In this issue, Rosenblum et al. report vascular malformations in patients with gain-of-function mutations in EPAS1, the gene encoding HIF-2α, as a feature of EPAS1 gain-of-function syndrome. Using a transgenic mouse model, they demonstrate that malformations result from failure of developmental venous regression. The cover image — taken by intravital 2-photon microscopy of leptomeningeal and parenchymal vessels following retro-orbital intravenous injection of tomato lectin DyLight 488 and Evans blue— shows the high density of arterioles and venules in the transgenic mice.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe disability, and the current inability to restore function to the damaged spinal cord leads to lasting detrimental consequences to patients. One strategy to reduce SCI morbidity involves limiting the spread of secondary damage after injury. Previous studies have shown that connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein richly expressed in spinal cord astrocytes, is a potential mediator of secondary damage. Here, we developed a specific inhibitory antibody, mouse-human chimeric MHC1 antibody (MHC1), that inhibited Cx43 hemichannels, but not gap junctions, and reduced secondary damage in 2 incomplete SCI mouse models. MHC1 inhibited the activation of Cx43 hemichannels in both primary spinal astrocytes and astrocytes in situ. In both SCI mouse models, administration of MHC1 after SCI significantly improved hind limb locomotion function. Remarkably, a single administration of MHC1 30 minutes after injury improved the recovery up to 8 weeks post-SCI. Moreover, MHC1 treatment decreased gliosis and lesion sizes, increased white and gray matter sparing, and improved neuronal survival. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of Cx43 hemichannel function after traumatic SCI reduces secondary damage, limits perilesional gliosis, and improves functional recovery. By targeting hemichannels specifically with an antibody, this study provides a potentially new, innovative therapeutic approach in treating SCI.
Chao Zhang, Zhao Yan, Asif Maknojia, Manuel A. Riquelme, Sumin Gu, Grant Booher, David J. Wallace, Viktor Bartanusz, Akshay Goswami, Wei Xiong, Ningyan Zhang, Michael J. Mader, Zhiqiang An, Naomi L. Sayre, Jean X. Jiang
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease with no approved disease-modifying therapies. Multiplications, mutations, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SNCA gene, encoding α-synuclein (aSyn) protein, either cause or increase risk for PD. Intracellular accumulations of aSyn are pathological hallmarks of PD. Taken together, reduction of aSyn production may provide a disease-modifying therapy for PD. We show that antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) reduce production of aSyn in rodent preformed fibril (PFF) models of PD. Reduced aSyn production leads to prevention and removal of established aSyn pathology and prevents dopaminergic cell dysfunction. In addition, we address the translational potential of the approach through characterization of human SNCA-targeting ASOs that efficiently suppress the human SNCA transcript in vivo. We demonstrate broad activity and distribution of the human SNCA ASOs throughout the nonhuman primate brain and a corresponding decrease in aSyn cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels. Taken together, these data suggest that, by inhibiting production of aSyn, it may be possible to reverse established pathology; thus, these data support the development of SNCA ASOs as a potential disease-modifying therapy for PD and related synucleinopathies.
Tracy A. Cole, Hien Zhao, Timothy J. Collier, Ivette Sandoval, Caryl E. Sortwell, Kathy Steece-Collier, Brian F. Daley, Alix Booms, Jack Lipton, Mackenzie Welch, Melissa Berman, Luke Jandreski, Danielle Graham, Andreas Weihofen, Stephanie Celano, Emily Schulz, Allyson Cole-Strauss, Esteban Luna, Duc Quach, Apoorva Mohan, C. Frank Bennett, Eric E. Swayze, Holly B. Kordasiewicz, Kelvin C. Luk, Katrina L. Paumier
Osteoclasts are specialized cells of the hematopoietic lineage that are responsible for bone resorption and play a critical role in musculoskeletal disease. JAK2 is a key mediator of cytokine and growth factor signaling; however, its role in osteoclasts in vivo has yet to be investigated. To elucidate the role of JAK2 in osteoclasts, we generated an osteoclast-specific JAK2–KO (Oc-JAK2–KO) mouse using the Cre/Lox-P system. Oc-JAK2–KO mice demonstrated marked postnatal growth restriction; however, this was not associated with significant changes in bone density, microarchitecture, or strength, indicating that the observed phenotype was not due to alterations in canonical osteoclast function. Interestingly, Oc-JAK2–KO mice had reduced osteoclast-specific expression of IGF1, suggesting a role for osteoclast-derived IGF1 in determination of body size. To directly assess the role of osteoclast-derived IGF1, we generated an osteoclast-specific IGF1–KO mouse, which showed a similar growth-restricted phenotype. Lastly, overexpression of circulating IGF1 by human transgene rescued the growth defects in Oc-JAK2–KO mice, in keeping with a causal role of IGF1 in these models. Together, our data show a potentially novel role for Oc-JAK2 and IGF1 in the determination of body size, which is independent of osteoclast resorptive function.
