When obesity is caused by consumption of a high-fat diet, the tumor suppressor pRb is phosphoinactivated in the neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus, a brain area critical for energy-balance regulation. However, the functional relevance of pRb phosphoinactivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus to diet-induced obesity remains unknown. Here, we show that inhibiting pRb phosphorylation in the mediobasal hypothalamus can prevent and treat diet-induced obesity in mice. Expressing an unphosphorylable pRb nonselectively in the mediobasal hypothalamus or conditionally in anorexigenic POMC neurons inhibits diet-induced obesity. Intracerebroventricular delivery of US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor abemaciclib inhibits pRb phosphorylation in the mediobasal hypothalamus and prevents diet-induced obesity. Oral administration of abemaciclib at doses approved for human use reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese mice by increasing lipid oxidation without significantly reducing lean mass. With analysis of recent literature identifying CDK4 as the most abundantly expressed neuronal CDK in the mediobasal hypothalamus, our work uncovers CDK4 as the major kinase for hypothalamic pRb phosphoinactivation and a highly effective central antiobesity target. As three CDK4/6 inhibitors have recently received FDA approval for life-long breast cancer therapy, our study provides a preclinical basis for their expedient repurposing for obesity management.
Niloy Jafar Iqbal, Zhonglei Lu, Shun Mei Liu, Gary J. Schwartz, Streamson Chua Jr., Liang Zhu
Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a late-onset disease caused by intracellular accumulation of polyglucosan bodies, formed due to glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE) deficiency. To find a treatment for APBD, we screened 1,700 FDA-approved compounds in fibroblasts derived from APBD-modeling GBE1-knockin mice. Capitalizing on fluorescent periodic acid–Schiff reagent, which interacts with polyglucosans in the cell, this screen discovered that the flavoring agent guaiacol can lower polyglucosans, a result also confirmed in APBD patient fibroblasts. Biochemical assays showed that guaiacol lowers basal and glucose 6-phosphate–stimulated glycogen synthase (GYS) activity. Guaiacol also increased inactivating GYS1 phosphorylation and phosphorylation of the master activator of catabolism, AMP-dependent protein kinase. Guaiacol treatment in the APBD mouse model rescued grip strength and shorter lifespan. These treatments had no adverse effects except making the mice slightly hyperglycemic, possibly due to the reduced liver glycogen levels. In addition, treatment corrected penile prolapse in aged GBE1-knockin mice. Guaiacol’s curative effects can be explained by its reduction of polyglucosans in peripheral nerve, liver, and heart, despite a short half-life of up to 60 minutes in most tissues. Our results form the basis to use guaiacol as a treatment and prepare for the clinical trials in APBD.
Or Kakhlon, Igor Ferreira, Leonardo J. Solmesky, Netaly Khazanov, Alexander Lossos, Rafael Alvarez, Deniz Yetil, Sergey Pampou, Miguel Weil, Hanoch Senderowitz, Pablo Escriba, Wyatt W. Yue, H. Orhan Akman
Hemorrhagic shock depletes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and causes metabolic derangements that, in severe cases, cannot be overcome, even after restoration of blood volume and pressure. However, current strategies to treat acute blood loss do not target cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that supplemental nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the immediate biosynthetic precursor to NAD, would support cellular energetics and enhance physiologic resilience to hemorrhagic shock. In a rodent model of decompensated hemorrhagic shock, rats receiving NMN displayed significantly reduced lactic acidosis and serum IL-6 levels, two strong predictors of mortality in human patients. In both livers and kidneys, NMN increased NAD levels and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, NMN preserved mitochondrial function in isolated hepatocytes cocultured with proinflammatory cytokines, indicating a cell-autonomous protective effect that is independent from the reduction in circulating IL-6. In kidneys, but not in livers, NMN was sufficient to prevent ATP loss following shock and resuscitation. Overall, NMN increased the time animals could sustain severe shock before requiring resuscitation by nearly 25% and significantly improved survival after resuscitation (P = 0.018), whether NMN was given as a pretreatment or only as an adjunct during resuscitation. Thus, we demonstrate that NMN substantially mitigates inflammation, improves cellular metabolism, and promotes survival following hemorrhagic shock.
