Expression of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is required for the development of lung conventional DCs type 2 (cDC2s) that elicit Th2 responses, yet how IRF4 functions in lung cDC2s throughout the acute and memory allergic response is not clear. Here, we used a mouse model that loses IRF4 expression after lung cDC2 development to demonstrate that mice with IRF4-deficient DCs display impaired memory responses to allergen. This defect in the memory response was a direct result of ineffective Th2 induction and impaired recruitment of activated effector T cells to the lung after sensitization. IRF4-deficient DCs demonstrated defects in their migration to the draining lymph node and in T cell priming. Finally, T cells primed by IRF4-competent DCs mediated potent memory responses independently of IRF4-expressing DCs, demonstrating that IRF4-expressing DCs are not necessary during the memory response. Thus, IRF4 controlled a program in mature DCs governing Th2 priming and effector responses, but IRF4-expressing DCs were dispensable during tissue-resident memory T cell–dependent memory responses.
Daniel F. Camacho, Tania E. Velez, Maile K. Hollinger, Esther Wang, Chanie L. Howard, Eli P. Darnell, Domenick E. Kennedy, Paulette A. Krishack, Cara L. Hrusch, Marcus R. Clark, James J. Moon, Anne I. Sperling
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is highly comorbid with severe dengue diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Patients with DM have a 1.61-fold increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever. In search of host factors involved in dengue virus (DENV) infection, we used high-glucose (HG) treatment and showed that HG increased viral protein expression and virion release but had no effects on the early stages of viral infection. After HG stimulation, DENV–firefly luciferase–transfected assay and cellular replicon–based assay indicated increased viral translation, whereas using the glucose uptake inhibitor phloretin blocked this effect. HG treatment increased the translational factor poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in a glucose transporter–associated, PI3K/AKT-regulated manner. Silencing PABP significantly decreased HG-prompted virion production. HG enhanced the formation of the PABP–eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G complex, which is regulated by protein–disulfide isomerase. Hyperglycemia increased PABP expression, mortality rate, viral protein expression, and viral loads in streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Overall, hyperglycemic stress facilitates DENV infection by strengthening PABP-mediated viral translation.
Ting-Jing Shen, Chia-Ling Chen, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Ming-Kai Jhan, Chyi-Huey Bai, Yu-Chun Yen, Ching-Wen Tsai, Po-Chun Tseng, Chia-Yi Yu, Chiou-Feng Lin
I.v. administration of a high-affinity carbon monoxide–binding (CO-binding) molecule, recombinant neuroglobin, can improve survival in CO poisoning mouse models. The current study aims to discover how biochemical variables of the scavenger determine the CO removal from the RBCs by evaluating 3 readily available hemoproteins, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate stripped human hemoglobin (StHb); N-ethylmaleimide modified hemoglobin (NEMHb); and equine myoglobin (Mb). These molecules efficiently sequester CO from hemoglobin in erythrocytes in vitro. A kinetic model was developed to predict the CO binding efficacy for hemoproteins, based on their measured in vitro oxygen and CO binding affinities, suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy of hemoproteins for CO poisoning relates to a high M value, which is the binding affinity for CO relative to oxygen (KA,CO/KA,O2). In a lethal CO poisoning mouse model, StHb, NEMHb, and Mb improved survival by 100%, 100%, and 60%, respectively, compared with saline controls and were well tolerated in 48-hour toxicology assessments. In conclusion, both StHb and NEMHb have high CO binding affinities and M values, and they scavenge CO efficiently in vitro and in vivo, highlighting their therapeutic potential for point-of-care antidotal therapy of CO poisoning.
Qinzi Xu, Jason J. Rose, Xiukai Chen, Ling Wang, Anthony W. DeMartino, Matthew R. Dent, Sagarika Tiwari, Kaitlin Bocian, Xueyin N. Huang, Qin Tong, Charles F. McTiernan, Lanping Guo, Elmira Alipour, Trevor C. Jones, K. Burak Ucer, Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro, Jesús Tejero, Mark T. Gladwin
Human NK cell deficiency (NKD) is a primary immunodeficiency in which the main clinically relevant immunological defect involves missing or dysfunctional NK cells. Here, we describe a familial NKD case in which 2 siblings had a substantive NKD and neutropenia in the absence of other immune system abnormalities. Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous variants in Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex subunit 4 (GINS4, also known as SLD5), an essential component of the human replicative helicase, which we demonstrate to have a damaging impact upon the expression and assembly of the GINS complex. Cells derived from affected individuals and a GINS4-knockdown cell line demonstrate delayed cell cycle progression, without signs of improper DNA synthesis or increased replication stress. By modeling partial GINS4 depletion in differentiating NK cells in vitro, we demonstrate the causal relationship between the genotype and the NK cell phenotype, as well as a cell-intrinsic defect in NK cell development. Thus, biallelic partial loss-of-function mutations in GINS4 define a potentially novel disease-causing gene underlying NKD with neutropenia. Together with the previously described mutations in other helicase genes causing NKD, and with the mild defects observed in other human cells, these variants underscore the importance of this pathway in NK cell biology.
