A major γδ T cell population in human adult blood are the Vγ9Vδ2 T cells that are activated and expanded in a TCR-dependent manner by microbe-derived and endogenously derived phosphorylated prenyl metabolites (phosphoantigens). Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are also abundant in human fetal peripheral blood, but compared with their adult counterparts they have a distinct developmental origin, are hyporesponsive toward in vitro phosphoantigen exposure, and do not possess a cytotoxic effector phenotype. In order to obtain insight into the role of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in the human fetus, we investigated their response to in utero infection with the phosphoantigen-producing parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Vγ9Vδ2 T cells expanded strongly when faced with congenital T. gondii infection, which was associated with differentiation toward potent cytotoxic effector cells. The Vγ9Vδ2 T cell expansion in utero resulted in a fetal footprint with public germline-encoded clonotypes in the Vγ9Vδ2 TCR repertoire 2 months after birth. Overall, our data indicate that the human fetus, from early gestation onward, possesses public Vγ9Vδ2 T cells that acquire effector functions following parasite infections.
Ling Ma, Maria Papadopoulou, Martin Taton, Francesca Genco, Arnaud Marchant, Valeria Meroni, David Vermijlen
Persistent HPV infection is causative for the majority of cervical cancer cases; however, current guidelines do not require HPV testing for newly diagnosed cervical cancer. Using an institutional cohort of 88 patients with cervical cancer treated uniformly with standard-of-care chemoradiation treatment (CRT) with prospectively collected clinical outcome data, we observed that patients with cervical tumors containing HPV genotypes other than HPV 16 have worse survival outcomes after CRT compared with patients with HPV 16+ tumors, consistent with previously published studies. Using RNA sequencing analysis, we quantified viral transcription efficiency and found higher levels of E6 and the alternative transcript E6*I in cervical tumors with HPV genotypes other than HPV 16. These findings were validated using whole transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 304). For the first time to our knowledge, transcript expression level of HPV E6*I was identified as a predictive biomarker of CRT outcome in our complete institutional data set (n = 88) and within the HPV 16+ subset (n = 36). In vitro characterization of HPV E6*I and E6 overexpression revealed that both induce CRT resistance through distinct mechanisms dependent upon p53–p21. Our findings suggest that high expression of E6*I and E6 may represent novel biomarkers of CRT efficacy, and these patients may benefit from alternative treatment strategies.
Fiona J. Ruiz, Matthew Inkman, Ramachandran Rashmi, Naoshad Muhammad, Nishanth Gabriel, Christopher A. Miller, Michael D. McLellan, Michael Goldstein, Stephanie Markovina, Perry W. Grigsby, Jin Zhang, Julie K. Schwarz
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with excess production of Th2 cytokines and lung eosinophil accumulation. This inflammatory response persists in spite of steroid administration that blocks autocrine/paracrine loops of inflammatory cytokines, and the detailed mechanisms underlying asthma exacerbation remain unclear. Here, we show that asthma exacerbation is triggered by airway macrophages through a prion-like cell-to-cell transmission of extracellular particulates, including ASC protein, that assemble inflammasomes and mediate IL-1β production. OVA-induced allergic asthma and associated IL-1β production were alleviated in mice with small GTPase Arf6-deficient macrophages. The extracellular ASC specks were slightly engulfed by Arf6–/– macrophages, and the IL-1β production was reduced in Arf6–/– macrophages compared with that in WT macrophages. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the Arf6 guanine nucleotide exchange factor suppressed asthma-like allergic inflammation in OVA-challenged WT mice. Collectively, the Arf6-dependent intercellular transmission of extracellular ASC specks contributes to the amplification of allergic inflammation and subsequent asthma exacerbation.
