Postprandial triglycerides (TGs) are elevated in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Glucose-lowering agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, also reduce postprandial TG excursion. Although the glucose-lowering mechanisms of DPP-4 have been extensively studied, how the reduction of DPP-4 activity improves lipid tolerance remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gut-selective and systemic inhibition of DPP-4 activity reduces postprandial TG excursion in young mice. Genetic inactivation of Dpp4 simultaneously within endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells using Tie2-Cre reduced intestinal lipoprotein secretion under regular chow diet conditions. Bone marrow transplantation revealed a key role for hematopoietic cells in modulation of lipid responses arising from genetic reduction of DPP-4 activity. Unexpectedly, deletion of Dpp4 in enterocytes increased TG excursion in high-fat diet–fed (HFD-fed) mice. Moreover, chemical reduction of DPP-4 activity and increased levels of GLP-1 were uncoupled from TG excursion in older or HFD-fed mice, yet lipid tolerance remained improved in older Dpp4–/– and Dpp4EC–/– mice. Taken together, this study defines roles for specific DPP-4 compartments, age, and diet as modifiers of DPP-4 activity linked to control of gut lipid metabolism.
Elodie M. Varin, Antonio A. Hanson, Jacqueline L. Beaudry, My-Anh Nguyen, Xiemin Cao, Laurie L. Baggio, Erin E. Mulvihill, Daniel J. Drucker