Matilde I. Conte, M. Cecilia Poli, Angelo Taglialatela, Giuseppe Leuzzi, Ivan K. Chinn, Sandra A. Salinas, Emma Rey-Jurado, Nixa Olivares, Liz Veramendi-Espinoza, Alberto Ciccia, James R. Lupski, Juan Carlos Aldave Becerra, Emily M. Mace, Jordan S. Orange
Accumulating evidence suggests that high levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal tumor tissues can be associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, data regarding distinct prognostic subgroups in F. nucleatum–positive CRC remain limited. Herein, we demonstrate that high-iron status was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with CRC with F. nucleatum. Patients with CRC presenting elevated serum transferrin saturation exhibited preferential iron deposition in macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, F. nucleatum induced CCL8 expression in macrophages via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, which was inhibited by iron deficiency. Mechanistically, iron attenuated the inhibitory phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 by activating serine/threonine phosphatases, augmenting tumor-promoting chemokine production in macrophages. Our observations indicate a key role for iron in modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway and suggest its prognostic potential as a determining factor for interpatient heterogeneity in F. nucleatum–positive CRC.
Taishi Yamane, Yohei Kanamori, Hiroshi Sawayama, Hiromu Yano, Akihiro Nita, Yudai Ohta, Hironori Hinokuma, Ayato Maeda, Akiko Iwai, Takashi Matsumoto, Mayuko Shimoda, Mayumi Niimura, Shingo Usuki, Noriko Yasuda-Yoshihara, Masato Niwa, Yoshifumi Baba, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yoshihiro Komohara, Tomohiro Sawa, Tasuku Hirayama, Hideo Baba, Toshiro Moroishi
ÍSince the introduction of new generation pertussis vaccines, resurgence of pertussis has been observed in many developed countries. Former whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines are able to protect against disease and transmission but have been replaced in several industrialized countries because of their reactogenicity and adverse effects. Current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, made of purified proteins of Bordetella pertussis, are efficient at preventing disease but fail to induce long-term protection from infection. While the systemic and mucosal T cell immunity induced by the 2 types of vaccines has been well described, much less is known concerning B cell responses. Taking advantage of an inducible activation-induced cytidine deaminase fate-mapping mouse model, we compared effector and memory B cells induced by the 2 classes of vaccines and showed that a stronger and broader memory B cell and plasma cell response was achieved by a wP prime. We also observed that homologous or heterologous vaccine combinations that include at least 1 wP administration, even as a booster dose, were sufficient to induce this broad effector response, thus highlighting its dominant imprint on the B cell profile. Finally, we describe the settlement of memory B cell populations in the lung following subcutaneous wP prime vaccination.
Viviana Valeri, Akhésa Sochon, Clara Cousu, Pascal Chappert, Damiana Lecoeuche, Pascal Blanc, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud
Immune-related adverse events represent a major hurdle to the success of immunotherapy. The immunological mechanisms underlying their development and relation to antitumor responses are poorly understood. By examining both systemic and tissue-specific immune changes induced by combination anti–CTLA-4 and anti–PD-1 immunotherapy, we found distinct repertoire changes in patients who developed moderate-severe colitis, irrespective of their antitumor response to therapy. The proportion of circulating monocytes were significantly increased at baseline in patients who subsequently developed colitis compared with patients who did not develop colitis, and biopsies from patients with colitis showed monocytic infiltration of both endoscopically and histopathologically normal and inflamed regions of colon. The magnitude of systemic expansion of T cells following commencement of immunotherapy was also greater in patients who developed colitis. Importantly, we show expansion of specific T cell subsets within inflamed regions of the colon, including tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells and Th1 CD4+ T cells in patients who developed colitis. Our data also suggest that CD8+ T cell expansion was locally induced, while Th1 cell expansion was systemic. Together, our data show that exaggerated innate and T cell responses to combination immunotherapy synergize to propel colitis in susceptible patients.
Kazi J. Nahar, Felix Marsh-Wakefield, Robert V. Rawson, Tuba N. Gide, Angela L. Ferguson, Ruth Allen, Camelia Quek, Ines Pires da Silva, Stephen Tattersal, Christopher J. Kiely, Neomal Sandanayake, Matteo S. Carlino, Geoff McCaughan, James S. Wilmott, Richard A. Scolyer, Georgina V. Long, Alexander M. Menzies, Umaimainthan Palendira
People living with HIV-1 (PLWH) exhibit more rapid antibody decline following routine immunization and elevated baseline chronic inflammation than people without HIV-1 (PWOH), indicating potential for diminished humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conflicting reports have emerged on the ability of PLWH to maintain humoral protection against SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during convalescence. It is unknown whether peak COVID-19 severity, along with HIV-1 infection status, associates with the quality and quantity of humoral immunity following recovery. Using a cross-sectional observational cohort from the United States and Peru, adults were enrolled 1–10 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or symptom resolution. Serum antibodies were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2–specific response rates, binding magnitudes, ACE2 receptor blocking, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Overall, (a) PLWH exhibited a trend toward decreased magnitude of SARS-CoV-2–specific antibodies, despite modestly increased overall response rates when compared with PWOH; (b) PLWH recovered from symptomatic outpatient COVID-19 had comparatively diminished immune responses; and (c) PLWH lacked a corresponding increase in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with increased COVID-19 severity when asymptomatic versus symptomatic outpatient disease was compared.
