Airway epithelial cells are prone to the damage caused by lung cancer risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Little is known about surrogate biomarkers in the bronchial airway epithelium that can be used to assess the effect of potential chemoprevention drugs on lung adenocarcinoma formation/progression. Pioglitazone has been suggested as a chemoprevention drug for lung cancer. To study the mechanisms underlying the role of pioglitazone in lung cancer prevention, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and found that Kras signaling was repressed by pioglitazone treatment in the airway epithelial cells of mice with lung adenocarcinoma (FDR q = 9.8E-04). It was also found that glucose metabolic pathways were elevated in the airway epithelium of mice with lung adenocarcinomas and inhibited by pioglitazone treatment (FDR q = 0.01). Downregulation of glucose metabolism genes was also observed in lung tumors of mice treated with pioglitazone. The high-risk expression signature of elevated glucose metabolism was associated with poor survival outcome in multiple lung adenocarcinoma patient populations (P values ranging from 1.0E-9 to 5.5E-5). Our results suggest that the role of pioglitazone in preventing lung adenocarcinoma may depend on inhibiting Kras signaling and glucose metabolism, which may serve as biomarkers of agent action in the airway epithelium.
Donghai Xiong, Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Eva Szabo, Mark Steven Miller, Ronald A. Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Sepsis can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, resulting in organ damage and death. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) negatively regulates signaling by cytokine receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms for SOCS1 activity during polymicrobial sepsis are unknown. To address this, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis; C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP were then treated with a peptide (iKIR) that binds the SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and blocks its activity. Treatment with iKIR increased CLP-induced mortality, bacterial burden, and inflammatory cytokine production. Myeloid cell–specific SOCS1 deletion (Socs1Δmyel) mice were also more susceptible to sepsis, demonstrating increased mortality, higher bacterial loads, and elevated inflammatory cytokines, compared with Socs1fl littermate controls. These effects were accompanied by macrophage metabolic reprograming, as evidenced by increased lactic acid production and elevated expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 in septic Socs1Δmyel mice. Upregulation was dependent on the STAT3/HIF-1α/glycolysis axis, and blocking glycolysis ameliorated increased susceptibility to sepsis in iKIR-treated CLP mice. These results reveal a role of SOCS1 as a regulator of metabolic reprograming that prevents overwhelming inflammatory response and organ damage during sepsis.
Annie Rocio Piñeros Alvarez, Nicole Glosson-Byers, Stephanie Brandt, Soujuan Wang, Hector Wong, Sarah Sturgeon, Brian Paul McCarthy, Paul R. Territo, Jose Carlos Alves-Filho, C. Henrique Serezani
Rejection affects greater than 80% of face transplants, yet no diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) following face transplantation have been established. Given that different treatment strategies are required to address AMR and T cell–mediated rejection (TCMR), there is a critical need to delineate the features that can differentiate these two alloimmune responses. Here, we report the longitudinal immunological examination of what we believe to be the first and only highly sensitized recipient of a crossmatch-positive face transplant up to 4 years following transplantation. We conducted gene expression profiling on allograft biopsies collected during suspected AMR and TCMR episodes as well as during 5 nonrejection time points. Our data suggest that there are distinctive molecular features in AMR, characterized by overexpression of endothelial-associated genes, including ICAM1, VCAM1, and SELE. Although our findings are limited to a single patient, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular markers to differentiate AMR from TCMR to guide clinical management. Furthermore, our case illustrates that molecular assessment of allograft biopsies offers the potential for new insights into the mechanisms underlying rejection. Finally, our medium-term outcomes demonstrate that face transplantation in a highly sensitized patient with a positive preoperative crossmatch is feasible and manageable.
Thet Su Win, Naoka Murakami, Thiago J. Borges, Anil Chandraker, George Murphy, Christine Lian, Victor Barrera, Shannan Ho Sui, David Schoenfeld, Jessica Teague, Ericka Bueno, Stefan G. Tullius, Bohdan Pomahac, Rachael A. Clark, Leonardo V. Riella
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection and a known cause of microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and cognitive impairment among newborns worldwide. Natural maternal HCMV immunity reduces the incidence of congenital infection, but does not prevent the disease altogether. We employed a nonhuman primate model of congenital CMV infection to investigate the ability of preexisting antibodies to protect against placental CMV transmission in the setting of primary maternal infection and subsequent viremia, which is required for placental virus exposure. Pregnant, CD4+ T cell–depleted, rhesus CMV–seronegative (RhCMV-seronegative) rhesus monkeys were treated with either standardly produced hyperimmune globulin (HIG) from RhCMV-seropositive macaques or dose-optimized, potently RhCMV-neutralizing HIG prior to intravenous challenge with an RhCMV mixture. HIG passive infusion provided complete protection against fetal loss in both groups. The dose-optimized, RhCMV-neutralizing HIG additionally inhibited placental transmission of RhCMV and reduced viral replication and diversity. Our findings suggest that the presence of durable and potently neutralizing antibodies at the time of primary infection can prevent transmission of systemically replicating maternal RhCMV to the developing fetus, and therefore should be a primary target of vaccines to eliminate this neonatal infection.