Carrie A. Sims, Yuxia Guan, Sarmistha Mukherjee, Khushboo Singh, Paul Botolin, Antonio Davila Jr., Joseph A. Baur
The hepatic glucose fasting response is gaining traction as a therapeutic pathway to enhance hepatic and whole-host metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying these metabolic effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate the epidermal-type lipoxygenase, eLOX3 (encoded by its gene, Aloxe3), is a potentially novel effector of the therapeutic fasting response. We show that Aloxe3 is activated during fasting, glucose withdrawal, or trehalose/trehalose analogue treatment. Hepatocyte-specific Aloxe3 expression reduced weight gain and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced and genetically obese (db/db) mouse models. Aloxe3 expression, moreover, enhanced basal thermogenesis and abrogated insulin resistance in db/db diabetic mice. Targeted metabolomics demonstrated accumulation of the PPARγ ligand 12-KETE in hepatocytes overexpressing Aloxe3. Strikingly, PPARγ inhibition reversed hepatic Aloxe3–mediated insulin sensitization, suppression of hepatocellular ATP production and oxygen consumption, and gene induction of PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) expression. Moreover, hepatocyte-specific PPARγ deletion reversed the therapeutic effect of hepatic Aloxe3 expression on diet-induced insulin intolerance. Aloxe3 is, therefore, a potentially novel effector of the hepatocellular fasting response that leverages both PPARγ-mediated and pleiotropic effects to augment hepatic and whole-host metabolism, and it is, thus, a promising target to ameliorate metabolic disease.
Cassandra B. Higgins, Yiming Zhang, Allyson L. Mayer, Hideji Fujiwara, Alicyn I. Stothard, Mark J. Graham, Benjamin M. Swarts, Brian J. DeBosch
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to decreased sensitivity to the metabolic effects of insulin, contributing to protein energy wasting and muscle atrophy. Targeted metabolomics profiling during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic insulin clamp testing may help identify aberrant metabolic pathways contributing to insulin resistance in CKD. Using targeted metabolomics profiling, we examined the plasma metabolome in 95 adults without diabetes in the fasted state (58 with CKD, 37 with normal glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) who underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. We assessed heterogeneity in fasting metabolites and the response to insulin to identify potential metabolic pathways linking CKD with insulin resistance. Baseline differences and effect modification by CKD status on changes with insulin clamp testing were adjusted for confounders. Mean GFR among participants with CKD was 37.3 compared with 89.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 among controls. Fasted-state differences between CKD and controls included abnormalities in tryptophan metabolism, ubiquinone biosynthesis, and the TCA cycle. Insulin infusion markedly decreased metabolite levels, predominantly amino acids and their metabolites. CKD was associated with attenuated insulin-induced changes in nicotinamide, arachidonic acid, and glutamine/glutamate metabolic pathways. Metabolomics profiling suggests disruption in amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial function as putative manifestations or mechanisms of the impaired anabolic effects of insulin in CKD.
Baback Roshanravan, Leila R. Zelnick, Daniel Djucovic, Haiwei Gu, Jessica A. Alvarez, Thomas R. Ziegler, Jorge L. Gamboa, Kristina Utzschneider, Bryan Kestenbaum, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Steven E. Kahn, Daniel Raftery, Ian H. de Boer
The human adaptive starvation response allows for survival during long-term caloric deprivation. Whether the physiology of starvation is adaptive or maladaptive is context dependent: activation of pathways by caloric restriction may promote longevity, yet in the context of caloric excess, the same pathways may contribute to obesity. Here, we performed plasma metabolite profiling of longitudinally collected samples during a 10-day, 0-calorie fast in humans. We identify classical milestones in adaptive starvation, including the early consumption of gluconeogenic amino acids and the subsequent surge in plasma nonesterified fatty acids that marks the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism, and demonstrate findings, including (a) the preferential release of unsaturated fatty acids and an associated shift in plasma lipid species with high degrees of unsaturation and (b) evidence that acute, starvation-mediated hypoleptinemia may be a driver of the transition from glucose to lipid metabolism in humans.
Matthew L. Steinhauser, Benjamin A. Olenchock, John O’Keefe, Mingyue Lun, Kerry A. Pierce, Hang Lee, Lorena Pantano, Anne Klibanski, Gerald I. Shulman, Clary B. Clish, Pouneh K. Fazeli
Alterations in the synthesis and bioavailability of NO are central to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Although endothelial NO synthase–derived (eNOS-derived) NO affects mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation, the pathophysiological significance of this regulation remains unclear. Accordingly, we determined the contributions of eNOS/NO signaling in the adaptive metabolic responses to fasting and in age-induced metabolic dysfunction. Four-month-old eNOS–/– mice are glucose intolerant and exhibit serum dyslipidemia and decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids. However, during fasting, eNOS–/– mice redirect acetyl-CoA to ketogenesis to elevate circulating levels of β-hydroxybutyrate similar to wild-type mice. Treatment of 4-month-old eNOS–/– mice with nitrite for 10 days corrected the hypertension and serum hyperlipidemia and normalized the rate of fatty acid oxidation. Fourteen-month-old eNOS–/– mice exhibited metabolic derangements, resulting in reduced utilization of fat to generate energy, lower resting metabolic activity, and diminished physical activity. Seven-month administration of nitrite to eNOS–/– mice reversed the age-dependent metabolic derangements and restored physical activity. While the eNOS/NO signaling is not essential for the metabolic adaptation to fasting, it is critical for regulating systemic metabolic homeostasis in aging. The development of age-dependent metabolic disorder is prevented by low-dose replenishment of bioactive NO.