Daniel J. Schuster, Shelly Karuna, Caroline Brackett, Martina Wesley, Shuying S. Li, Nathan Eisel, DeAnna Tenney, Sir’Tauria Hilliard, Nicole L. Yates, Jack R. Heptinstall, LaTonya D. Williams, Xiaoying Shen, Robert Rolfe, Robinson Cabello, Lu Zhang, Sheetal Sawant, Jiani Hu, April Kaur Randhawa, Ollivier Hyrien, John A. Hural, Lawrence Corey, Ian Frank, Georgia D. Tomaras, Kelly E. Seaton, HVTN 405/HPTN 1901 Study Team
One of the least-investigated areas of brain pathology research is glycosylation, which is a critical regulator of cell surface protein structure and function. β-Galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6GAL1) is the primary enzyme that α2,6 sialylates N-glycosylated proteins destined for the plasma membrane or secretion, thereby modulating cell signaling and behavior. We demonstrate a potentially novel, protumorigenic role for α2,6 sialylation and ST6GAL1 in the deadly brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM). GBM cells with high α2,6 sialylation exhibited increased in vitro growth and self-renewal capacity and decreased mouse survival when orthotopically injected. α2,6 Sialylation was regulated by ST6GAL1 in GBM, and ST6GAL1 was elevated in brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). Knockdown of ST6GAL1 in BTICs decreased in vitro growth, self-renewal capacity, and tumorigenic potential. ST6GAL1 regulates levels of the known BTIC regulators PDGF Receptor β (PDGFRB), Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule, and Neuropilin, which were confirmed to bind to a lectin-recognizing α2,6 sialic acid. Loss of ST6GAL1 was confirmed to decrease PDGFRB α2,6 sialylation, total protein levels, and the induction of phosphorylation by PDGF-BB. Thus, ST6GAL1-mediated α2,6 sialylation of a select subset of cell surface receptors, including PDGFRB, increases GBM growth.
Sajina GC, Kaysaw Tuy, Lucas Rickenbacker, Robert Jones, Asmi Chakraborty, C. Ryan Miller, Elizabeth A. Beierle, Vidya Sagar Hanumanthu, Anh N. Tran, James A. Mobley, Susan L. Bellis, Anita B. Hjelmeland
Early-stage temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is characterized by excessive subchondral bone loss. Emerging evidence suggests that TMJ disc displacement is involved, but the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we established a rat model of TMJOA that simulated disc displacement with a capacitance-based force-sensing system to directly measure articular surface pressure in vivo. Micro-CT, histological staining, immunofluorescence staining, IHC staining, and Western blot were used to assess pathological changes and underlying mechanisms of TMJOA in the rat model in vivo as well as in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. We found that disc displacement led to significantly higher pressure on the articular surface, which caused rapid subchondral bone loss via activation of the RANTES–chemokine receptors–Akt2 (RANTES-CCRs-Akt2) axis. Inhibition of RANTES or Akt2 attenuated subchondral bone loss and resulted in improved subchondral bone microstructure. Cytological studies substantiated that RANTES regulated osteoclast formation by binding to its receptor CCRs and activating the Akt2 pathway. The clinical evidence further supported that RANTES was a potential biomarker for predicting subchondral bone loss in early-stage TMJOA. Taken together, this study demonstrates important functions of the RANTES-CCRs-Akt2 axis in the regulation of subchondral bone remodeling and provides further knowledge of how disc displacement causes TMJOA.
Shi-Yang Feng, Jie Lei, Yu-Xiang Li, Wen-Ge Shi, Ran-Ran Wang, Adrian Ujin Yap, Yi-Xiang Wang, Kai-Yuan Fu
Lupus nephritis is a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus, mediated by IgG immune complex (IC) deposition in kidneys, with limited treatment options. Kidney macrophages are critical tissue sentinels that express IgG-binding Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), with previous studies identifying prenatally seeded resident macrophages as major IC responders. Using single-cell transcriptomic and spatial analyses in murine and human lupus nephritis, we sought to understand macrophage heterogeneity and subset-specific contributions in disease. In lupus nephritis, the cell fate trajectories of tissue-resident (TrMac) and monocyte-derived (MoMac) kidney macrophages were perturbed, with disease-associated transcriptional states indicating distinct pathogenic roles for TrMac and MoMac subsets. Lupus nephritis–associated MoMac subsets showed marked induction of FcγR response genes, avidly internalized circulating ICs, and presented IC-opsonized antigen. In contrast, lupus nephritis–associated TrMac subsets demonstrated limited IC uptake, but expressed monocyte chemoattractants, and their depletion attenuated monocyte recruitment to the kidney. TrMacs also produced B cell tissue niche factors, suggesting a role in supporting autoantibody-producing lymphoid aggregates. Extensive similarities were observed with human kidney macrophages, revealing cross-species transcriptional disruption in lupus nephritis. Overall, our study suggests a division of labor in the kidney macrophage response in lupus nephritis, with treatment implications — TrMacs orchestrate leukocyte recruitment while MoMacs take up and present IC antigen.