David W. Dodington, Jenalyn L. Yumol, Jiaqi Yang, Evan Pollock-Tahiri, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Sandra M. Sacco, Stephanie A. Schroer, Yujin E. Li, Helen Le, Wendy E. Ward, Minna Woo
Dysmorphic pulmonary vascular growth and abnormal endothelial cell (EC) proliferation are paradoxically observed in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), despite vascular pruning. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis, generates NADPH as a reducing equivalent and ribose 5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis. It is unknown whether hyperoxia, a known mediator of BPD in rodent models, alters glycolysis and the PPP in lung ECs. We hypothesized that hyperoxia increases glycolysis and the PPP, resulting in abnormal EC proliferation and dysmorphic angiogenesis in neonatal mice. To test this hypothesis, lung ECs and newborn mice were exposed to hyperoxia and allowed to recover in air. Hyperoxia increased glycolysis and the PPP. Increased PPP, but not glycolysis, caused hyperoxia-induced abnormal EC proliferation. Blocking the PPP reduced hyperoxia-induced glucose–derived deoxynucleotide synthesis in cultured ECs. In neonatal mice, hyperoxia-induced abnormal EC proliferation, dysmorphic angiogenesis, and alveolar simplification were augmented by nanoparticle-mediated endothelial overexpression of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the second enzyme in the PPP. These effects were attenuated by inhibitors of the PPP. Neonatal hyperoxia augments the PPP, causing abnormal lung EC proliferation, dysmorphic vascular development, and alveolar simplification. These observations provide mechanisms and potential metabolic targets to prevent BPD-associated vascular dysgenesis.
Jiannan Gong, Zihang Feng, Abigail L. Peterson, Jennifer F. Carr, Xuexin Lu, Haifeng Zhao, Xiangming Ji, You-Yang Zhao, Monique E. De Paepe, Phyllis A. Dennery, Hongwei Yao
IL-13–induced goblet cell metaplasia contributes to airway remodeling and pathological mucus hypersecretion in asthma. miRNAs are potent modulators of cellular responses, but their role in mucus regulation is largely unexplored. We hypothesized that airway epithelial miRNAs play roles in IL-13–induced mucus regulation. miR-141 is highly expressed in human and mouse airway epithelium, is altered in bronchial brushings from asthmatic subjects at baseline, and is induced shortly after airway allergen exposure. We established a CRISPR/Cas9-based protocol to target miR-141 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells that were differentiated at air-liquid-interface, and goblet cell hyperplasia was induced by IL-13 stimulation. miR-141 disruption resulted in decreased goblet cell frequency, intracellular MUC5AC, and total secreted mucus. These effects correlated with a reduction in a goblet cell gene expression signature and enrichment of a basal cell gene expression signature defined by single cell RNA sequencing. Furthermore, intranasal administration of a sequence-specific mmu-miR-141-3p inhibitor in mice decreased Aspergillus-induced secreted mucus and mucus-producing cells in the lung and reduced airway hyperresponsiveness without affecting cellular inflammation. In conclusion, we have identified a miRNA that regulates pathological airway mucus production and is amenable to therapeutic manipulation through an inhaled route.
Sana Siddiqui, Kristina Johansson, Alex Joo, Luke R. Bonser, Kyung Duk Koh, Olivier Le Tonqueze, Samaneh Bolourchi, Rodriel A. Bautista, Lorna Zlock, Theodore L. Roth, Alexander Marson, Nirav R. Bhakta, K. Mark Ansel, Walter E. Finkbeiner, David J. Erle, Prescott G. Woodruff
Progress in our understanding of MR1-restricted mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells has raised interest in harnessing these cells for immunotherapy. The innate-like response characteristics, abundance in the blood, donor-unrestricted nature, and tropism for tissues make MAIT cells suitable candidates for adoptive cell transfer therapies. However, reliable methods and tools to utilize MAIT cells in such approaches are lacking. Here, we established methodology for efficient expansion of human MAIT cells in culture with high purity and yield, while preserving their functional response toward their natural ligand and increasing their cytotoxic potential. The cultured MAIT cells retained their effector memory characteristics without signs of terminal differentiation and expressed a more diverse set of chemokine receptors, potentially widening their already broad tissue tropism. To investigate the potential of MAIT cells in a context outside their main role in controlling bacterial infection, we engineered cultured MAIT cells with a new TCR specificity to mediate effective antiviral HLA class I–restricted effector function. In summary, we developed robust and effective methodology for the expansion of human MAIT cells with enhanced cytolytic capacity and for their engineering with a new specificity. These findings form a basis for the development of MAIT cells as a platform for adoptive immunotherapy.
Tiphaine Parrot, Katie Healy, Caroline Boulouis, Michał J. Sobkowiak, Edwin Leeansyah, Soo Aleman, Antonio Bertoletti, Margaret Sällberg Chen, Johan K. Sandberg
The impact of respiratory virus infections on global health is felt not just during a pandemic, but endemic seasonal infections pose an equal and ongoing risk of severe disease. Moreover, vaccines and antiviral drugs are not always effective or available for many respiratory viruses. We investigated how induction of effective and appropriate antigen-independent innate immunity in the upper airways can prevent the spread of respiratory virus infection to the vulnerable lower airways. Activation of TLR2, when restricted to the nasal turbinates, resulted in prompt induction of innate immune–driven antiviral responses through action of cytokines, chemokines, and cellular activity in the upper but not the lower airways. We have defined how nasal epithelial cells and recruitment of macrophages work in concert and play pivotal roles to limit progression of influenza virus to the lungs and sustain protection for up to 7 days. These results reveal underlying mechanisms of how control of viral infection in the upper airways can occur and support the implementation of strategies that can activate TLR2 in nasal passages to provide rapid protection, especially for at-risk populations, against severe respiratory infection when vaccines and antiviral drugs are not always effective or available.