SangJoon Lee, Akari Ishitsuka, Takahiro Kuroki, Yu-Hsien Lin, Akira Shibuya, Tsunaki Hongu, Yuji Funakoshi, Yasunori Kanaho, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
The α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase, prolyl-4-hydroxylase 3 (PHD3), is an HIF target that uses molecular oxygen to hydroxylate peptidyl prolyl residues. Although PHD3 has been reported to influence cancer cell metabolism and liver insulin sensitivity, relatively little is known about the effects of this highly conserved enzyme in insulin-secreting β cells in vivo. Here, we show that the deletion of PHD3 specifically in β cells (βPHD3KO) was associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in mice fed a high-fat diet. In the early stages of dietary fat excess, βPHD3KO islets energetically rewired, leading to defects in the management of pyruvate fate and a shift from glycolysis to increased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, under more prolonged metabolic stress, this switch to preferential FAO in βPHD3KO islets was associated with impaired glucose-stimulated ATP/ADP rises, Ca2+ fluxes, and insulin secretion. Thus, PHD3 might be a pivotal component of the β cell glucose metabolism machinery in mice by suppressing the use of fatty acids as a primary fuel source during the early phases of metabolic stress.
Daniela Nasteska, Federica Cuozzo, Katrina Viloria, Elspeth M. Johnson, Alpesh Thakker, Rula Bany Bakar, Rebecca L. Westbrook, Jonathan P. Barlow, Monica Hoang, Jamie W. Joseph, Gareth G. Lavery, Ildem Akerman, James Cantley, Leanne Hodson, Daniel A. Tennant, David J. Hodson
Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) represents a spectrum of histopathological changes, including alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. One of the early responses to excessive alcohol consumption is lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes. Lipid ω-hydroxylation of medium- and long-chain fatty acid metabolized by the cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) family is an alternative pathway for fatty acid metabolism. The molecular mechanisms of CYP4A in ALD pathogenesis have not been elucidated. In this study, WT and Shp−/− mice were fed with a modified ethanol-binge, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism model (10 days of ethanol feeding plus single binge). Liver tissues were collected every 6 hours for 24 hours and analyzed using RNA-Seq. The effects of REV-ERBα agonist (SR9009, 100 mg/kg/d) or CYP4A antagonist (HET0016, 5 mg/kg/d) in ethanol-fed mice were also evaluated. We found that hepatic Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 expression were significantly upregulated in WT mice, but not in Shp−/− mice, fed with ethanol. ChIP quantitative PCR and promoter assay revealed that REV-ERBα is the transcriptional repressor of Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14. Rev-Erbα−/− hepatocytes had a marked induction of both Cyp4a genes and lipid accumulation. REV-ERBα agonist SR9009 or CYP4A antagonist HET0016 attenuated Cyp4a induction by ethanol and prevented alcohol-induced steatosis. Here, we have identified a role for the SHP/REV-ERBα/CYP4A axis in the pathogenesis of ALD. Our data also suggest REV-ERBα or CYP4A as the potential therapeutic targets for ALD.
Zhihong Yang, Rana V. Smalling, Yi Huang, Yanchao Jiang, Praveen Kusumanchi, Will Bogaert, Li Wang, Don A. Delker, Nicholas J. Skill, Sen Han, Ting Zhang, Jing Ma, Nazmul Huda, Suthat Liangpunsakul
BACKGROUND The incidence of burn injuries in older patients is dramatically increasing as the population of older people grows. Despite the increased demand for elderly burn care, the mechanisms that mediate increased morbidity and mortality in older trauma patients are unknown. We recently showed that a burn injury invokes white adipose tissue browning that leads to a substantially increased hypermetabolic response associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on the metabolic adipose response of browning after a burn injury.METHOD One hundred and seventy patients with burn injury admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre were prospectively enrolled and grouped by age as older (≥50 years) and young (≤35 years). Adipose tissue and sera were collected and analyzed for browning markers and metabolic state via histology, gene expression, and resting energy expenditure assays.RESULTS We found that older patients with burn injury lacked the adipose browning response, as they showed significant reductions in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. This failure of the browning response was associated with reduced whole-body metabolism and decreased survival in older patients with burn injury. Mechanistically, we found that the adipose of both aged patients after burn trauma and aged mice after a burn showed impairments in macrophage infiltration and IL-6, key immunological regulators of the browning process after a severe trauma.CONCLUSION Targeting pathways that activate the browning response represents a potential therapeutic approach to improve outcomes after burn trauma for elderly patients.FUNDING NIH (R01-GM087285-01), Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant no. 123336), and Canada Foundation for Innovation Leaders Opportunity Fund (no. 25407).
