SLC26A6 (also known as putative anion transporter 1 [PAT1]) is a Cl–/HCO3– exchanger expressed at the luminal membrane of enterocytes where it facilitates intestinal Cl– and fluid absorption. Here, high-throughput screening of 50,000 synthetic small molecules in cells expressing PAT1 and a halide-sensing fluorescent protein identified several classes of inhibitors. The most potent compound, the pyrazolo-pyrido-pyrimidinone PAT1inh-B01, fully inhibited PAT1-mediated anion exchange (IC50 ~350 nM), without inhibition of the related intestinal transporter SLC26A3 (also known as DRA). In closed midjejunal loops in mice, PAT1inh-B01 inhibited fluid absorption by 50%, which increased to >90% when coadministered with DRA inhibitor DRAinh-A270. In ileal loops, PAT1inh-B01 blocked fluid absorption by >80%, whereas DRAinh-A270 was without effect. In colonic loops, PAT1inh-B01 was without effect, whereas DRAinh-A270 completely blocked fluid absorption. In a loperamide constipation model, coadministration of PAT1inh-B01 with DRAinh-A270 increased stool output compared with DRAinh-A270 alone. These results provide functional evidence for complementary and region-specific roles of PAT1 and DRA in intestinal fluid absorption, with PAT1 as the predominant anion exchanger in mouse ileum. We believe that PAT1inh-B01 is a novel tool to study intestinal ion and fluid transport and perhaps a drug candidate for small intestinal hyposecretory disorders such as cystic fibrosis–related meconium ileus and distal intestinal obstruction syndrome.
Onur Cil, Peter M. Haggie, Joseph-Anthony Tapia Tan, Amber A. Rivera, Alan S. Verkman
β3-Adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) are the predominant regulators of rodent brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. However, in humans, the physiological relevance of BAT and β3-AR remains controversial. Herein, using primary human adipocytes from supraclavicular neck fat and immortalized brown/beige adipocytes from deep neck fat from 2 subjects, we demonstrate that the β3-AR plays a critical role in regulating lipolysis, glycolysis, and thermogenesis. Silencing of the β3-AR compromised genes essential for thermogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, and mitochondrial mass. Functionally, reduction of β3-AR lowered agonist-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, lipolysis, and lipolysis-activated, uncoupling protein 1–mediated thermogenic capacity. Furthermore, mirabegron, a selective human β3-AR agonist, stimulated BAT lipolysis and thermogenesis, and both processes were lost after silencing β3-AR expression. This study highlights that β3-ARs in human brown/beige adipocytes are required to maintain multiple components of the lipolytic and thermogenic cellular machinery and that β3-AR agonists could be used to achieve metabolic benefit in humans.
Cheryl Cero, Hannah J. Lea, Kenneth Y. Zhu, Farnaz Shamsi, Yu-Hua Tseng, Aaron M. Cypess
TIGIT is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is upregulated in the setting of cancer and functionally contributes to the impairment of antitumor immunity. However, its role during sepsis is unknown. Because patients with cancer are 10 times more likely to die of sepsis than previously healthy (PH) patients with sepsis, we interrogated the role of TIGIT during sepsis in the context of preexistent malignancy. PH mice or cancer (CA) mice inoculated with lung carcinoma cells were made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that sepsis induced TIGIT upregulation predominantly on Tregs and NK cells in both PH and CA mice. Anti-TIGIT Ab improved the 7-d survival of CA septic mice but not PH mice after CLP. Treatment of CA septic animals but not PH septic animals with anti-TIGIT mAb significantly reversed sepsis-induced loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Foxp3+ Treg, and CD19+ B cells in the spleen, which was the result of decreased caspase-3+ apoptotic cells. In sum, we found that anti-TIGIT Ab reversed sepsis-induced T cell apoptosis in CA septic mice and led to a significant survival benefit, suggesting its use as a potential immunotherapy to improve outcomes in septic patients with cancer.