Georgia Deliyannis, Chinn Yi Wong, Hayley A. McQuilten, Annabell Bachem, Michele Clarke, Xiaoxiao Jia, Kylie Horrocks, Weiguang Zeng, Jason Girkin, Nichollas E. Scott, Sarah L. Londrigan, Patrick C. Reading, Nathan W. Bartlett, Katherine Kedzierska, Lorena E. Brown, Francesca Mercuri, Christophe Demaison, David C. Jackson, Brendon Y. Chua
Cancer is caused primarily by genomic alterations resulting in deregulation of gene regulatory circuits in key growth, apoptosis, or DNA repair pathways. Multiple genes associated with the initiation and development of tumors are also regulated at the level of mRNA decay, through the recruitment of RNA-binding proteins to AU-rich elements (AREs) located in their 3′-untranslated regions. One of these ARE-binding proteins, tristetraprolin (TTP; encoded by Zfp36), is consistently dysregulated in many human malignancies. Herein, using regulated overexpression or conditional ablation in the context of cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis, we show that TTP represents a critical regulator of skin tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that TTP controlled both tumor-associated inflammation and key oncogenic pathways in neoplastic epidermal cells. We identify Areg as a direct target of TTP in keratinocytes and show that EGFR signaling potentially contributed to exacerbated tumor formation. Finally, single-cell RNA-Seq analysis indicated that ZFP36 was downregulated in human malignant keratinocytes. We conclude that TTP expression by epidermal cells played a major role in the control of skin tumorigenesis.
Assiya Assabban, Ingrid Dubois-Vedrenne, Laurye Van Maele, Rosalba Salcedo, Brittany L. Snyder, Lecong Zhou, Abdulkader Azouz, Bérengère de Toeuf, Gaëlle Lapouge, Caroline La, Maxime Melchior, Muriel Nguyen, Séverine Thomas, Si Fan Wu, Wenqian Hu, Véronique Kruys, Cédric Blanpain, Giorgio Trinchieri, Cyril Gueydan, Perry J. Blackshear, Stanislas Goriely
Preterm birth increases the risk for pulmonary hypertension and heart failure in adulthood. Oxygen therapy can damage the immature cardiopulmonary system and may be partially responsible for the cardiovascular disease in adults born preterm. We previously showed that exposing newborn mice to hyperoxia causes pulmonary hypertension by 1 year of age that is preceded by a poorly understood loss of pulmonary vein cardiomyocyte proliferation. We now show that hyperoxia also reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival in the left atrium and causes diastolic heart failure by disrupting its filling of the left ventricle. Transcriptomic profiling showed that neonatal hyperoxia permanently suppressed fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1), and other fatty acid synthesis genes in the atria of mice, the HL-1 line of mouse atrial cardiomyocytes, and left atrial tissue explanted from human infants. Suppressing Fasn or Scd1 reduced HL-1 cell proliferation and increased cell death, while overexpressing these genes maintained their expansion in hyperoxia, suggesting that oxygen directly inhibits atrial cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival by repressing Fasn and Scd1. Pharmacologic interventions that restore Fasn, Scd1, and other fatty acid synthesis genes in atrial cardiomyocytes may, thus, provide a way of ameliorating the adverse effects of supplemental oxygen on preterm infants.
Ethan David Cohen, Min Yee, George A. Porter Jr., Erin Ritzer, Andrew N. McDavid, Paul S. Brookes, Gloria S. Pryhuber, Michael A. O’Reilly
Mounting evidence suggests that the balance of T cell costimulatory and coinhibitory signals contributes to mortality during sepsis. Here, we identified a critical role of the coinhibitory molecule T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) in regulating sepsis mortality. Because TIGIT is significantly upregulated on memory T cells, we developed a “memory mouse” model to study the role of TIGIT during sepsis in a more physiologically relevant context. Mice received sequential pathogen exposure and developed memory T cell frequencies, similar to those observed in adult humans, and were then subjected to sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture. Our results show that targeting the TIGIT pathway during sepsis is fundamentally different in previously naive versus memory mice, in that αTIGIT Ab had no effect on survival in previously naive septic mice but sharply worsened survival in memory septic mice. Mechanistically, αTIGIT increased apoptosis of memory T cells, decreased T cell function, and downregulated the costimulatory receptor DNAM on memory CD8+ T cells in memory septic mice, but not in previously naive septic mice. Additionally, αTIGIT diminished Helios expression in Tregs in memory but not previously naive septic mice. These data highlight fundamental differences in the pathophysiological impact of targeting TIGIT in immunologically experienced versus previously naive hosts during sepsis.