Nathan Richoz, Zewen K. Tuong, Kevin W. Loudon, Eduardo Patiño-Martínez, John R. Ferdinand, Jorge Romo-Tena, Anaïs Portet, Kathleen R. Bashant, Emeline Thevenon, Francesca Rucci, Thomas Hoyler, Tobias Junt, Mariana J. Kaplan, Richard M. Siegel, Menna R. Clatworthy
Activation of TLR4 by its cognate damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) elicits potent profibrotic effects and myofibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis (SSc), while genetic targeting of TLR4 or its DAMPs in mice accelerates fibrosis resolution. To prevent aberrant DAMP/TLR4 activity, a variety of negative regulators evolved to dampen the magnitude and duration of the signaling. These include radioprotective 105 kDa (RP105), a transmembrane TLR4 homolog that competitively inhibits DAMP recognition of TLR4, blocking TLR4 signaling in immune cells. The role of RP105 in TLR4-dependent fibrotic responses in SSc is unknown. Using unbiased transcriptome analysis of skin biopsies, we found that levels of both TLR4 and its adaptor protein MD2 were elevated in SSc skin and significantly correlated with each other. Expression of RP105 was negatively associated with myofibroblast differentiation in SSc. Importantly, RP105-TLR4 association was reduced, whereas TLR4-TLR4 showed strong association in fibroblasts from patients with SSc, as evidenced by PLA assays. Moreover, RP105 adaptor MD1 expression was significantly reduced in SSc skin biopsies and explanted SSc skin fibroblasts. Exogenous RP105-MD1 abrogated, while loss of RP105 exaggerated, fibrotic cellular responses. Importantly, ablation of RP105 in mice was associated with augmented TLR4 signaling and aggravated skin fibrosis in complementary disease models. Thus, we believe RP105-MD1 to be a novel cell-intrinsic negative regulator of TLR4-MD2–driven sustained fibroblast activation, representing a critical regulatory network governing the fibrotic process. Impaired RP105 function in SSc might contribute to persistence of progression of the disease.
Wenxia Wang, Swarna Bale, Bharath Yalavarthi, Priyanka Verma, Pei-Suen Tsou, Ken M. Calderone, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya, Gary J. Fisher, John Varga, Swati Bhattacharyya
Puberty is associated with transient insulin resistance that normally recedes at the end of puberty; however, in overweight children, insulin resistance persists, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms whereby pancreatic β cells adapt to pubertal insulin resistance, and how they are affected by the metabolic status, have not been investigated. Here, we show that puberty is associated with a transient increase in β cell proliferation in rats and humans of both sexes. In rats, β cell proliferation correlated with a rise in growth hormone (GH) levels. Serum from pubertal rats and humans promoted β cell proliferation, suggesting the implication of a circulating factor. In pubertal rat islets, expression of genes of the GH/serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) pathway underwent changes consistent with a proliferative effect. Inhibition of the pro-proliferative 5-HT receptor isoform HTR2B blocked the increase in β cell proliferation in pubertal islets ex vivo and in vivo. Peripubertal metabolic stress blunted β cell proliferation during puberty and led to altered glucose homeostasis later in life. This study identifies a role of GH/GH receptor/5-HT/HTR2B signaling in the control of β cell mass expansion during puberty and identifies a mechanistic link between pubertal obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Anne-Laure Castell, Clara Goubault, Mélanie Ethier, Grace Fergusson, Caroline Tremblay, Marie Baltz, Dorothée Dal Soglio, Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
BM adipocytes (BMAd) are a unique cell population derived from BM mesenchymal progenitors and marrow adipogenic lineage precursors. Although they have long been considered to be a space filler within bone cavities, recent studies have revealed important physiological roles in hematopoiesis and bone metabolism. To date, the approaches used to study BMAd function have been confounded by contributions by nonmarrow adipocytes or by BM stromal cells. To address this gap in the field, we have developed a BMAd-specific Cre mouse model to deplete BMAds by expression of diphtheria toxin A (DTA) or by deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg). We found that DTA-induced loss of BMAds results in decreased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers and increased bone mass in BMAd-enriched locations, including the distal tibiae and caudal vertebrae. Elevated bone mass appears to be secondary to enhanced endosteal bone formation, suggesting a local effect caused by depletion of BMAd. Augmented bone formation with BMAd depletion protects mice from bone loss induced by caloric restriction or ovariectomy, and it facilitates the bone-healing process after fracture. Finally, ablation of Pparg also reduces BMAd numbers and largely recapitulates high–bone mass phenotypes observed with DTA-induced BMAd depletion.