Wenxiao Zhang, Jerome C. Anyalebechi, Kimberly M. Ramonell, Ching-wen Chen, Jianfeng Xie, Zhe Liang, Deena B. Chihade, Shunsuke Otani, Craig M. Coopersmith, Mandy L. Ford
Abnormal action potential (AP) properties, as occurs in long or short QT syndromes (LQTS and SQTS, respectively), can cause life-threatening arrhythmias. Optogenetics strategies, utilizing light-sensitive proteins, have emerged as experimental platforms for cardiac pacing, resynchronization, and defibrillation. We tested the hypothesis that similar optogenetic tools can modulate the cardiomyocyte’s AP properties, as a potentially novel antiarrhythmic strategy. Healthy control and LQTS/SQTS patient–specific human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) were transduced to express the light-sensitive cationic channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or the anionic-selective opsin, ACR2. Detailed patch-clamp, confocal-microscopy, and optical mapping studies evaluated the ability of spatiotemporally defined optogenetic protocols to modulate AP properties and prevent arrhythmogenesis in the hiPSC-CMs cell/tissue models. Depending on illumination timing, light-induced ChR2 activation induced robust prolongation or mild shortening of AP duration (APD), while ACR2 activation allowed effective APD shortening. Fine-tuning these approaches allowed for the normalization of pathological AP properties and suppression of arrhythmogenicity in the LQTS/SQTS hiPSC-CM cellular models. We next established a SQTS–hiPSC-CMs–based tissue model of reentrant-arrhythmias using optogenetic cross-field stimulation. An APD-modulating optogenetic protocol was then designed to dynamically prolong APD of the propagating wavefront, completely preventing arrhythmogenesis in this model. This work highlights the potential of optogenetics in studying repolarization abnormalities and in developing novel antiarrhythmic therapies.
Amit Gruber, Oded Edri, Irit Huber, Gil Arbel, Amira Gepstein, Assad Shiti, Naim Shaheen, Snizhana Chorna, Michal Landesberg, Lior Gepstein
The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inversely relates to neurological impairments with aging; however, limited nondietary models manipulating brain DHA have hindered a direct linkage. We discovered that loss of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 6 in mice (Acsl6–/–) depletes brain membrane phospholipid DHA levels, independent of diet. Here, Acsl6–/– brains contained lower DHA compared with controls across the life span. The loss of DHA- and increased arachidonate-enriched phospholipids were visualized by MALDI imaging predominantly in neuron-rich regions where single-molecule RNA in situ hybridization localized Acsl6 to neurons. ACSL6 is also astrocytic; however, we found that astrocyte-specific ACSL6 depletion did not alter membrane DHA because astrocytes express a non–DHA-preferring ACSL6 variant. Across the life span, Acsl6–/– mice exhibited hyperlocomotion, impairments in working spatial memory, and increased cholesterol biosynthesis genes. Aging caused Acsl6–/– brains to decrease the expression of membrane, bioenergetic, ribosomal, and synaptic genes and increase the expression of immune response genes. With age, the Acsl6–/– cerebellum became inflamed and gliotic. Together, our findings suggest that ACSL6 promotes membrane DHA enrichment in neurons, but not in astrocytes, and is important for neuronal DHA levels across the life span. The loss of ACSL6 impacts motor function, memory, and age-related neuroinflammation, reflecting the importance of neuronal ACSL6-mediated lipid metabolism across the life span.
Regina F. Fernandez, Andrea S. Pereyra, Victoria Diaz, Emily S. Wilson, Karen A. Litwa, Jonatan Martínez-Gardeazabal, Shelley N. Jackson, J. Thomas Brenna, Brian P. Hermann, Jeffrey B. Eells, Jessica M. Ellis
Antipsychotics often cause tardive dyskinesia, an adverse symptom of involuntary hyperkinetic movements. Analysis of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and JMDC insurance claims revealed that acetaminophen prevented the dyskinesia induced by dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. In vivo experiments further showed that a 21-day treatment with haloperidol increased the number of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats, an effect that was inhibited by oral acetaminophen treatment or intracerebroventricular injection of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonylamide (AM404), an acetaminophen metabolite that acts as an activator of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In mice, haloperidol-induced VCMs were also mitigated by treatment with AM404 applied to the dorsal striatum, an effect not seen in TRPV1-deficient mice. Acetaminophen prevented the haloperidol-induced decrease in the number of c-Fos+preproenkephalin+ striatal neurons in wild-type mice but not in TRPV1-deficient mice. Finally, chemogenetic stimulation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons in the dorsal striatum decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs. These results suggest that acetaminophen activates the indirect pathway neurons by activating TRPV1 channels via AM404.