Yini Sun, Jerome C. Anyalebechi, He Sun, Tetsuya Yumoto, Ming Xue, Danya Liu, Zhe Liang, Craig M. Coopersmith, Mandy L. Ford
TAK-243 is a first-in-class inhibitor of ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 that catalyzes ubiquitin activation, the first step in the ubiquitylation cascade. Based on its preclinical efficacy and tolerability, TAK-243 has been advanced to phase I clinical trials in advanced malignancies. Nonetheless, the determinants of TAK-243 sensitivity remain largely unknown. Here, we conducted a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in the presence of TAK-243 to identify genes essential for TAK-243 action. We identified BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3), a transcriptional repressor and a regulator of chromatin organization, as the top gene whose knockout confers resistance to TAK-243 in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of BEND3 dampened TAK-243 effects on ubiquitylation, proteotoxic stress, and DNA damage response. BEND3 knockout upregulated the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) and reduced the intracellular levelsof TAK-243. TAK-243 sensitivity correlated with BCRP expression in cancer cell lines of different origins. Moreover, chemical inhibition and genetic knockdown of BCRP sensitized intrinsically resistant high-BCRP cells to TAK-243. Thus, our data demonstrate that BEND3 regulates the expression of BCRP for which TAK-243 is a substrate. Moreover, BCRP expression could serve as a predictor of TAK-243 sensitivity.
Samir H. Barghout, Ahmed Aman, Kazem Nouri, Zachary Blatman, Karen Arevalo, Geethu E. Thomas, Neil MacLean, Rose Hurren, Troy Ketela, Mehakpreet Saini, Moustafa Abohawya, Taira Kiyota, Rima Al-Awar, Aaron D. Schimmer
Limitations in cell proliferation are important for normal function of differentiated tissues and essential for the safety of cell replacement products made from pluripotent stem cells, which have unlimited proliferative potential. To evaluate whether these limitations can be established pharmacologically, we exposed pancreatic progenitors differentiating from human pluripotent stem cells to small molecules that interfere with cell cycle progression either by inducing G1 arrest or by impairing S phase entry or S phase completion and determined growth potential, differentiation, and function of insulin-producing endocrine cells. We found that the combination of G1 arrest with a compromised ability to complete DNA replication promoted the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells toward insulin-producing cells and could substitute for endocrine differentiation factors. Reduced replication fork speed during differentiation improved the stability of insulin expression, and the resulting cells protected mice from diabetes without the formation of cystic growths. The proliferative potential of grafts was proportional to the reduction of replication fork speed during pancreatic differentiation. Therefore, a compromised ability to enter and complete S phase is a functionally important property of pancreatic endocrine differentiation, can be achieved by reducing replication fork speed, and is an important determinant of cell-intrinsic limitations of growth.
Lina Sui, Yurong Xin, Qian Du, Daniela Georgieva, Giacomo Diedenhofen, Leena Haataja, Qi Su, Michael V. Zuccaro, Jinrang Kim, Jiayu Fu, Yuan Xing, Yi He, Danielle Baum, Robin S. Goland, Yong Wang, Jose Oberholzer, Fabrizio Barbetti, Peter Arvan, Sandra Kleiner, Dieter Egli
Hair cell loss is the leading cause of hearing and balance disorders in humans. It can be caused by many factors, including noise, aging, and therapeutic agents. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of quinoxaline against drug-induced ototoxicity. Here, we screened a library of 68 quinoxaline derivatives for protection against aminoglycoside-induced damage of hair cells from the zebrafish lateral line. We identified quinoxaline-5-carboxylic acid (Qx28) as the best quinoxaline derivative that provides robust protection against both aminoglycosides and cisplatin in zebrafish and mouse cochlear explants. FM1-43 and aminoglycoside uptake, as well as antibiotic efficacy studies, revealed that Qx28 is neither blocking the mechanotransduction channels nor interfering with aminoglycoside antibacterial activity, suggesting that it may be protecting the hair cells by directly counteracting the ototoxin’s mechanism of action. Only when animals were incubated with higher doses of Qx28 did we observe a partial blockage of the mechanotransduction channels. Finally, we assessed the regulation of the NF-κB pathway in vitro in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in vivo in zebrafish larvae. Those studies showed that Qx28 protects hair cells by blocking NF-κB canonical pathway activation. Thus, Qx28 is a promising and versatile otoprotectant that can act across different species and toxins.
Marisa Zallocchi, Santanu Hati, Zhenhang Xu, William Hausman, Huizhan Liu, David Z. He, Jian Zuo
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening degenerative vascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is implicated in AAA. Our group recently demonstrated that Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, at least partially through inhibition of EC inflammatory activation. However, the functions of endothelial KLF11 in AAA remain unknown. Here we found that endothelial KLF11 expression was reduced in the ECs from human aneurysms and was time dependently decreased in the aneurysmal endothelium from both elastase- and Pcsk9/AngII-induced AAA mouse models. KLF11 deficiency in ECs markedly aggravated AAA formation, whereas EC-selective KLF11 overexpression markedly inhibited AAA formation. Mechanistically, KLF11 not only inhibited the EC inflammatory response but also diminished MMP9 expression and activity and reduced NADPH oxidase 2–mediated production of reactive oxygen species in ECs. In addition, KLF11-deficient ECs induced smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation and apoptosis. Overall, we established endothelial KLF11 as a potentially novel factor protecting against AAA and a potential target for intervention in aortic aneurysms.