Margarita Tenopoulou, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Kent Nakamoto, Kiara Berrios, Gabriella Zura, Chenxi Li, Michael Faust, Veronika Yakovishina, Perry Evans, Lu Tan, Michael J. Bennett, Nathaniel W. Snyder, William J. Quinn III, Joseph A. Baur, Dmitriy N. Atochin, Paul L. Huang, Harry Ischiropoulos
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein. These findings define an epigenetic pathway for the regulation of energy homeostasis and suggest the potential for HDAC11-selective inhibitors for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.
Rushita A. Bagchi, Bradley S. Ferguson, Matthew S. Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A. Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F. Pino, Lauren M. Sparks, Steven R. Smith, Philipp E. Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A. McKinsey
BACKGROUND. The duration and patterns of β cell dysfunction during type 1 diabetes (T1D) development have not been fully defined. METHODS. Metabolic measures derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were compared between autoantibody-positive (aAb+) individuals followed in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study who developed diabetes after 5 or more years or less than 5 years of longitudinal follow-up (Progressors≥5, n = 75; Progressors<5, n = 474) and 144 aAb-negative (aAb–) relatives. RESULTS. Mean age at study entry was 15.0 ± 12.6 years for Progressors≥5; 12.0 ± 9.1 for Progressors<5; and 16.3 ± 10.4 for aAb– relatives. At baseline, Progressors≥5 already exhibited significantly lower fasting C-peptide (P < 0.01), C-peptide AUC (P < 0.001), and early C-peptide responses (30- to 0-minute C-peptide; P < 0.001) compared with aAb– relatives, while 2-hour glucose (P = 0.03), glucose AUC (<0.001), and Index60 (<0.001) were all higher. Despite significant baseline impairment, metabolic measures in Progressors≥5 were relatively stable until 2 years prior to T1D diagnosis, when there was accelerated C-peptide decline and rising glycemia from 2 years until diabetes diagnosis. Remarkably, patterns of progression within 3 years of diagnosis were nearly identical between Progressors≥5 and Progressors<5. CONCLUSION. These data provide insight into the chronicity of β cell dysfunction in T1D and indicate that β cell dysfunction may precede diabetes diagnosis by more than 5 years in a subset of aAb+ individuals. Even among individuals with varying lengths of aAb positivity, our findings indicate that patterns of metabolic decline are uniform within the last 3 years of progression to T1D. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00097292. FUNDING. The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group is a clinical trials network currently funded by the NIH through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.
Carmella Evans-Molina, Emily K. Sims, Linda A. DiMeglio, Heba M. Ismail, Andrea K. Steck, Jerry P. Palmer, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Susan Geyer, Ping Xu, Jay M. Sosenko, the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group
BACKGROUND. Exercise has profound pleiotropic health benefits, yet the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Endocrine FGF21, bile acids (BAs), and BA-induced FGF19 have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules. Here, we investigated if dissimilar modes of exercise, resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise (EE), regulate plasma BAs, FGF19, and FGF21 in humans. METHODS. Ten healthy, moderately trained males were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of 1 hour of bicycling at 70% of VO2peak (EE) and 1 hour of high-volume RE. Hormones and metabolites were measured in venous blood and sampled before and after exercise and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after exercise. RESULTS. We observed exercise mode–specific changes in plasma concentrations of FGF19 and FGF21. Whereas FGF19 decreased following RE (P < 0.001), FGF21 increased in response to EE (P < 0.001). Total plasma BAs decreased exclusively following RE (P < 0.05), but the composition of BAs changed in response to both types of exercise. Notably, circulating levels of the potent TGR5 receptor agonist, lithocholic acid, increased with both types of exercise (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION. This study reveals divergent effects of EE and RE on circulating concentrations of the BA species, FGF19, and FGF21. We identify temporal relationships between decreased BA and FGF19 following RE and a sharp disparity in FGF21 concentrations, with EE eliciting a clear increase parallel to that of glucagon. FUNDING. The Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF17OC0026114) and the Lundbeck Foundation (R238-2016-2859).
Thomas Morville, Ronni E. Sahl, Samuel A.J. Trammell, Jens S. Svenningsen, Matthew P. Gillum, Jørn W. Helge, Christoffer Clemmensen
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