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Carly M. Knuth, Christopher Auger, Thibacg Sivayoganathan, Alexandra Parousis, Marc G. Jeschke
BACKGROUND Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) directly overlies the myocardium, with changes in its morphology and volume associated with myriad cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, EAT’s immune structure and cellular characterization remain incompletely described. We aimed to define the immune phenotype of EAT in humans and compare such profiles across lean, obese, and diabetic patients.METHODS We recruited 152 patients undergoing open-chest coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement (VR) surgery, or combined CABG/VR. Patients’ clinical and biochemical data and EAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and preoperative blood samples were collected. Immune cell profiling was evaluated by flow cytometry and complemented by gene expression studies of immune mediators. Bulk RNA-Seq was performed in EAT across metabolic profiles to assess whole-transcriptome changes observed in lean, obese, and diabetic groups.RESULTS Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated EAT was highly enriched in adaptive immune (T and B) cells. Although overweight/obese and diabetic patients had similar EAT cellular profiles to lean control patients, the EAT exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.01) raised expression of immune mediators, including IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. These changes were not observed in SAT or blood. Neither underlying coronary artery disease nor the presence of hypertension significantly altered the immune profiles observed. Bulk RNA-Seq demonstrated significant alterations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the EAT of overweight/obese patients compared with lean controls.CONCLUSION Adaptive immune cells are the predominant immune cell constituent in human EAT and SAT. The presence of underlying cardiometabolic conditions, specifically obesity and diabetes, rather than cardiac disease phenotype appears to alter the inflammatory profile of EAT. Obese states markedly alter EAT metabolic and inflammatory signaling genes, underlining the impact of obesity on the EAT transcriptome profile.FUNDING Barts Charity MGU0413, Abbott, Medical Research Council MR/T008059/1, and British Heart Foundation FS/13/49/30421 and PG/16/79/32419.
Vishal Vyas, Hazel Blythe, Elizabeth G. Wood, Balraj Sandhar, Shah-Jalal Sarker, Damian Balmforth, Shirish G. Ambekar, John Yap, Stephen J. Edmondson, Carmelo Di Salvo, Kit Wong, Neil Roberts, Rakesh Uppal, Ben Adams, Alex Shipolini, Aung Y. Oo, David Lawrence, Shyam Kolvekar, Kulvinder S. Lall, Malcolm C. Finlay, M. Paula Longhi
Congenital microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disease associated with mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in centrosomal and chromosomal dynamics during mitosis. Detailed MCPH pathogenesis at the cellular level is still elusive, given the diversity of MCPH genes and lack of comparative in vivo studies. By generating a series of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic KOs, we report here that — whereas defects in spindle pole proteins (ASPM, MCPH5) result in mild MCPH during development — lack of centrosome (CDK5RAP2, MCPH3) or centriole (CEP135, MCPH8) regulators induces delayed chromosome segregation and chromosomal instability in neural progenitors (NPs). Our mouse model of MCPH8 suggests that loss of CEP135 results in centriole duplication defects, TP53 activation, and cell death of NPs. Trp53 ablation in a Cep135-deficient background prevents cell death but not MCPH, and it leads to subcortical heterotopias, a malformation seen in MCPH8 patients. These results suggest that MCPH in some MCPH patients can arise from the lack of adaptation to centriole defects in NPs and may lead to architectural defects if chromosomally unstable cells are not eliminated during brain development.
José González-Martínez, Andrzej W. Cwetsch, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Luis R. López-Sainz, Jorge Almagro, Anna Melati, Jesús Gómez, Manuel Pérez-Martínez, Diego Megías, Jasminka Boskovic, Javier Gilabert-Juan, Osvaldo Graña-Castro, Alessandra Pierani, Axel Behrens, Sagrario Ortega, Marcos Malumbres
The γδ T cell is a promising candidate cell in tumor immunotherapy. However, γδ T cells polarize to CD39+γδ Tregs upon colorectal cancer (CRC) induction, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that the frequency of CD39+γδ Tregs, which positively correlated with poor prognosis, was significantly higher in right-sided CRC (RSCRC) than in the left-sided CRC (LSCRC). Interestingly, CD39+γδ Tregs from RSCRC showed stronger immunosuppressive phenotype and function than LSCRC. Furthermore, the quantitative mass spectrometry data show that CD39+γδ Treg polarization was related to the abnormal activation of the Phospholipase a2-IVa/Arachidonic acid (PLA2G4A/AA) metabolic pathway in RSCRC. Using an in vitro coculture system and an orthotopic murine model of CRC, we show that the overexpression of Pla2g4a in CT26 cells induced CD39+γδ Tregs, inhibiting the antitumor immune response. Finally, we found that the overall survival of the PLA2G4Ahi group was significantly shortened compared with PLA2G4Alo RSCRC, while the survival of LSCRC showed the opposite. Collectively, RSCRC with abnormal PLA2G4A expression educates γδ T cells into CD39+γδ Tregs to promote tumor progression and metastasis. Our work highlights the interaction between cancer cells and immune cells by distinguishing the primary tumor site and deepens the understanding of the tumor microenvironment and immunosuppression.