Guizhen Zhao, Ziyi Chang, Yang Zhao, Yanhong Guo, Haocheng Lu, Wenying Liang, Oren Rom, Huilun Wang, Jinjian Sun, Tianqing Zhu, Yanbo Fan, Lin Chang, Bo Yang, Minerva T. Garcia-Barrio, Y. Eugene Chen, Jifeng Zhang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are implicated in the crosstalk between adipocytes and other metabolic organs, and an altered biological cargo has been observed in EVs from human obese adipose tissue (AT). Yet, the role of adipocyte-derived EVs in pancreatic β cells remains to be determined. Here, we explored the effects of EVs released from adipocytes isolated from both rodents and humans and human AT explants on survival and function of pancreatic β cells and human pancreatic islets. EVs from healthy 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased survival and proliferation and promoted insulin secretion in INS-1E β cells and human pancreatic islets, both those untreated or exposed to cytokines or glucolipotoxicity, whereas EVs from inflamed adipocytes caused β cell death and dysfunction. Human lean adipocyte-derived EVs produced similar beneficial effects, whereas EVs from obese AT explants were harmful for human EndoC-βH3 β cells. We observed differential expression of miRNAs in EVs from healthy and inflamed adipocytes, as well as alteration in signaling pathways and expression of β cell genes, adipokines, and cytokines in recipient β cells. These in vitro results suggest that, depending on the physiopathological state of AT, adipocyte-derived EVs may influence β cell fate and function.
Iacopo Gesmundo, Barbara Pardini, Eleonora Gargantini, Giacomo Gamba, Giovanni Birolo, Alessandro Fanciulli, Dana Banfi, Noemi Congiusta, Enrica Favaro, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Gabriele Togliatto, Gaia Zocaro, Maria Felice Brizzi, Raul M. Luque, Justo P. Castaño, Maria Alessandra Bocchiotti, Simone Arolfo, Stefania Bruno, Rita Nano, Mario Morino, Lorenzo Piemonti, Huy Ong, Giuseppe Matullo, Juan M. Falcón-Pérez, Ezio Ghigo, Giovanni Camussi, Riccarda Granata
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to trabecular meshwork (TM) damage is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Myocilin mutations resulting in elevated IOP are the most common genetic causes of POAG. We have previously shown that mutant myocilin accumulates in the ER and induces chronic ER stress, leading to TM damage and IOP elevation. However, it is not understood how chronic ER stress leads to TM dysfunction and loss. Here, we report that mutant myocilin activated autophagy but was functionally impaired in cultured human TM cells and in a mouse model of myocilin-associated POAG (Tg-MYOCY437H). Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy worsened mutant myocilin accumulation and exacerbated IOP elevation in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Remarkably, impaired autophagy was associated with chronic ER stress–induced transcriptional factor CHOP. Deletion of CHOP corrected impaired autophagy, enhanced recognition and degradation of mutant myocilin by autophagy, and reduced glaucoma in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Stimulating autophagic flux via tat-beclin 1 peptide or torin 2 promoted autophagic degradation of mutant myocilin and reduced elevated IOP in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Our study provides an alternate treatment strategy for myocilin-associated POAG by correcting impaired autophagy in the TM.
Ramesh B. Kasetti, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Charles Kiehlbauch, Shruti Patil, Charles C. Searby, Beth Levine, Val C. Sheffield, Gulab S. Zode
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by a CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. Expression of pathogenic expanded CUG repeat (CUGexp) RNA causes multisystemic disease by perturbing the functions of RNA-binding proteins, resulting in expression of fetal protein isoforms in adult tissues. Cardiac involvement affects 50% of individuals with DM1 and causes 25% of disease-related deaths. We developed a transgenic mouse model for tetracycline-inducible and heart-specific expression of human DMPK mRNA containing 960 CUG repeats. CUGexp RNA is expressed in atria and ventricles and induced mice exhibit electrophysiological and molecular features of DM1 disease, including cardiac conduction delays, supraventricular arrhythmias, nuclear RNA foci with Muscleblind protein colocalization, and alternative splicing defects. Importantly, these phenotypes were rescued upon loss of CUGexp RNA expression. Transcriptome analysis revealed gene expression and alternative splicing changes in ion transport genes that are associated with inherited cardiac conduction diseases, including a subset of genes involved in calcium handling. Consistent with RNA-Seq results, calcium-handling defects were identified in atrial cardiomyocytes isolated from mice expressing CUGexp RNA. These results identify potential tissue-specific mechanisms contributing to cardiac pathogenesis in DM1 and demonstrate the utility of reversible phenotypes in our model to facilitate development of targeted therapeutic approaches.
