. Methods: 29 nondiabetic subjects (age = 46 ± 2, BMI = 28 ± 1 Kg/M2) participated in this study. Of these, 16 were homozygous for the C allele at rs7903146 and 13 were homozygous for the T allele. Deconvolution of peripheral C-peptide concentrations allowed the reconstruction of portal insulin secretion over time. This data was used for subsequent analyses. Pulse orderliness was assessed by Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and the dispersion of insulin pulses was measured by a Frequency Dispersion Index (FDI) applied to a Fourier Transform of individual insulin secretion rates. Results: During fasting conditions, the CC genotype group exhibited decreased pulse disorderliness compared to the TT genotype group (1.10 ± 0.03 vs. 1.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.03). FDI decreased in response to hyperglycemia in the CC genotype group, perhaps reflecting less entrainment of insulin secretion during fasting.Conclusion: Diabetes-associated variation in TCF7L2 is associated with decreased orderliness and pulse dispersion unchanged by hyperglycemia. Quantification of ApEn and FDI could represent novel markers of β-cell health.
Marcello C. Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T. Varghese, James C. Andrews, Robert A. Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Giuseppe De Nicolao, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella
Leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS; LepRbNTS neurons) receive gut signals that synergize with leptin action to suppress food intake. NTS neurons that express preproglucagon (Ppg) (and which produce the food intake-suppressing PPG cleavage product, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1)) represent a subpopulation of mouse LepRbNTS cells. Using Leprcre, Ppgcre, and Ppgflox mouse lines, along with designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs), we examined roles for Ppg in GLP1NTS and LepRbNTS cells for the control of food intake and energy balance. We found that the cre-dependent ablation of NTS Ppgflox early in development or in adult mice failed to alter energy balance, suggesting the importance of pathways independent of NTS GLP1 for the long-term control of food intake. Consistently, while activating GLP1NTS cells decreased food intake, LepRbNTS cells elicited larger and more durable effects. Furthermore, while the ablation of NTS Ppgflox blunted the ability of GLP1NTS neurons to suppress food intake during activation, it did not impact the suppression of food intake by LepRbNTS cells. While Ppg/GLP1-mediated neurotransmission plays a central role in the modest appetite-suppressing effects of GLP1NTS cells, additional pathways engaged by LepRbNTS cells dominate for the suppression of food intake.
Wenwen Cheng, Ermelinda Ndoka, Chelsea R. Hutch, Karen Roelofs, Andrew Mackinnon, Basma Khoury, Irwin J. Magrisso, Ki-Suk Kim, Christopher J. Rhodes, David P. Olson, Randy J. Seeley, Darleen A. Sandoval, Martin G. Myers Jr.
Carriers of the hydroxysteroid 17-β dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene variant (rs72613567:TA) have a reduced risk of NASH and cirrhosis but not steatosis. We determined its effect on liver histology, lipidome, and transcriptome using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. In carriers and noncarriers of the gene variant, we also measured pathways of hepatic fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis [DNL] and adipose tissue lipolysis [ATL] using 2H2O and 2H-glycerol) and insulin sensitivity using 3H-glucose and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and plasma cytokines. Carriers and noncarriers had similar age, sex and BMI. Fibrosis was significantly less frequent while phospholipids, but not other lipids, were enriched in the liver in carriers compared with noncarriers. Expression of 274 genes was altered in carriers compared with noncarriers, consisting predominantly of downregulated inflammation-related gene sets. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were lower, but DNL, ATL and hepatic insulin sensitivity were similar between the groups. In conclusion, carriers of the HSD17B13 variant have decreased fibrosis and expression of inflammation-related genes but increased phospholipids in the liver. These changes are not secondary to steatosis, DNL, ATL, or hepatic insulin sensitivity. The increase in phospholipids and decrease in fibrosis are opposite to features of choline-deficient models of liver disease and suggest HSD17B13 as an attractive therapeutic target.
Panu K. Luukkonen, Taru Tukiainen, Anne Juuti, Henna Sammalkorpi, P.A. Nidhina Haridas, Onni Niemelä, Johanna Arola, Marju Orho-Melander, Antti Hakkarainen, Petri T. Kovanen, Om Dwivedi, Leif Groop, Leanne Hodson, Amalia Gastaldelli, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Hannele Yki-Järvinen
SGLT2 inhibitors are beneficial in halting diabetic kidney disease; complete mechanisms is unknown. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with Sirt3 suppression and aberrant glycolysis. Here, we hypothesized that the SGLT2 inhibitor restores normal kidney histology/function associated with the inhibition of aberrant glycolysis in diabetic kidneys. CD-1 mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes displayed kidney fibrosis associated with the EMT at 4-months after diabetes induction. Empagliflozin intervention for one month restored all changes; adjustment of blood glucose by insulin did not. Empagliflozin normalized suppressed Sirt3 levels and aberrant glycolysis (characterized by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accumulation, hexokinase 2 induction and pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 dimer formation) in diabetic kidneys. Empagliflozin also suppressed the accumulation of glycolysis byproducts in diabetic kidneys. Another SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, demonstrated similar in vivo effects. High-glucose media induced the EMT, which was associated with Sirt3 suppression and aberrant glycolysis induction, in the HK2 proximal tubule cell line; SGLT2 knockdown suppressed the EMT with restoration of all aberrant functions. SGLT2 suppression in tubular cells also inhibited the mesenchymal transition of neighboring endothelial cells. Taken together, SGLT2 inhibitors exhibit renoprotective potential that is partially dependent on the inhibition of glucose reabsorption and subsequent aberrant glycolysis in kidney tubules.