Ziru Li, Devika P. Bagchi, Junxiong Zhu, Emily Bowers, Hui Yu, Julie Hardij, Hiroyuki Mori, Katrina Granger, Jon Skjaerlund, Gurjit Mandair, Simin Abrishami, Kanakadurga Singer, Kurt D. Hankenson, Clifford J. Rosen, Ormond A. MacDougald
We previously reported that Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) plays a critical role in maintaining epithelial cell phenotype. Here, we show that SARA suppressed myofibroblast precursor transdifferentiation in a mouse model of scleroderma. Mice overexpressing SARA specifically in PDGFR-β+ pericytes and pan-leukocytes (SARATg) developed significantly less skin fibrosis in response to bleomycin injection compared with wild-type littermates (SARAWT). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis of skin PDGFR-β+ cells implicated pericyte subsets assuming myofibroblast characteristics under fibrotic stimuli, and SARA overexpression blocked the transition. In addition, a cluster that expresses molecules associated with Th2 cells and macrophage activation was enriched in SARAWT mice, but not in SARATg mice, after bleomycin treatment. Th2-specific Il-31 expression was increased in skin of the bleomycin-treated SARAWT mice and patients with scleroderma (or systemic sclerosis, SSc). Receptor-ligand analyses indicated that lymphocytes mediated pericyte transdifferentiation in SARAWT mice, while with SARA overexpression the myofibroblast activity of pericytes was suppressed. Together, these data suggest a potentially novel crosstalk between myofibroblast precursors and immune cells in the pathogenesis of SSc, in which SARA plays a critical role.
Katia Corano Scheri, Xiaoyan Liang, Vidhi Dalal, I. Caroline Le Poole, John Varga, Tomoko Hayashida
Pancreatitis, the inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, has no specific therapy. Genetic, biochemical, and animal model studies revealed that trypsin plays a central role in the onset and progression of pancreatitis. Here, we performed biochemical and preclinical mouse experiments to offer proof of concept that orally administered dabigatran etexilate can inhibit pancreatic trypsins and shows therapeutic efficacy in trypsin-dependent pancreatitis. We found that dabigatran competitively inhibited all human and mouse trypsin isoforms (Ki range 10–79 nM) and dabigatran plasma concentrations in mice given oral dabigatran etexilate well exceeded the Ki of trypsin inhibition. In the T7K24R trypsinogen mutant mouse model, a single oral gavage of dabigatran etexilate was effective against cerulein-induced progressive pancreatitis, with a high degree of histological normalization. In contrast, spontaneous pancreatitis in T7D23A mice, which carry a more aggressive trypsinogen mutation, was not ameliorated by dabigatran etexilate, given either as daily gavages or by mixing it with solid chow. Taken together, our observations showed that benzamidine derivatives such as dabigatran are potent trypsin inhibitors and show therapeutic activity against trypsin-dependent pancreatitis in T7K24R mice. Lack of efficacy in T7D23A mice is probably related to the more severe pathology and insufficient drug concentrations in the pancreas.
Zsófia Gabriella Pesei, Zsanett Jancsó, Alexandra Demcsák, Balázs Csaba Németh, Sandor Vajda, Miklós Sahin-Tóth
Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities at birth, but it is not clear which of these defects arise from a transient developmental excess of thyroid hormone and which depend on pregnancy stage, antithyroid drug choice, or unwanted subsequent fetal hypothyroidism. To address this issue, we studied a mouse model of comprehensive developmental thyrotoxicosis secondary to a lack of type 3 deiodinase (DIO3). Dio3–/– mice exhibited reduced neonatal viability on most genetic backgrounds and perinatal lethality on a C57BL/6 background. Dio3–/– mice exhibited severe growth retardation during the neonatal period and cartilage loss. Mice surviving after birth manifested brain and cranial dysmorphisms, severe hydrocephalus, choanal atresia, and cleft palate. These abnormalities were noticeable in C57BL/6J Dio3–/– mice at fetal stages, in addition to a thyrotoxic heart with septal defects and thin ventricular walls. Our findings stress the protecting role of DIO3 during development and support the hypothesis that human congenital abnormalities associated with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are caused by transient thyrotoxicosis before clinical intervention. Our results also suggest thyroid hormone involvement in the etiology of idiopathic pathologies including cleft palate, choanal atresia, Chiari malformations, Kaschin-Beck disease, and Temple and other cranio-encephalic and heart syndromes.