Ashish N. Rao, Hannah M. Campbell, Xiangnan Guan, Tarah A. Word, Xander H.T. Wehrens, Zheng Xia, Thomas A. Cooper
BACKGROUND Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a risk factor for dementia and structural brain changes. It remains to be determined whether transient insulin deprivation that frequently occurs in insulin-treated individuals with T1D alters brain function.METHODS We therefore performed functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and neuropsychological testing at baseline and following 5.4 ± 0.6 hours of insulin deprivation in 14 individuals with T1D and compared results with those from 14 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nondiabetic (ND) participants with no interventions.RESULTS Insulin deprivation in T1D increased blood glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate, while reducing bicarbonate levels. Participants with T1D showed lower baseline brain N-acetyl aspartate and myo-inositol levels but higher cortical fractional anisotropy, suggesting unhealthy neurons and brain microstructure. Although cognitive functions did not differ between participants with T1D and ND participants at baseline, significant changes in fine motor speed as well as attention and short-term memory occurred following insulin deprivation in participants with T1D. Insulin deprivation also reduced brain adenosine triphosphate levels and altered the phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio. Baseline differences in functional connectivity in brain regions between participants with T1D and ND participants were noted, and on insulin deprivation further alterations in functional connectivity between regions, especially cortical and hippocampus-caudate regions, were observed. These alterations in functional connectivity correlated to brain metabolites and to changes in cognition.CONCLUSION Transient insulin deprivation therefore caused alterations in executive aspects of cognitive function concurrent with functional connectivity between memory regions and the sensory cortex. These findings have important clinical implications, as many patients with T1D inadvertently have periods of transient insulin deprivation.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03392441.FUNDING Clinical and Translational Science Award (UL1 TR002377) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Science; NIH grants (R21 AG60139 and R01 AG62859); the Mayo Foundation.
Ana L. Creo, Tiffany M. Cortes, Hang Joon Jo, Andrea R.S. Huebner, Surendra Dasari, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Aida N. Lteif, Katherine A. Klaus, Gregory N. Ruegsegger, Yogish C. Kudva, Ronald C. Petersen, John D. Port, K. Sreekumaran Nair
Mutations in EPAS1, encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), were previously identified in a syndrome of multiple paragangliomas, somatostatinoma, and polycythemia. HIF-2α, when dimerized with HIF-1β, acts as an angiogenic transcription factor. Patients referred to the NIH for new, recurrent, and/or metastatic paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma were confirmed for EPAS1 gain-of-function mutation; imaging was evaluated for vascular malformations. We evaluated the Epas1A529V transgenic syndrome mouse model, corresponding to the mutation initially detected in the patients (EPAS1A530V), for vascular malformations via intravital 2-photon microscopy of meningeal vessels, terminal vascular perfusion with Microfil silicate polymer and subsequent intact ex vivo 14T MRI and micro-CT, and histologic sectioning and staining of the brain and identified pathologies. Further, we evaluated retinas from corresponding developmental time points (P7, P14, and P21) and the adult dura via immunofluorescent labeling of vessels and confocal imaging. We identified a spectrum of vascular malformations in all 9 syndromic patients and in all our tested mutant mice. Patient vessels had higher variant allele frequency than adjacent normal tissue. Veins of the murine retina and intracranial dura failed to regress normally at the expected developmental time points. These findings add vascular malformation as a new clinical feature of EPAS1 gain-of-function syndrome.
Jared S. Rosenblum, Herui Wang, Pauline M. Dmitriev, Anthony J. Cappadona, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Chen Xu, Abhishek Jha, Nancy Edwards, Danielle R. Donahue, Jeeva Munasinghe, Matthew A. Nazari, Russell H. Knutsen, Bruce R. Rosenblum, James G. Smirniotopoulos, Alberto Pappo, Robert F. Spetzler, Alexander Vortmeyer, Mark R. Gilbert, Dorian B. McGavern, Emily Chew, Beth A. Kozel, John D. Heiss, Zhengping Zhuang, Karel Pacak
Recent advances in proteomic technologies have made high-throughput profiling of low-abundance proteins in large epidemiological cohorts increasingly feasible. We investigated whether aptamer-based proteomic profiling could identify biomarkers associated with future development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) beyond known risk factors. We identified dozens of markers with highly significant associations with future T2DM across 2 large longitudinal cohorts (n = 2839) followed for up to 16 years. We leveraged proteomic, metabolomic, genetic, and clinical data from humans to nominate 1 specific candidate to test for potential causal relationships in model systems. Our studies identified functional effects of aminoacylase 1 (ACY1), a top protein association with future T2DM risk, on amino acid metabolism and insulin homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a loss-of-function variant associated with circulating levels of the biomarker WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz, and NTR domain–containing protein 2 (WFIKKN2) was, in turn, associated with fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and HOMA-IR measurements in humans. In addition to identifying potentially novel disease markers and pathways in T2DM, we provide publicly available data to be leveraged for insights about gene function and disease pathogenesis in the context of human metabolism.