Yang Zhan, Lei Zheng, Jia Liu, Dongzhi Hu, Junfeng Wang, Kai Liu, Jiansheng Guo, Ti Zhang, Dalu Kong
Neutrophils are produced in the BM in a process called granulopoiesis, in which progenitor cells sequentially develop into mature neutrophils. During the developmental process, which is finely regulated by distinct transcription factors, neutrophils acquire the ability to exit the BM, properly distribute throughout the body, and migrate to infection sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD40 ligand (CD40L) influences hematopoiesis and granulopoiesis. Here, we investigate the effect of CD40L on neutrophil development and trafficking by performing functional and transcriptome analyses. We found that CD40L signaling plays an essential role in the early stages of neutrophil generation and development in the BM. Moreover, CD40L modulates transcriptional signatures, indicating that this molecule enables neutrophils to traffic throughout the body and to migrate in response to inflammatory signals. Thus, our study provides insights into the complex relationships between CD40L signaling and granulopoiesis, and it suggests a potentially novel and nonredundant role of CD40L signaling in neutrophil development and function.
Tábata Takahashi França, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Ghada Bashir, Yassir Awad Mohamed, Ranieri Coelho Salgado, Lucila Akune Barreiros, Sarah Maria da Silva Napoleão, Cristina Worm Weber, Janaíra Fernandes Severo Ferreira, Carolina Sanchez Aranda, Carolina Prando, Mayra B. de Barros Dorna, Igor Jurisica, Maria J. Fernandez-Cabezudo, Hans D. Ochs, Antonio Condino-Neto, Basel K. Al-Ramadi, Otavio Cabral-Marques
SARS-CoV-2 infects epithelial cells of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and causes related symptoms. HIV infection impairs gut homeostasis and is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 fatality. To investigate the potential link between these observations, we analyzed single-cell transcriptional profiles and SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor expression across lymphoid and mucosal human tissue from chronically HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. Absorptive gut enterocytes displayed the highest coexpression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4, of which ACE2 expression was associated with canonical interferon response and antiviral genes. Chronic treated HIV infection was associated with a clear antiviral response in gut enterocytes and, unexpectedly, with a substantial reduction of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 target cells. Gut tissue from SARS-CoV-2–infected individuals, however, showed abundant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in both the large and small intestine, including an HIV-coinfected individual. Thus, upregulation of antiviral response genes and downregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the GI tract of HIV-infected individuals does not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this compartment. The impact of these HIV-associated intestinal mucosal changes on SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics, disease severity, and vaccine responses remains unclear and requires further investigation.
Rabiah Fardoos, Osaretin E. Asowata, Nicholas Herbert, Sarah K. Nyquist, Yenzekile Zungu, Alveera Singh, Abigail Ngoepe, Ian M. Mbano, Ntombifuthi Mthabela, Dirhona Ramjit, Farina Karim, Warren Kuhn, Fusi G. Madela, Vukani T. Manzini, Frank Anderson, Bonnie Berger, Tune H. Pers, Alex K. Shalek, Alasdair Leslie, Henrik N. Kløverpris
Energy balance is controlled by interconnected brain regions in the hypothalamus, brainstem, cortex, and limbic system. Gene expression signatures of these regions can help elucidate the pathophysiology underlying obesity. RNA sequencing was conducted on P56 C57BL/6NTac male mice and E14.5 C57BL/6NTac embryo punch biopsies in 16 obesity-relevant brain regions. The expression of 190 known obesity-associated genes (monogenic, rare, and low-frequency coding variants; GWAS; syndromic) was analyzed in each anatomical region. Genes associated with these genetic categories of obesity had localized expression patterns across brain regions. Known monogenic obesity causal genes were highly enriched in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and developing hypothalamus. The obesity-associated genes clustered into distinct “modules” of similar expression profile, and these were distinct from expression modules formed by similar analysis with genes known to be associated with other disease phenotypes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes, autism, breast cancer) in the same energy balance–relevant brain regions.