Cody S. Nelson, Diana Vera Cruz, Dollnovan Tran, Kristy M. Bialas, Lisa Stamper, Huali Wu, Margaret Gilbert, Robert Blair, Xavier Alvarez, Hannah Itell, Meng Chen, Ashlesha Deshpande, Flavia Chiuppesi, Felix Wussow, Don J. Diamond, Nathan Vandergrift, Mark R. Walter, Peter A. Barry, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Katia Koelle, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R. Permar
Pancreatitis is more frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the underlying cause is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ongoing β cell stress and apoptosis in T2DM induces ductal tree proliferation, particularly the pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment, and thus potentially obstructs exocrine outflow, a well-established cause of pancreatitis. PDG replication was increased 2-fold in human pancreas from individuals with T2DM, and was associated with increased pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), lesions associated with pancreatic inflammation and with the potential to obstruct pancreatic outflow. Increased PDG replication in the prediabetic human-IAPP-transgenic (HIP) rat model of T2DM was concordant with increased β cell stress but preceded metabolic derangement. Moreover, the most abundantly expressed chemokines released by the islets in response to β cell stress in T2DM, CXCL1, -4, and -10, induced proliferation in human pancreatic ductal epithelium. Also, the diabetes medications reported as potential modifiers for the risk of pancreatitis in T2DM modulated PDG proliferation accordingly. We conclude that chronic stimulation and proliferation of the PDG compartment in response to islet inflammation in T2DM is a potentially novel mechanism that serves as a link to the increased risk for pancreatitis in T2DM and may potentially be modified by currently available diabetes therapy.
Belinda Schludi, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Chiara Montemurro, Tatyana Gurlo, Aleksey V. Matveyenko, David Kirakossian, David W. Dawson, Sarah M. Dry, Peter C. Butler, Alexandra E. Butler
Although left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is often associated with hypertension, little is known regarding its underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase-2 (ROCK2), is a critical mediator of LV diastolic dysfunction. In response to angiotensin II (Ang II), mutant mice with fibroblast-specific deletion of ROCK2 (ROCK2Postn–/–) developed less LV wall thickness and fibrosis, along with improved isovolumetric relaxation. This corresponded with decreased connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibroblast growth factor–2 (FGF2) expression in the hearts of ROCK2Postn–/– mice. Indeed, knockdown of ROCK2 in cardiac fibroblasts leads to decreased expression of CTGF and secretion of FGF2, and cardiomyocytes incubated with conditioned media from ROCK2-knockdown cardiac fibroblasts exhibited less hypertrophic response. In contrast, mutant mice with elevated fibroblast ROCK activity exhibited enhanced Ang II–stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Clinically, higher leukocyte ROCK2 activity was observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction compared with age- and sex-matched controls, and correlated with higher grades of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. These findings indicate that fibroblast ROCK2 is necessary to cause cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through the induction CTGF and FGF2, and they suggest that targeting ROCK2 may have therapeutic benefits in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction.