Debby Ngo, Mark D. Benson, Jonathan Z. Long, Zsu-Zsu Chen, Ruiqi Wang, Anjali K. Nath, Michelle J. Keyes, Dongxiao Shen, Sumita Sinha, Eric Kuhn, Jordan E. Morningstar, Xu Shi, Bennet D. Peterson, Christopher Chan, Daniel H. Katz, Usman A. Tahir, Laurie A. Farrell, Olle Melander, Jonathan D. Mosley, Steven A. Carr, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Martin G. Larson, J. Gustav Smith, Thomas J. Wang, Qiong Yang, Robert E. Gerszten
One of the most fundamental and challenging questions in the field of cancer is how immunity is transformed from tumor immunosurveillance to tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor PDZ-LIM domain–containing protein 2 (PDLIM2) as a checkpoint of alveolar macrophages (AMs) important for lung tumor suppression. During lung tumorigenesis, PDLIM2 expression in AMs is downregulated by ROS-activated transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1). PDLIM2 downregulation leads to constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3, driving AM protumorigenic polarization/activation and differentiation from monocytes attracted from the circulation to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocytes and promote lung cancer. PDLIM2 downregulation also decreases AM phagocytosis. These findings establish ROS/BACH1/PDLIM2/STAT3 as a signaling pathway driving AMs for lung tumor promotion.
Liwen Li, Fan Sun, Lei Han, Xujie Liu, Yadong Xiao, Alyssa D. Gregory, Steven D. Shapiro, Gutian Xiao, Zhaoxia Qu
The molecular mechanisms that underlie the detrimental effects of particulate matter (PM) on skin barrier function are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of PM2.5 on filaggrin (FLG) and skin barrier function were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The levels of FLG degradation products, including pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, urocanic acid (UCA), and cis/trans-UCA, were significantly decreased in skin tape stripping samples of study subjects when they moved from Denver, an area with low PM2.5, to Seoul, an area with high PM2.5 count. Experimentally, PM2.5 collected in Seoul inhibited FLG, loricrin, keratin-1, desmocollin-1, and corneodesmosin but did not modulate involucrin or claudin-1 in keratinocyte cultures. Moreover, FLG protein expression was inhibited in human skin equivalents and murine skin treated with PM2.5. We demonstrate that this process was mediated by PM2.5-induced TNF-α and was aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent. PM2.5 exposure compromised skin barrier function, resulting in increased transepidermal water loss, and enhanced the penetration of FITC-dextran in organotypic and mouse skin. PM2.5-induced TNF-α caused FLG deficiency in the skin and subsequently induced skin barrier dysfunction. Compromised skin barrier due to PM2.5 exposure may contribute to the development and the exacerbation of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis.
Byung Eui Kim, Jihyun Kim, Elena Goleva, Evgeny Berdyshev, Jinyoung Lee, Kathryn A. Vang, Un Ha Lee, SongYi Han, Susan Leung, Clifton F. Hall, Na-Rae Kim, Irina Bronova, Eu Jin Lee, Hye-Ran Yang, Donald Y.M. Leung, Kangmo Ahn
Tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix protein that has proinflammatory properties, is a recently described antibody target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we utilized a systematic discovery process and identified 5 potentially novel citrullinated TNC (cit-TNC) T cell epitopes. CD4+ T cells specific for these epitopes were elevated in the peripheral blood of subjects with RA and showed signs of activation. Cit-TNC–specific T cells were also present among synovial fluid T cells and secreted IFN-γ. Two of these cit-TNC T cell epitopes were also recognized by antibodies within the serum and synovial fluid of individuals with RA. Detectable serum levels of cit-TNC–reactive antibodies were prevalent among subjects with RA and positively associated with cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) reactivity and the HLA shared epitope. Furthermore, cit-TNC–reactive antibodies were correlated with rheumatoid factor and elevated in subjects with a history of smoking. This work confirms cit-TNC as an autoantigen that is targeted by autoreactive CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies in patients with RA. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that coinciding epitopes recognized by both CD4+ T cells and B cells have the potential to amplify autoimmunity and promote the development and progression of RA.
Jing Song, Anja Schwenzer, Alicia Wong, Sara Turcinov, Cliff Rims, Lorena Rodriguez Martinez, David Arribas-Layton, Christina Gerstner, Virginia S. Muir, Kim S. Midwood, Vivianne Malmström, Eddie A. James, Jane H. Buckner
Agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy in combination with chemotherapy (chemoimmunotherapy) shows promise for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). To gain insight into immunological mechanisms of response and resistance to chemoimmunotherapy, we analyzed blood samples from patients (n = 22) with advanced PDA treated with an anti-CD40 mAb (CP-870,893) in combination with gemcitabine. We found a stereotyped cellular response to chemoimmunotherapy characterized by transient B cell, CD56+CD11c+HLA-DR+CD141+ cell, and monocyte depletion and CD4+ T cell activation. However, these cellular pharmacodynamics did not associate with outcomes. In contrast, we identified an inflammatory network in the peripheral blood consisting of neutrophils, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8), and acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A) that was associated with outcomes. Furthermore, monocytes from patients with elevated plasma IL-6 and IL-8 showed distinct transcriptional profiles, including upregulation of CCR2 and GAS6, genes associated with regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis and response to inflammation. Patients with systemic inflammation, defined by neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) greater than 3.1, had a shorter median overall survival (5.8 vs. 12.3 months) as compared with patients with NLR less than 3.1. Taken together, our findings identify systemic inflammation as a potential resistance mechanism to a CD40-based chemoimmunotherapy and suggest biomarkers for future studies.