Maria Caterina De Rosa, Hannah J. Glover, George Stratigopoulos, Charles A. LeDuc, Qi Su, Yufeng Shen, Mark W. Sleeman, Wendy K. Chung, Rudolph L. Leibel, Judith Y. Altarejos, Claudia A. Doege
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease usually presenting after infection. Emerging evidence supports that energy metabolism is affected in ME/CFS, but a unifying metabolic phenotype has not been firmly established. We performed global metabolomics, lipidomics, and hormone measurements, and we used exploratory data analyses to compare serum from 83 patients with ME/CFS and 35 healthy controls. Some changes were common in the patient group, and these were compatible with effects of elevated energy strain and altered utilization of fatty acids and amino acids as catabolic fuels. In addition, a set of heterogeneous effects reflected specific changes in 3 subsets of patients, and 2 of these expressed characteristic contexts of deregulated energy metabolism. The biological relevance of these metabolic phenotypes (metabotypes) was supported by clinical data and independent blood analyses. In summary, we report a map of common and context-dependent metabolic changes in ME/CFS, and some of them presented possible associations with clinical patient profiles. We suggest that elevated energy strain may result from exertion-triggered tissue hypoxia and lead to systemic metabolic adaptation and compensation. Through various mechanisms, such metabolic dysfunction represents a likely mediator of key symptoms in ME/CFS and possibly a target for supportive intervention.
Fredrik Hoel, August Hoel, Ina K.N. Pettersen, Ingrid G. Rekeland, Kristin Risa, Kine Alme, Kari Sørland, Alexander Fosså, Katarina Lien, Ingrid Herder, Hanne L. Thürmer, Merete E. Gotaas, Christoph Schäfer, Rolf K. Berge, Kristian Sommerfelt, Hans-Peter Marti, Olav Dahl, Olav Mella, Øystein Fluge, Karl J. Tronstad
The syndrome of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) presents a challenge to mechanistic understanding, effective risk stratification, and clinical management. Individual associations between sPTB, self-reported ethnic ancestry, vaginal microbiota, metabolome, and innate immune response are known but not fully understood, and knowledge has yet to impact clinical practice. Here, we used multi–data type integration and composite statistical models to gain insight into sPTB risk by exploring the cervicovaginal environment of an ethnically heterogenous pregnant population (n = 346 women; n = 60 sPTB < 37 weeks’ gestation, including n = 27 sPTB < 34 weeks). Analysis of cervicovaginal samples (10–15+6 weeks) identified potentially novel interactions between risk of sPTB and microbiota, metabolite, and maternal host defense molecules. Statistical modeling identified a composite of metabolites (leucine, tyrosine, aspartate, lactate, betaine, acetate, and Ca2+) associated with risk of sPTB < 37 weeks (AUC 0.752). A combination of glucose, aspartate, Ca2+, Lactobacillus crispatus, and L. acidophilus relative abundance identified risk of early sPTB < 34 weeks (AUC 0.758), improved by stratification by ethnicity (AUC 0.835). Increased relative abundance of L. acidophilus appeared protective against sPTB < 34 weeks. By using cervicovaginal fluid samples, we demonstrate the potential of multi–data type integration for developing composite models toward understanding the contribution of the vaginal environment to risk of sPTB.