M. Elena Martinez, Ilka Pinz, Marilena Preda, Christine R. Norton, Thomas Gridley, Arturo Hernandez
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a local and/or systemic inflammatory disease that starts with acinar cell injury and necrosis; it has no effective medical treatment and thus remains a life-threatening condition. Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a natural immunomodulator, has demonstrated an antiinflammatory effect; however, the role of IL-37 in AP remains unknown. The serum IL-37 levels of 39 healthy controls and 94 patients with AP were measured. Cholecystokinin was applied to induce pancreatic acinar cell injury in vitro. Classical experimental AP models, such as caerulein, l-arginine, and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate disodium salt, were included in the in vivo study. A transgenic mouse model with the IL-37 gene and administration of recombinant IL-37 were used to further investigate the function of IL-37 in AP. Pancreas-specific gasdermin D–knockout (GSDMD-knockout) mice were used to explore the protective mechanism of IL-37. Our results showed that serum IL-37 levels in humans were negatively correlated with the severity of AP. Furthermore, IL-37–transgenic mice and supplementation with recombinant IL-37 could both protect against AP. Mechanistically, IL-37 was able to suppress pyroptosis of injured acinar cells, and specific depletion of GSDMD in the pancreas counteracted the protective effect of IL-37. Our study demonstrates that IL-37 protects against acinar cell pyroptosis in AP.
Nan Ma, Chenchen Yuan, Juanjuan Shi, Qingtian Zhu, Yang Liu, Xiaojie Ma, Baiqiang Li, Weijuan Gong, Jing Xue, Guotao Lu, Weiqin Li, Jieshou Li
Malignant melanoma is a major public health issue displaying frequent resistance to targeted therapy and immunotherapy. A major challenge lies in better understanding how melanoma cells evade immune elimination and how tumor growth and metastasis is facilitated by the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that expression of the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by epidermal keratinocytes is induced by cutaneous melanoma in both mice and humans. Using genetically engineered models of melanoma and tumor cell grafting combined with TSLP-KO or overexpression, we defined a crosstalk between melanoma cells, keratinocytes, and immune cells in establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Keratinocyte-derived TSLP is induced by signals derived from melanoma cells and subsequently acts via immune cells to promote melanoma progression and metastasis. Furthermore, we show that TSLP signals through TSLP receptor–expressing (TSLPR-expressing) DCs to play an unrecognized role in promoting GATA3+ Tregs expressing a gene signature including ST2, CCR8, ICOS, PD-1, CTLA-4, and OX40 and exhibiting a potent suppressive activity on CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. An analogous population of GATA3-expressing Tregs was also identified in human melanoma tumors. Our study provides insights into the role of TSLP in programming a protumoral immune microenvironment in cutaneous melanoma.
Wenjin Yao, Beatriz German, Dounia Chraa, Antoine Braud, Cecile Hugel, Pierre Meyer, Guillaume Davidson, Patrick Laurette, Gabrielle Mengus, Eric Flatter, Pierre Marschall, Justine Segaud, Marine Guivarch, Pierre Hener, Marie-Christine Birling, Dan Lipsker, Irwin Davidson, Mei Li
HIV-specific chimeric antigen receptor–T cell (CAR T cell) therapies are candidates to functionally cure HIV infection in people with HIV (PWH) by eliminating reactivated HIV-infected cells derived from latently infected cells within the HIV reservoir. Paramount to translating such therapeutic candidates successfully into the clinic will require anti-HIV CAR T cells to localize to lymphoid tissues in the body and eliminate reactivated HIV-infected cells such as CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages. Here we show that i.v. injected anti-HIV duoCAR T cells, generated using a clinical-grade anti-HIV duoCAR lentiviral vector, localized to the site of active HIV infection in the spleen of humanized mice and eliminated HIV-infected PBMCs. CyTOF analysis of preinfusion duoCAR T cells revealed an early memory phenotype composed predominantly of CCR7+ stem cell–like/central memory T cells (TSCM/TCM) with expression of some effector-like molecules. In addition, we show that anti-HIV duoCAR T cells effectively sense and kill HIV-infected CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrate efficient genetic modification of T cells from PWH on suppressive ART into anti-HIV duoCAR T cells that subsequently kill autologous PBMCs superinfected with HIV. These studies support the safety and efficacy of anti-HIV duoCAR T cell therapy in our presently open phase I/IIa clinical trial (NCT04648046).