Max M. Wattenberg, Veronica M. Herrera, Michael A. Giannone, Whitney L. Gladney, Erica L. Carpenter, Gregory L. Beatty
Limitations of checkpoint inhibitor cancer immunotherapy include induction of autoimmune syndromes and resistance of many cancers. Since CD318, a novel CD6 ligand, is associated with the aggressiveness and metastatic potential of human cancers, we tested the effect of an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, UMCD6, on killing of cancer cells by human lymphocytes. UMCD6 augmented killing of breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells through direct effects on both CD8+ T cells and NK cells, increasing cancer cell death and lowering cancer cell survival in vitro more robustly than monoclonal antibody checkpoint inhibitors that interrupt the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis. UMCD6 also augmented in vivo killing by human peripheral blood lymphocytes of a human breast cancer line xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. Mechanistically, UMCD6 upregulated the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and downregulated expression of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A on both NK cells and CD8+ T cells, with concurrent increases in perforin and granzyme B production. The combined capability of an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody to control autoimmunity through effects on CD4+ lymphocyte differentiation while enhancing killing of cancer cells through distinct effects on CD8+ and NK cells opens a potential new approach to cancer immunotherapy that would suppress rather than instigate autoimmunity.
Jeffrey H. Ruth, Mikel Gurrea-Rubio, Kalana S. Athukorala, Stephanie M. Rasmussen, Daniel P. Weber, Peggy M. Randon, Rosemary J. Gedert, Matthew E. Lind, M. Asif Amin, Phillip L. Campbell, Pei-Suen Tsou, Yang Mao-Draayer, Qi Wu, Thomas M. Lanigan, Venkateshwar G. Keshamouni, Nora G. Singer, Feng Lin, David A. Fox
The development of prophylactic and therapeutic agents for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global health priority. Here, we investigated the presence of cross-neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in dromedary camels that were Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) seropositive but MERS-CoV free. The tested 229 dromedaries had anti–MERS-CoV camel antibodies with variable cross-reactivity patterns against SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the S trimer and M, N, and E proteins. Using SARS-CoV-2 competitive immunofluorescence immunoassays and pseudovirus neutralization assays, we found medium-to-high titers of cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in these animals. Through linear B cell epitope mapping using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing and a SARS-CoV-2 peptide/proteome microarray, we identified a large repertoire of Betacoronavirus cross-reactive antibody specificities in these dromedaries and demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2–specific VHH antibody repertoire is qualitatively diverse. This analysis revealed not only several SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that are highly immunogenic in humans, including a neutralizing epitope, but also epitopes exclusively targeted by camel antibodies. The identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-neutralizing camel antibodies are not proposed as a potential treatment for COVID-19. Rather, their presence in nonimmunized camels supports the development of SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune camels, which could be a prominent source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
Lotfi Chouchane, Jean-Charles Grivel, Elmoubasher Abu Baker Abd Farag, Igor Pavlovski, Selma Maacha, Abbirami Sathappan, Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi, Sirin W.J. Abuaqel, Manar Mahmoud Ahmad Ata, Aouatef Ismail Chouchane, Sami Remadi, Najeeb Halabi, Arash Rafii, Mohammed H. Al-Thani, Nico Marr, Murugan Subramanian, Jingxuan Shan
Cantu syndrome (CS) is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in pore-forming (Kir6.1, KCNJ8) and accessory (SUR2, ABCC9) ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunits, the most common mutations being SUR2[R1154Q] and SUR2[R1154W], carried by approximately 30% of patients. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering to introduce the equivalent of the human SUR2[R1154Q] mutation into the mouse ABCC9 gene. Along with minimal CS disease features, R1154Q cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle showed much lower KATP current density and pinacidil activation than WT cells. Almost complete loss of SUR2-dependent protein and KATP in homozygous R1154Q ventricles revealed underlying diazoxide-sensitive SUR1-dependent KATP channel activity. Surprisingly, sequencing of SUR2 cDNA revealed 2 distinct transcripts, one encoding full-length SUR2 protein; and the other with an in-frame deletion of 93 bases (corresponding to 31 amino acids encoded by exon 28) that was present in approximately 40% and approximately 90% of transcripts from hetero- and homozygous R1154Q tissues, respectively. Recombinant expression of SUR2A protein lacking exon 28 resulted in nonfunctional channels. CS tissue from SUR2[R1154Q] mice and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (hiPSC-derived) cardiomyocytes showed only full-length SUR2 transcripts, although further studies will be required in order to fully test whether SUR2[R1154Q] or other CS mutations might result in aberrant splicing and variable expressivity of disease features in human CS.
Haixia Zhang, Alex Hanson, Tobias Scherf de Almeida, Christopher Emfinger, Conor McClenaghan, Theresa Harter, Zihan Yan, Paige E. Cooper, G. Schuyler Brown, Eric C. Arakel, Robert P. Mecham, Atilla Kovacs, Carmen M. Halabi, Blanche Schwappach, Maria S. Remedi, Colin G. Nichols