Flavia Flaviani, Natasha L. Hezelgrave, Tokuwa Kanno, Erica M. Prosdocimi, Evonne Chin-Smith, Alexandra E. Ridout, Djuna K. von Maydell, Vikash Mistry, William G. Wade, Andrew H. Shennan, Konstantina Dimitrakopoulou, Paul T. Seed, A. James Mason, Rachel M. Tribe
Thyroid hormone receptor β (THRB) is posttranslationally modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). We generated a mouse model with a mutation that disrupted sumoylation at lysine 146 (K146Q) and resulted in desumoylated THRB as the predominant form in tissues. The THRB K146Q mutant mice had normal serum thyroxine (T4), markedly elevated serum thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH; 81-fold above control), and enlargement of both the pituitary and the thyroid gland. The marked elevation in TSH, despite a normal serum T4, indicated blunted feedback regulation of TSH. The THRB K146Q mutation altered the recruitment of transcription factors to the TSHβ gene promoter, compared with WT, in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone content (T4, T3, and rT3) in the thyroid gland of the THRB K146Q mice was 10-fold lower (per gram tissue) than control, despite normal TSH bioactivity. The expression of thyroglobulin and dual oxidase 2 genes in the thyroid was reduced and associated with modifications of cAMP response element–binding protein DNA binding and cofactor interactions in the presence of the desumoylated THRB. Therefore, thyroid hormone production had both TSH-dependent and TSH-independent components. We conclude that THRB sumoylation at K146 was required for normal TSH feedback regulation and TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, by a TSH-independent pathway.
Sujie Ke, Yan-Yun Liu, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jingjing Jiang, Kiyomi Abe, Anna Milanesi, Gregory A. Brent
Targeting T cell malignancies with universal CD7-targeting chimeric antigen receptor T cells (UCART7) can lead to profound immune deficiency due to loss of normal T and NK cells. While a small population of endogenous CD7– T cells exists, these cells are unlikely to be able to repopulate the entire immune repertoire after UCART7 treatment, as they are limited in number and proliferative capacity. To rescue T and NK cells after UCART7, we created hematopoietic stem cells genetically deleted for CD7 (CD7-KO HSCs). CD7-KO HSCs were able to engraft immunodeficient mice and differentiate into T and NK cells lacking CD7 expression. CD7-KO T and NK cells could perform effector functions as robustly as control T and NK cells. Furthermore, CD7-KO T cells were phenotypically and functionally distinct from endogenous CD7– T cells, indicating that CD7-KO T cells can supplement immune functions lacking in CD7– T cells. Mice engrafted with CD7-KO HSCs maintained T and NK cell numbers after UCART7 treatment, while these were significantly decreased in control mice. These studies support the development of CD7-KO HSCs to augment host immunity in patients with T cell malignancies after UCART7 treatment.
Miriam Y. Kim, Matthew L. Cooper, Miriam T. Jacobs, Julie K. Ritchey, Julia Hollaway, Todd A. Fehniger, John F. DiPersio
The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) is both the principal target of neutralizing antibodies and one of the most rapidly evolving domains, which can result in the emergence of immune escape mutations, limiting the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody therapeutics. To facilitate surveillance, we developed a rapid, high-throughput, multiplex assay able to assess the inhibitory response of antibodies to 24 RBD natural variants simultaneously. We demonstrate how this assay can be implemented as a rapid surrogate assay for functional cell-based serological methods to measure the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity of antibodies at the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2–RBD (ACE2-RBD) interface. We describe the enhanced affinity of RBD variants N439K, S477N, Q493L, S494P, and N501Y to the ACE2 receptor and demonstrate the ability of this assay to bridge a major gap for SARS-CoV-2 research, informing selection of complementary monoclonal antibody candidates and the rapid identification of immune escape to emerging RBD variants following vaccination or natural infection.
Ester Lopez, Ebene R. Haycroft, Amy Adair, Francesca L. Mordant, Matthew T. O’Neill, Phillip Pymm, Samuel J. Redmond, Wen Shi Lee, Nicholas A. Gherardin, Adam K. Wheatley, Jennifer A. Juno, Kevin J. Selva, Samantha K. Davis, Samantha L. Grimley, Leigh Harty, Damian F.J. Purcell, Kanta Subbarao, Dale I. Godfrey, Stephen J. Kent, Wai-Hong Tham, Amy W. Chung
Among genetic susceptibility loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), genetic polymorphisms identified in genes encoding lipid carriers led to the hypothesis that a disruption of lipid metabolism could promote disease progression. We previously reported that amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer disease (AD) physiopathology impairs lipid synthesis needed for cortical networks’ activity and that activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα), a metabolic regulator involved in lipid metabolism, improves synaptic plasticity in an AD mouse model. These observations led us to investigate a possible correlation between PPARα function and full-length APP expression. Here, we report that PPARα expression and activation were inversely related to APP expression both in LOAD brains and in early-onset AD cases with a duplication of the APP gene, but not in control human brains. Moreover, human APP expression decreased PPARA expression and its related target genes in transgenic mice and in cultured cortical cells, while opposite results were observed in APP-silenced cortical networks. In cultured neurons, APP-mediated decrease or increase in synaptic activity was corrected by a PPARα-specific agonist and antagonist, respectively. APP-mediated control of synaptic activity was abolished following PPARα deficiency, indicating a key function of PPARα in this process.