Kim Anthony-Gonda, Alex Ray, Hang Su, Yuge Wang, Ying Xiong, Danica Lee, Ariele Block, Vanessa Chilunda, Jessica Weiselberg, Lily Zemelko, Yen Y. Wang, Sarah Kleinsorge-Block, Jane S. Reese, Marcos de Lima, Christina Ochsenbauer, John C. Kappes, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Rimas Orentas, Steven G. Deeks, Rachel L. Rutishauser, Joan W. Berman, Harris Goldstein, Boro Dropulić
Lipoprotein modification by reactive dicarbonyls, including isolevuglandin (IsoLG), produces dysfunctional particles. Kidneys participate in lipoprotein metabolism, including tubular uptake. However, the process beyond the proximal tubule is unclear, as is the effect of kidney injury on this pathway. We found that patients and animals with proteinuric injury have increased urinary apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), IsoLG, and IsoLG adduct enrichment of the urinary apoAI fraction compared with other proteins. Proteinuric mice, induced by podocyte-specific injury, showed more tubular absorption of IsoLG-apoAI and increased expression of lipoprotein transporters in proximal tubular cells compared with uninjured animals. Renal lymph reflects composition of the interstitial compartment and showed increased apoAI and IsoLG in proteinuric animals, supporting a tubular cell-interstitium-lymph pathway for renal handling of lipoproteins. IsoLG-modified apoAI was not only a marker of renal injury but also directly damaged renal cells. IsoLG-apoAI increased inflammatory cytokines in cultured tubular epithelial cells (TECs), activated lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), and caused greater contractility of renal lymphatic vessels than unmodified apoAI. In vivo, inhibition of IsoLG by a dicarbonyl scavenger reduced both albuminuria and urinary apoAI and decreased TEC and LEC injury, lymphangiogenesis, and interstitial fibrosis. Our results indicate that IsoLG-modified apoAI is, to our knowledge, a novel pathogenic mediator and therapeutic target in kidney disease.
Jianyong Zhong, Hai-Chun Yang, Elaine L. Shelton, Taiji Matsusaka, Amanda J. Clark, Valery Yermalitsky, Zahra Mashhadi, Linda S. May-Zhang, MacRae F. Linton, Agnes B. Fogo, Annet Kirabo, Sean S. Davies, Valentina Kon
TGF-β plays a critical role in maintaining immune cells in a resting state by inhibiting cell activation and proliferation. Resting HIV-1 target cells represent the main cellular reservoir after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that releasing cells from TGF-β–driven signaling would promote latency reversal. To test our hypothesis, we compared HIV-1 latency models with and without TGF-β and a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor, galunisertib. We tested the effect of galunisertib in SIV-infected, ART-treated macaques by monitoring SIV-env expression via PET/CT using the 64Cu-DOTA-F(ab′)2 p7D3 probe, along with plasma and tissue viral loads (VLs). Exogenous TGF-β reduced HIV-1 reactivation in U1 and ACH-2 models. Galunisertib increased HIV-1 latency reversal ex vivo and in PBMCs from HIV-1–infected, ART-treated, aviremic donors. In vivo, oral galunisertib promoted increased total standardized uptake values in PET/CT images in gut and lymph nodes of 5 out of 7 aviremic, long-term ART-treated, SIV-infected macaques. This increase correlated with an increase in SIV RNA in the gut. Two of the 7 animals also exhibited increases in plasma VLs. Higher anti-SIV T cell responses and antibody titers were detected after galunisertib treatment. In summary, our data suggest that blocking TGF-β signaling simultaneously increases retroviral reactivation events and enhances anti-SIV immune responses.
Sadia Samer, Yanique Thomas, Mariluz Araínga, Crystal Carter, Lisa M. Shirreff, Muhammad S. Arif, Juan M. Avita, Ines Frank, Michael D. McRaven, Christopher T. Thuruthiyil, Veli B. Heybeli, Meegan R. Anderson, Benjamin Owen, Arsen Gaisin, Deepanwita Bose, Lacy M. Simons, Judd F. Hultquist, James Arthos, Claudia Cicala, Irini Sereti, Philip J. Santangelo, Ramon Lorenzo-Redondo, Thomas J. Hope, Francois J. Villinger, Elena Martinelli
Primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD) represent a group of disorders characterized by immune dysregulation, presenting with a wide range of clinical disease, including autoimmunity, autoinflammation, or lymphoproliferation. Autosomal dominant germline gain-of-function (GOF) variants in STAT3 result in a PIRD with a broad clinical spectrum. Studies in patients have documented a decreased frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs and an increased frequency of Th17 cells in some patients with active disease. However, the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in STAT3 GOF syndrome remain largely unknown, and treatment is challenging. We developed a knock-in mouse model harboring a de novo pathogenic human STAT3 variant (p.G421R) and found these mice developed T cell dysregulation, lymphoproliferation, and CD4+ Th1 cell skewing. Surprisingly, Treg numbers, phenotype, and function remained largely intact; however, mice had a selective deficiency in the generation of iTregs. In parallel, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq on T cells from STAT3 GOF patients. We demonstrate only minor changes in the Treg transcriptional signature and an expanded, effector CD8+ T cell population. Together, these findings suggest that Tregs are not the primary driver of disease and highlight the importance of preclinical models in the study of disease mechanisms in rare PIRD.