Koki Nagaoka, Takuya Nagashima, Nozomi Asaoka, Hiroki Yamamoto, Chihiro Toda, Gen Kayanuma, Soni Siswanto, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yasuo Mori, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a primary feature of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). miRNA-30 is an important posttranscriptional regulator of LVH, but it is unknown whether miRNA-30 participates in the process of CKD-induced LVH. In the present study, we found that CKD not only resulted in LVH but also suppressed miRNA-30 expression in the myocardium. Rescue of cardiomyocyte-specific miRNA-30 attenuated LVH in CKD rats without altering CKD progression. Importantly, in vivo and in vitro knockdown of miRNA-30 in cardiomyocytes led to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by upregulating the calcineurin signaling directly. Furthermore, CKD-related detrimental factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23, uremic toxin, angiotensin II, and transforming growth factor–β, suppressed cardiac miRNA-30 expression, while miRNA-30 supplementation blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by such factors. These results uncover a potentially novel mechanism of CKD-induced LVH and provide a potential therapeutic target for CKD patients with LVH.
Jingfu Bao, Yinghui Lu, Qinying She, Weijuan Dou, Rong Tang, Xiaodong Xu, Mingchao Zhang, Ling Zhu, Qing Zhou, Hui Li, Guohua Zhou, Zhongzhou Yang, Shaolin Shi, Zhihong Liu, Chunxia Zheng
Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for weight loss in morbid obesity. There is significant individual variability in the weight loss outcomes, yet factors leading to postoperative weight loss or weight regain remain elusive. Alterations in the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) systems are associated with obesity and appetite control, and the magnitude of initial brain receptor system perturbation may predict long-term surgical weight loss outcomes. We tested this hypothesis by studying 19 morbidly obese women (mean BMI 40) scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. We measured their preoperative MOR and D2R availabilities using positron emission tomography with [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride, respectively, and then assessed their weight development association with regional MOR and D2R availabilities at 24-month follow-up. MOR availability in the amygdala consistently predicted weight development throughout the follow-up period, but no associations were found for D2R. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate that neuroreceptor markers prior to bariatric surgery are associated with postoperative weight development. Postoperative weight regain may derive from dysfunction in the opioid system, and weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery may be partially predicted based on preoperative brain receptor availability, opening up new potential for treatment possibilities.
Henry K. Karlsson, Lauri Tuominen, Semi Helin, Paulina Salminen, Pirjo Nuutila, Lauri Nummenmaa
Transitions between cell fates commonly occur in development and disease. However, reversing an unwanted cell transition in order to treat disease remains an unexplored area. Here, we report a successful process of guiding ill-fated transitions toward normalization in vascular calcification. Vascular calcification is a severe complication that increases the all-cause mortality of cardiovascular disease but lacks medical therapy. The vascular endothelium is a contributor of osteoprogenitor cells to vascular calcification through endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, in which endothelial cells (ECs) gain plasticity and the ability to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. We created a high-throughput screening and identified SB216763, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), as an inducer of osteoblastic-endothelial transition. We demonstrated that SB216763 limited osteogenic differentiation in ECs at an early stage of vascular calcification. Lineage tracing showed that SB216763 redirected osteoblast-like cells to the endothelial lineage and reduced late-stage calcification. We also found that deletion of GSK3β in osteoblasts recapitulated osteoblastic-endothelial transition and reduced vascular calcification. Overall, inhibition of GSK3β promoted the transition of cells with osteoblastic characteristics to endothelial differentiation, thereby ameliorating vascular calcification.
Jiayi Yao, Xiuju Wu, Xiaojing Qiao, Daoqin Zhang, Li Zhang, Jocelyn A. Ma, Xinjiang Cai, Kristina I. Boström, Yucheng Yao
Altered mitochondria activity in osteoblasts and osteoclasts has been implicated in the loss of bone mass associated with aging and estrogen deficiency — the 2 most common causes of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms that control mitochondrial metabolism in bone cells during health or disease remain unknown. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) has been earlier implicated in age-related diseases. Here, we show that deletion of Sirt3 had no effect on the skeleton of young mice but attenuated the age-related loss of bone mass in both sexes. This effect was associated with impaired bone resorption. Osteoclast progenitors from aged Sirt3-null mice were able to differentiate into osteoclasts, though the differentiated cells exhibited impaired polykaryon formation and resorptive activity, as well as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and mitophagy. The Sirt3 inhibitor LC-0296 recapitulated the effects of Sirt3 deletion in osteoclast formation and mitochondrial function, and its administration to aging mice increased bone mass. Deletion of Sirt3 also attenuated the increase in bone resorption and loss of bone mass caused by estrogen deficiency. These findings suggest that Sirt3 inhibition and the resulting impairment of osteoclast mitochondrial function could be a novel therapeutic intervention for the 2 most important causes of osteoporosis.
Wen Ling, Kimberly Krager, Kimberly K. Richardson, Aaron D. Warren, Filipa Ponte, Nukhet Aykin-Burns, Stavros C. Manolagas, Maria Almeida, Ha-Neui Kim
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