Francisco Sáez-Orellana, Thomas Leroy, Floriane Ribeiro, Anna Kreis, Karelle Leroy, Fanny Lalloyer, Eric Baugé, Bart Staels, Charles Duyckaerts, Jean-Pierre Brion, Philippe Gailly, Jean-Noël Octave, Nathalie Pierrot
Functional loss of myosin Vb (MYO5B) induces a variety of deficits in intestinal epithelial cell function and causes a congenital diarrheal disorder, microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). The impact of MYO5B loss on differentiated cell lineage choice has not been investigated. We quantified the populations of differentiated epithelial cells in tamoxifen-induced, epithelial cell–specific MYO5B-knockout (VilCreERT2 Myo5bfl/fl) mice utilizing digital image analysis. Consistent with our RNA-sequencing data, MYO5B loss induced a reduction in tuft cells in vivo and in organoid cultures. Paneth cells were significantly increased by MYO5B deficiency along with expansion of the progenitor cell zone. We further investigated the effect of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling on epithelial cell differentiation. Intraperitoneal LPA significantly increased tuft cell populations in both control and MYO5B-knockout mice. Transcripts for Wnt ligands were significantly downregulated by MYO5B loss in intestinal epithelial cells, whereas Notch signaling molecules were unchanged. Additionally, treatment with the Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) restored the populations of secretory cells, suggesting that the Notch pathway is maintained in MYO5B-deficient intestine. MYO5B loss likely impairs progenitor cell differentiation in the small intestine in vivo and in vitro, partially mediated by Wnt/Notch imbalance. Notch inhibition and/or LPA treatment may represent an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of MVID.
Izumi Kaji, Joseph T. Roland, Sudiksha Rathan-Kumar, Amy C. Engevik, Andreanna Burman, Anna E. Goldstein, Masahiko Watanabe, James R. Goldenring
Some studies suggest that recent common coronavirus (CCV) infections are associated with reduced COVID-19 severity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. We completed serological assays using samples collected from health care workers to identify antibody types associated with SARS-CoV-2 protection and COVID-19 symptom duration. Rare SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies elicited by past CCV infections were not associated with protection; however, the duration of symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infections was significantly reduced in individuals with higher common betacoronavirus (βCoV) antibody titers. Since antibody titers decline over time after CCV infections, individuals in our cohort with higher βCoV antibody titers were more likely recently infected with common βCoVs compared with individuals with lower antibody titers. Therefore, our data suggest that recent βCoV infections potentially limit the duration of symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infections through mechanisms that do not involve cross-reactive antibodies. Our data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that cellular immune responses elicited by recent common βCoV infections transiently reduce symptom duration following SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Sigrid Gouma, Madison E. Weirick, Marcus J. Bolton, Claudia P. Arevalo, Eileen C. Goodwin, Elizabeth M. Anderson, Christopher M. McAllister, Shannon R. Christensen, Debora Dunbar, Danielle Fiore, Amanda Brock, JoEllen Weaver, John Millar, Stephanie DerOhannessian, The UPenn COVID Processing Unit, Ian Frank, Daniel J. Rader, E. John Wherry, Scott E. Hensley
Historically, naive cells have been considered inconsequential to HIV persistence. Here, we compared the contributions of naive and memory cells to the reservoirs of individuals with a spectrum of reservoir sizes and variable immunological control. We performed proviral sequencing of approximately 6000 proviruses from cellular subsets of 5 elite controllers (ECs) off antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 5 chronic progressors (CPs) on ART. The levels of naive infection were barely detectable in ECs and approximately 300-fold lower compared with those in CPs. Moreover, the ratio of infected naive to memory cells was significantly lower in ECs. Overall, the naive infection level increased as reservoir size increased, such that naive cells were a major contributor to the intact reservoir of CPs, whose reservoirs were generally very diverse. In contrast, the reservoirs of ECs were dominated by proviral clones. Critically, the fraction of proviral clones increased with cell differentiation, with naive infection predicting reservoir diversity. Longitudinal sequencing revealed that the reservoir of ECs was less dynamic compared with that of CPs. Naive cells play a critical role in HIV persistence. Their infection level predicts reservoir size and diversity. Moreover, the diminishing diversity of the reservoir as cellular subsets mature suggests that naive T cells repopulate the memory compartment and that direct infection of naive T cells occurs in vivo.