Jinpeng Li, Haijie Liu, Susumu Takagi, Kyoko Nitta, Munehiro Kitada, Swayam Prakash Srivastava, Yuta Takagaki, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Severe obesity (SO) affects about 6% of youth in US, augmenting the risks for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.Herein, we obtained paired omental (omVAT) and abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue biopsies from obese girls with SO, undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG), to test whether differences in cellular and transcriptomic profiles between omVAT and SAT depots affect insulin sensitivity differentially. Following weight loss, these analyses were repeated in a subgroup of subjects having a second SAT biopsy.We found that omVAT displayed smaller adipocytes compared to SAT, increased lipolysis through adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) phosphorylation, reduced inflammation and increased expression of browning/beige markers. Contrary to omVAT, SAT adipocyte diameter correlated with insulin resistance. Following SG, both weight and insulin sensitivity improved markedly in all subjects. SAT adipocytes size became smaller showing an increased lipolysis through perilipin-1 phosphorylation, decreased inflammation and increased expression in browning/beige markers.In summary, in adolescent girls with SO, both omVAT and SAT depots showed distinct cellular and transcriptomic profiles. Following weight loss, the SAT depot changed its cellular morphology and transcriptomic profiles into a more favorable one. These changes in the SAT depot may play a fundamental role in the resolution of insulin resistance.
Elena Tarabra, Jessica Nouws, Alla Vash-Margita, Geoffrey S. Nadzam, Rachel Goldberg-Gell, Michelle Van Name, Bridget Pierpont, James Knight, Gerald I. Shulman, Sonia Caprio
We hypothesized that skeletal muscle contraction produces a cellular stress signal triggering adipose tissue lipolysis to sustain fuel availability during exercise. The present study aimed at identifying novel exercise-regulated myokines, also known as exerkines, able to promote lipolysis.Human primary myotubes from lean healthy volunteers were submitted to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to mimic either acute intense or chronic moderate exercise. Conditioned media (CM) experiments with human adipocytes were performed. Conditioned media and human plasma samples were analyzed using unbiased proteomic and/or ELISA. Real-time qPCR was performed in cultured myotubes and muscle biopsy samples.CM from both acute intense and chronic moderate exercise increased basal lipolysis in human adipocytes (1.3 to 8 fold, p<0.001). Growth and Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) gene expression and secretion increased rapidly upon skeletal muscle contraction. GDF15 protein was up-regulated in CM from both acute and chronic exercise-stimulated myotubes. We further show that physiological concentrations of recombinant GDF15 protein increase lipolysis in human adipose tissue, while blocking GDF15 with a neutralizing antibody abrogates EPS CM-mediated lipolysis.We herein provide the first evidence that GDF15 is a novel exerkine produced by skeletal muscle contraction and able to target human adipose tissue to promote lipolysis.
Claire Laurens, Anisha Parmar, Enda Murphy, Deborah Carper, Benjamin Lair, Pauline Maes, Julie Vion, Nathalie Boulet, Coralie Fontaine, Marie-Adeline Marqués, Dominique Larrouy, Isabelle Harant, Claire Thalamas, Emilie Montastier, Sylvie Caspar-Bauguil, Virginie Bourlier, Geneviève Tavernier, Jean-Louis Grolleau, Anne Bouloumié, Dominique Langin, Nathalie Viguerie, Fabrice Bertile, Stéphane Blanc, Isabelle de Glisezinski, Donal J. O'Gorman, Cedric Moro
Patients with active acromegaly (ACRO) exhibit low hepatocellular lipids (HCL) despite pronounced insulin resistance (IR). This contrasts the strong association of IR with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the general population. Since low HCL in acromegaly might be caused by changes in oxidative substrate metabolism, we investigated mitochondrial activity and plasma metabolomics/lipidomics in active acromegaly. Fifteen ACRO and seventeen healthy controls (CON) matched for age, BMI, gender and body composition underwent 31P/1H-7T-MR-spectroscopy of the liver and skeletal muscle, as well as plasma metabolomic profiling and an oral glucose tolerance test. ACRO showed significant lower HCL but ATP-synthesis rate was significantly increased compared to CON. Furthermore, a decreased ratio of unsaturated to saturated intrahepatocellular fatty acids was found in ACRO. Within assessed plasma lipids, lipidomics, and metabolomics, decreased carnitine species also indicate increased mitochondrial activity. We therefore conclude that excess of growth hormone (GH) in humans counteracts hepatocellular lipid accumulation by increased hepatic ATP-synthesis. This is accompanied by a decreased ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated lipids in hepatocytes and by a metabolomic profile reflecting the increase in mitochondrial activity. Thus, these findings help to better understand GH-regulated antisteatotic pathways and provide a better insight into potential novel therapeutic targets for treating NAFLD.