Toru Shimizu, Nikhil Narang, Phetcharat Chen, Brian Yu, Maura Knapp, Jyothi Janardanan, John Blair, James K. Liao
NELL-1 is a secreted, osteogenic protein first discovered to control ossification of the cranial skeleton. Recently, NELL-1 has been implicated in bone maintenance. However, the cellular determinants of NELL-1’s bone-forming effects are still unknown. Here, recombinant human NELL-1 (rhNELL-1) implantation was examined in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate lumbar spinal fusion model. Prolonged rhNELL-1 protein release was achieved using an apatite-coated β-tricalcium phosphate carrier, resulting in a local influx of stem cell antigen-1–positive (Sca-1+) mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), and complete osseous fusion across all samples (100% spinal fusion rate). Murine studies revealed that
Aaron W. James, Jia Shen, Rebecca Tsuei, Alan Nguyen, Kevork Khadarian, Carolyn A. Meyers, Hsin Chuan Pan, Weiming Li, Jin H. Kwak, Greg Asatrian, Cymbeline T. Culiat, Min Lee, Kang Ting, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo
Lymphatic endothelium serves as a barrier to control fluid balance and immune cell trafficking to maintain tissue homeostasis. Long-term alteration of lymphatic vasculature promotes edema and fibrosis, which is an aggravating factor in the onset of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Apelin is a bioactive peptide that plays a central role in angiogenesis and cardiac contractility. Despite an established role of apelin in lymphangiogenesis, little is known about its function in the cardiac lymphatic endothelium. Here, we show that apelin and its receptor APJ were exclusively expressed on newly formed lymphatic vasculature in a pathological model of myocardial infarction. Using an apelin-knockout mouse model, we identified morphological and functional defects in lymphatic vasculature associated with a proinflammatory status. Surprisingly, apelin deficiency increased the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D and exacerbated lymphangiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Conversely, the overexpression of apelin in ischemic heart was sufficient to restore a functional lymphatic vasculature and to reduce matrix remodeling and inflammation. In vitro, the expression of apelin prevented the alteration of cellular junctions in lymphatic endothelial cells induced by hypoxia. In addition, we demonstrated that apelin controls the secretion of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate in lymphatic endothelial cells by regulating the level of expression of sphingosine kinase 2 and the transporter SPNS2. Taken together, our results show that apelin plays a key role in lymphatic vessel maturation and stability in pathological settings. Thus, apelin may represent a novel candidate to prevent pathological lymphatic remodeling in diseases.
Florence Tatin, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Anne-Claire Godet, Fransky Hantelys, Francoise Pujol, Florent Morfoisse, Denis Calise, Fanny Viars, Philippe Valet, Bernard Masri, Anne-Catherine Prats, Barbara Garmy-Susini
The direct link between sustained type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and HIV-1–induced immunopathogenesis during chronic infection remains unclear. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling during persistent HIV-1 infection in humanized mice (hu-mice). We discovered that, during chronic HIV-1 infection, IFNAR blockade increased viral replication, which was correlated with elevated T cell activation. Thus, IFN-Is suppress HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase but are not essential for HIV-1–induced aberrant immune activation. Surprisingly, IFNAR blockade rescued both total human T cell and HIV-specific T cell numbers despite elevated HIV-1 replication and immune activation. We showed that IFNAR blockade reduced HIV-1–induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. Importantly, IFNAR blockade also rescued the function of human T cells, including HIV-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. We conclude that during persistent HIV-1 infection, IFN-Is suppress HIV-1 replication, but contribute to depletion and dysfunction of T cells.
Liang Cheng, Haisheng Yu, Guangming Li, Feng Li, Jianping Ma, Jingyun Li, Liqun Chi, Liguo Zhang, Lishan Su
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) typically shows ~7 chromosome losses (1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21) and ~31 exonic somatic mutations, yet carries ~5%–10% metastatic incidence. Since extensive chromosomal losses can generate proteotoxic stress and compromise cellular proliferation, it is intriguing how chRCC, a tumor with extensive chromosome losses and a low number of somatic mutations, can develop lethal metastases. Genomic features distinguishing metastatic from nonmetastatic chRCC are unknown. An integrated approach, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS), targeted ultradeep cancer gene sequencing, and chromosome analyses (FACETS, OncoScan, and FISH), was performed on 79 chRCC patients including 38 metastatic (M-chRCC) cases. We demonstrate that TP53 mutations (58%), PTEN mutations (24%), and imbalanced chromosome duplication (ICD, duplication of ≥ 3 chromosomes) (25%) were enriched in M-chRCC. Reconstruction of the subclonal composition of paired primary-metastatic chRCC tumors supports the role of TP53, PTEN, and ICD in metastatic evolution. Finally, the presence of these 3 genomic features in primary tumors of both The Cancer Genome Atlas kidney chromophobe (KICH) (n = 64) and M-chRCC (n = 35) cohorts was associated with worse survival. In summary, our study provides genomic insights into the metastatic progression of chRCC and identifies TP53 mutations, PTEN mutations, and ICD as high-risk features.
Jozefina Casuscelli, Nils Weinhold, Gunes Gundem, Lu Wang, Emily C. Zabor, Esther Drill, Patricia I. Wang, Gouri J. Nanjangud, Almedina Redzematovic, Amrita M. Nargund, Brandon J. Manley, Maria E. Arcila, Nicholas M. Donin, John C. Cheville, R. Houston Thompson, Allan J. Pantuck, Paul Russo, Emily H. Cheng, William Lee, Satish K. Tickoo, Irina Ostrovnaya, Chad J. Creighton, Elli Papaemmanuil, Venkatraman E. Seshan, A. Ari Hakimi, James J. Hsieh
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