Erica G. Schmitt, Kelsey A. Toth, Samuel I. Risma, Ana Kolicheski, Nermina Saucier, Rafael J. Feliciano Berríos, Zev J. Greenberg, Jennifer W. Leiding, Jack J. Bleesing, Akaluck Thatayatikom, Laura G. Schuettpelz, John R. Edwards, Tiphanie P. Vogel, Megan A. Cooper
Dopamine acts on neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, which controls homeostatic feeding responses. Here we demonstrate a differential enrichment of dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) expression in food intake–promoting agouti related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and a large proportion of Drd2-expressing anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Owing to the nature of these receptors, this translates into a predominant activation of AgRP/NPY neurons upon dopamine stimulation and a larger proportion of dopamine-inhibited POMC neurons. Employing intersectional targeting of Drd2-expressing POMC neurons, we reveal that dopamine-mediated POMC neuron inhibition is Drd2 dependent and that POMCDrd2+ neurons exhibit differential expression of neuropeptide signaling mediators compared with the global POMC neuron population, which manifests in enhanced somatostatin responsiveness of POMCDrd2+ neurons. Selective chemogenetic activation of POMCDrd2+ neurons uncovered their ability to acutely suppress feeding and to preserve body temperature in fasted mice. Collectively, the present study provides the molecular and functional characterization of POMCDrd2+ neurons and aids our understanding of dopamine-dependent control of homeostatic energy-regulatory neurocircuits.
Isabella Gaziano, Svenja Corneliussen, Nasim Biglari, René Neuhaus, Linyan Shen, Tamara Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Paul Klemm, Lukas Steuernagel, Alain J. De Solis, Weiyi Chen, F. Thomas Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C. Brüning
The HIV latent viral reservoir (LVR) remains a major challenge in the effort to find a cure for HIV. There is interest in lymphocyte-depleting agents, used in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation to reduce the LVR. This study evaluated the LVR and T cell receptor repertoire in HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients using intact proviral DNA assay and T cell receptor sequencing in patients receiving lymphocyte-depleting or lymphocyte-nondepleting immunosuppression induction therapy. CD4+ T cells and intact and defective provirus frequencies decreased following lymphocyte-depleting induction therapy but rebounded to near baseline levels within 1 year after induction. In contrast, these biomarkers were relatively stable over time in the lymphocyte-nondepleting group. The lymphocyte-depleting group had early TCRβ repertoire turnover and newly detected and expanded clones compared with the lymphocyte-nondepleting group. No differences were observed in TCRβ clonality and repertoire richness between groups. These findings suggest that, even with significant decreases in the overall size of the circulating LVR, the reservoir can be reconstituted in a relatively short period of time. These results, while from a relatively unique population, suggest that curative strategies aimed at depleting the HIV LVR will need to achieve specific and durable levels of HIV-infected T cell depletion.
Sarah E. Benner, Yolanda Eby, Xianming Zhu, Reinaldo E. Fernandez, Eshan U. Patel, Jessica E. Ruff, Feben Habtehyimer, Haley A. Schmidt, Charles S. Kirby, Sarah Hussain, Darin Ostrander, Niraj M. Desai, Sander Florman, Meenakshi M. Rana, Rachel Friedman-Moraco, Marcus R. Pereira, Shikha Mehta, Peter Stock, Alexander Gilbert, Michele I. Morris, Valentina Stosor, Sapna A. Mehta, Catherine B. Small, Karthik Ranganna, Carlos A.Q. Santos, Saima Aslam, Jennifer Husson, Maricar Malinis, Nahel Elias, Emily A. Blumberg, Brianna L. Doby, Allan B. Massie, Melissa L. Smith, Jonah Odim, Thomas C. Quinn, Gregory M. Laird, Robert F. Siliciano, Dorry L. Segev, Andrew D. Redd, Christine M. Durand, Aaron A.R. Tobian
Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common complication in critically ill patients that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In a murine AKI model induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), we show that glutamine significantly decreases kidney damage and improves kidney function. We demonstrate that glutamine causes transcriptomic and proteomic reprogramming in murine renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs), resulting in decreased epithelial apoptosis, decreased neutrophil recruitment, and improved mitochondrial functionality and respiration provoked by an ameliorated oxidative phosphorylation. We identify the proteins glutamine gamma glutamyltransferase 2 (Tgm2) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (Ask1) as the major targets of glutamine in apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, the direct modulation of the Tgm2-HSP70 signalosome and reduced Ask1 activation resulted in decreased JNK activation, leading to diminished mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis in TECs. Glutamine administration attenuated kidney damage in vivo during AKI and TEC viability in vitro under inflammatory or hypoxic conditions.
Katharina Thomas, Lisa Zondler, Nadine Ludwig, Marina Kardell, Corinna Lüneburg, Katharina Henke, Sina Mersmann, Andreas Margraf, Tilmann Spieker, Tobias Tekath, Ana Velic, Richard Holtmeier, Juliane Hermann, Vera Jankowski, Melanie Meersch, Dietmar Vestweber, Martin Westphal, Johannes Roth, Michael A. Schäfers, John A. Kellum, Clifford A. Lowell, Jan Rossaint, Alexander Zarbock