Allergens have been identified as potential triggers in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Patients with AD are highly sensitive to cockroach allergen. The underlying mechanism, however, remains undetermined. Here, we established a cockroach allergen–induced AD-like mouse model, and we demonstrate that repeated exposure to cockroach allergen led to aggravated mouse skin inflammation, characterized by increased type 2 immunity, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), and mast cells. Increased mast cells were also observed in patients with AD. Mast cell–deficient mice (KitW-sh/W-sh) showed diminished skin inflammation, suggesting that mast cells are required in allergen-induced skin inflammation. Furthermore, DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) is upregulated in skin mast cells of patients with AD and mediates allergen binding and uptake. DCIR–/– mice or reconstituted KitW-sh/W-sh mice with DCIR–/– mast cells showed a significant reduction in AD-like inflammation. Both in vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrate that DCIR–/– mast cells had reduced IgE-mediated mast cell activation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, DCIR regulates allergen-induced IgE-mediated mast cell ROS generation and oxidation of calmodulin kinase II (ox-CaMKII). ROS-resistant CaMKII (MM-VVδ) prevents allergen-induced mast cell activation and inflammatory mediator release. Our study reveals a DCIR/ROS/CaMKII axis that controls allergen-induced mast cell activation and AD-like inflammation.
Xiaoyan Luo, Jingsi Chen, Huan Yang, Xinyue Hu, Martin P. Alphonse, Yingchun Shen, Yuko Kawakami, Xiaoying Zhou, Wei Tu, Toshiaki Kawakami, Mei Wan, Nathan K. Archer, Hua Wang, Peisong Gao