Paul Fellinger, Peter Wolf, Lorenz Pfleger, Patrik Krumpolec, Martin Krssak, Kristaps Klavins, Stefan Wolfsberger, Alexander Micko, Patricia Carey, Bettina Gürtl, Greisa Vila, Wolfgang Raber, Clemens Fürnsinn, Thomas Scherer, Siegfried Trattnig, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Krebs, Yvonne Winhofer
Background Salt-sensitive hypertension is often accompanied by insulin resistance in obese individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure. Microvascular function is known to affect both salt-sensitivity of blood pressure and metabolic insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that excessive salt intake increases blood pressure and decreases insulin-mediated glucose disposal, at least in part by impairing insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR). Methods In 20 lean and 20 abdominally obese individuals, we assessed mean arterial pressure (MAP; 24h ABPM), insulin-mediated whole body glucose disposal (M/I-value; hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp technique), IMMR (contrast enhanced ultrasound), osmolyte and water balance, and excretion of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and amino and organic acids after a low and high salt diet during seven days in a randomized double-blind cross-over design. Results On a low, as compared to a high salt intake, MAP was lower, M/I-value was lower and IMMR was greater in both lean and abdominally obese individuals. In addition, Ln IMMR was inversely associated with MAP in lean participants on a low salt diet only. On a high salt diet, free water clearance decreased, and excretion of glucocorticoids and of amino acids involved in the urea cycle increased. Conclusion Our findings imply that hemodynamic and metabolic changes resulting from alterations in salt intake are not necessarily associated. Moreover, they are consistent with the concept that a high salt intake increases muscle glucose uptake as a response to high-salt-induced, glucocorticoid-drive muscle catabolism to stimulate urea production and thereby renal water conservation. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02068781
Monica T.J. Schütten, Yvo H.A.M. Kusters, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, Hanneke E. C. Niessen, Jos op 't Roodt, Jean L.J. M. Scheijen, Marjo P. van de Waarenburg, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Peter W. de Leeuw, Coen D.A. Stehouwer
The blood hormone erythropoietin (EPO), upon binding to its receptor (EpoR), modulates high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice, improves glucose tolerance, and prevents white adipose tissue inflammation. Transgenic mice with constitutive over-expression of human EPO solely in brain (Tg21) were used to assess the neuro-endocrine EPO effect without increasing the hematocrit. Male Tg21-mice resisted HFD-induced weight gain, showed lower serum ACTH, corticosterone and C-reactive protein levels, and prevented myeloid cell recruitment to hypothalamus compared with WT-males. HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation (HI) and microglial activation were higher in male mice, and Tg21-males exhibited lower increase in HI than WT-males. Physiological EPO function in the brain also showed sexual dimorphism in regulating HFD response. Targeted deletion of EpoR gene expression in neuronal and glial cells worsened HFD-induced glucose intolerance in both male and female mice, but increased weight gain and HI in the hypothalamus in male mice only. Female estrogen production blocked reduced weight gain and HI. Both male and female Tg21-mice kept on normal-chow and HFD showed significantly improved glycemic control. Our data indicates that cerebral EPO regulates weight gain and HI in a sex-dependent response, distinct from EPO regulation of glycemic control, and independent of erythropoietic EPO response.
Soumyadeep Dey, Zhenzhong Cui, Oksana Gavrilova, XiaoJie Zhang, Max Gassmann, Constance T. Noguchi
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its rapid growth requires hyperactive catabolism of principal metabolic fuels. It is unclear whether fructose, an abundant sugar in current diets, is essential for LC. We demonstrated that, under the condition of coexistence of metabolic fuels in the body, fructose was readily used by LC cells in vivo as a glucose alternative via upregulating GLUT5, a major fructose transporter encoded by solute carrier family 2 member 5 (SLC2A5). Metabolomic profiling coupled with isotope tracing demonstrated that incorporated fructose was catabolized to fuel fatty acid synthesis and palmitoleic acid generation in particular to expedite LC growth in vivo. Both in vitro and in vivo supplement of palmitoleic acid could restore impaired LC propagation caused by SLC2A5 deletion. Furthermore, molecular mechanism investigation revealed that GLUT5-mediated fructose utilization was required to suppress AMPK and consequently activate mTORC1 activity to promote LC growth. As such, pharmacological blockade of in vivo fructose utilization using a GLUT5 inhibitor remarkably curtailed LC growth. Together, this study underscores the importance of in vivo fructose utilization mediated by GLUT5 in governing LC growth and highlights a promising strategy to treat LC by targeting GLUT5 to eliminate those fructose-addicted neoplastic cells.
Wen-Lian Chen, Xing Jin, Mingsong Wang, Dan Liu, Qin Luo, Hechuan Tian, Lili Cai, Lifei Meng, Rui Bi, Lei Wang, Xiao Xie, Guanzhen Yu, Lihui Li, Changsheng Dong, Qiliang Cai, Wei Jia, Wenyi Wei, Lijun Jia
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