Marilia R. Pinzone, Sam Weissman, Alexander O. Pasternak, Ryan Zurakowski, Stephen Migueles, Una O’Doherty
Inherited retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), can be caused by thousands of different mutations, a small number of which have been successfully treated with gene replacement. However, this approach has yet to scale and may not be feasible in many cases, highlighting the need for interventions that could benefit more patients. Here, we found that microglial phagocytosis is upregulated during cone degeneration in RP, suggesting that expression of “don’t-eat-me” signals such as CD47 might confer protection to cones. To test this, we delivered an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing CD47 on cones, which promoted cone survival in 3 mouse models of RP and preserved visual function. Cone rescue with CD47 required a known interacting protein, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), but not an alternative interacting protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). Despite the correlation between increased microglial phagocytosis and cone death, microglia were dispensable for the prosurvival activity of CD47, suggesting that CD47 interacts with SIRPα on nonmicroglial cells to alleviate degeneration. These findings establish augmentation of CD47/SIRPα signaling as a potential treatment strategy for RP and possibly other forms of neurodegeneration.
Sean K. Wang, Yunlu Xue, Constance L. Cepko
The mutant nuclear lamin protein (progerin) produced in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) results in loss of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but the mechanism has been unclear. We found that progerin induces repetitive nuclear membrane (NM) ruptures, DNA damage, and cell death in cultured SMCs. Reducing lamin B1 expression and exposing cells to mechanical stress — to mirror conditions in the aorta — triggered more frequent NM ruptures. Increasing lamin B1 protein levels had the opposite effect, reducing NM ruptures and improving cell survival. Remarkably, raising lamin B1 levels increased nuclear compliance in cells and was able to offset the increased nuclear stiffness caused by progerin. In mice, lamin B1 expression in aortic SMCs is normally very low, and in mice with a targeted HGPS mutation (LmnaG609G), levels of lamin B1 decrease further with age while progerin levels increase. Those observations suggest that NM ruptures might occur in aortic SMCs in vivo. Indeed, studies in LmnaG609G mice identified NM ruptures in aortic SMCs, along with ultrastructural abnormalities in the cell nucleus that preceded SMC loss. Our studies identify NM ruptures in SMCs as likely causes of vascular pathology in HGPS.
Paul H. Kim, Natalie Y. Chen, Patrick J. Heizer, Yiping Tu, Thomas A. Weston, Jared L.-C. Fong, Navjot Kaur Gill, Amy C. Rowat, Stephen G. Young, Loren G. Fong
Evidence suggests an association between severe acute respiratory syndrome–cornavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the occurrence of new-onset diabetes. We examined pancreatic expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), the cell entry factors for SARS-CoV-2, using publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data sets, and pancreatic tissue from control male and female nonhuman primates (NHPs) and humans. We also examined SARS-CoV-2 immunolocalization in pancreatic cells of SARS-CoV-2–infected NHPs and patients who had died from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report expression of ACE2 in pancreatic islet, ductal, and endothelial cells in NHPs and humans. In pancreata from SARS-CoV-2–infected NHPs and COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infected ductal, endothelial, and islet cells. These pancreata also exhibited generalized fibrosis associated with multiple vascular thrombi. Two out of 8 NHPs developed new-onset diabetes following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two out of 5 COVID-19 patients exhibited new-onset diabetes at admission. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection of the pancreas may promote acute and especially chronic pancreatic dysfunction that could potentially lead to new-onset diabetes.
Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Manika Bhondeley, Wandy Beatty, Dina D. Gaupp, Lara A. Doyle-Meyers, Tracy Fischer, Ishitri Bandyopadhyay, Robert V. Blair, Rudolf Bohm, Jay Rappaport, Eric Lazartigues, Richard S. Vander Heide, Jay K. Kolls, Xuebin Qin, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis