In this issue of JCI Insight, Josefs, Barrett, et al. demonstrate a that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) within atherosclerotic plaques promote a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. In diabetic animals, in which plaques are persistent, DNase1 treatment reduced NET content and macrophage inflammation, resulting in resolution of atherosclerosis. Together, these results support NETs as a driver of enhanced cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes. The cover image shows in atherosclerotic plaques, the presence of NETs (colocalization of MPO (red), H3Cit (pink), and Ly6G (green)) in an area also positive for macrophages.
The therapies available for management of obesity and associated conditions are limited, because they are often directed toward an individual component of metabolic syndrome and are associated with adverse effects. Here, we report the multifaceted therapeutic potential of histidine-tagged recombinant soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR), termed sPRR-His, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). In the DIO model, 2-week administration of sPRR-His lowered body weight and remarkably improved multiple metabolic parameters in the absence of fluid retention. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous sPRR production by PF429242 induced diabetes and insulin resistance, both of which were reversed by the sPRR-His supplement. At the cellular level, sPRR-His enhanced insulin-induced increases in glucose uptake via upregulation of phosphorylated AKT and protein abundance of glucose transporter 4. Promoter and gene expression analysis revealed PRR as a direct target gene of PPARγ. Adipocyte-specific PPARγ deletion induced severe diabetes and insulin resistance associated with reduced adipose PRR expression and circulating sPRR. The sPRR-His supplement in the null mice nearly normalized blood glucose and insulin levels. Additionally, sPRR-His treatment suppressed DIO-induced renal sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) expression. Overall, sPRR-His exhibits a therapeutic potential in management of metabolic syndrome via interaction with PPARγ.
Fei Wang, Renfei Luo, Chang-Jiang Zou, Shiying Xie, Kexin Peng, Long Zhao, Kevin T. Yang, Chuanming Xu, Tianxin Yang
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has become a valid therapeutic option to restore form and function after devastating tissue loss. However, the need for high-dose multidrug immunosuppression to maintain allograft survival is still hampering more widespread application of VCA. In this study, we investigated the immunoregulatory potential of costimulation blockade (CoB; CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD154 mAb) combined with nonmyeoablative total body irradiation (TBI) to promote allograft survival of VCA in a fully MHC-mismatched mouse model of orthotopic hind limb transplantation. Compared with untreated controls (median survival time [MST] 8 days) and CTLA4-Ig treatment alone (MST 17 days), CoB treatment increased graft survival (MST 82 days), and the addition of nonmyeloablative TBI led to indefinite graft survival (MST > 210 days). Our analysis suggests that VCA-derived BM induced mixed chimerism in animals treated with CoB and TBI + CoB, promoting gradual deletion of alloreactive T cells as the underlying mechanism of long-term allograft survival. Acceptance of donor-matched secondary skin grafts, decreased ex vivo T cell responsiveness, and increased graft-infiltrating Tregs further indicated donor-specific tolerance induced by TBI + CoB. In summary, our data suggest that vascularized BM-containing VCAs are immunologically favorable grafts promoting chimerism induction and long-term allograft survival in the context of CoB.
Byoung Chol Oh, Georg J. Furtmüller, Madeline L. Fryer, Yinan Guo, Franka Messner, Johanna Krapf, Stefan Schneeberger, Damon S. Cooney, W.P. Andrew Lee, Giorgio Raimondi, Gerald Brandacher
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes acute febrile illness in humans, and some of these individuals develop a debilitating chronic arthritis that can persist for months to years for reasons that remain poorly understood. In this study from India, we characterized antibody response patterns in febrile chikungunya patients and further assessed the association of these initial febrile-phase antibody response patterns with protection versus progression to developing chronic arthritis. We found 5 distinct patterns of the antibody responses in the febrile phase: no CHIKV binding or neutralizing (NT) antibodies but PCR positive, IgM alone with no NT activity, IgM alone with NT activity, IgM and IgG without NT activity, and IgM and IgG with NT activity. A 20-month follow-up showed that appearance of NT activity regardless of antibody isotype or appearance of IgG regardless of NT activity during the initial febrile phase was associated with a robust protection against developing chronic arthritis in the future. These findings, while providing potentially novel insights on correlates of protective immunity against chikungunya-induced chronic arthritis, suggest that qualitative differences in the antibody response patterns that have evolved during the febrile phase can serve as biomarkers that allow prediction of protection or progression to chronic arthritis in the future.
Kaustuv Nayak, Vineet Jain, Manpreet Kaur, Naushad Khan, Kamalvishnu Gottimukkala, Charu Aggarwal, Rohit Sagar, Shipra Gupta, Ramesh Chandra Rai, Kritika Dixit, Mohammad Islamuddin, Wajihul Hasan Khan, Anil Verma, Deepti Maheshwari, Yadya M. Chawla, Elluri Seetharami Reddy, Harekrushna Panda, Pragati Sharma, Priya Bhatnagar, Prabhat Singh, Siva Raghavendhar B, Ashok Kumar Patel, Vinod H. Ratageri, Anmol Chandele, Pratima Ray, Kaja Murali-Krishna
Although human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent a substantial proportion of the human genome and some HERVs, such as HERV-K(HML-2), are reported to be involved in neurological disorders, little is known about their biological function. We report that RNA from an HERV-K(HML-2) envelope gene region binds to and activates human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8, as well as murine Tlr7, expressed in neurons and microglia, thereby causing neurodegeneration. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA introduced into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of either C57BL/6 wild-type mice or APPPS1 mice, a mouse model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), resulted in neurodegeneration and microglia accumulation. Tlr7-deficient mice were protected against neurodegenerative effects but were resensitized toward HERV-K(HML-2) RNA when neurons ectopically expressed murine Tlr7 or human TLR8. Transcriptome data sets of human AD brain samples revealed a distinct correlation of upregulated HERV-K(HML-2) and TLR8 RNA expression. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA was detectable more frequently in CSF from individuals with AD compared with controls. Our data establish HERV-K(HML-2) RNA as an endogenous ligand for species-specific TLRs 7/8 and imply a functional contribution of human endogenous retroviral transcripts to neurodegenerative processes, such as AD.
Paul Dembny, Andrew G. Newman, Manvendra Singh, Michael Hinz, Michal Szczepek, Christina Krüger, Robert Adalbert, Omar Dzaye, Thorsten Trimbuch, Thomas Wallach, Gunnar Kleinau, Katja Derkow, Bernhard C. Richard, Carola Schipke, Claus Scheidereit, Harald Stachelscheid, Douglas Golenbock, Oliver Peters, Michael Coleman, Frank L. Heppner, Patrick Scheerer, Victor Tarabykin, Klemens Ruprecht, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Jens Mayer, Seija Lehnardt
Development of chemotherapy resistance is a major problem in ovarian cancer. One understudied mechanism of chemoresistance is the induction of quiescence, a reversible nonproliferative state. Unfortunately, little is known about regulators of quiescence. Here, we identify the master transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 4 (NFATC4) as a regulator of quiescence in ovarian cancer. NFATC4 is enriched in ovarian cancer stem-like cells and correlates with decreased proliferation and poor prognosis. Treatment of cancer cells with cisplatin resulted in NFATC4 nuclear translocation and activation of the NFATC4 pathway, while inhibition of the pathway increased chemotherapy response. Induction of NFATC4 activity resulted in a marked decrease in proliferation, G0 cell cycle arrest, and chemotherapy resistance, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, NFATC4 drove a quiescent phenotype in part via downregulation of MYC. Together, these data identify NFATC4 as a driver of quiescence and a potential new target to combat chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.
Alexander J. Cole, Mangala Iyengar, Santiago Panesso-Gómez, Patrick O’Hayer, Daniel Chan, Greg M. Delgoffe, Katherine M. Aird, Euisik Yoon, Shoumei Bai, Ronald J. Buckanovich
The lack of sufficient functional tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the primary indications for the poor prognosis of patients with cancer. In this study, we developed an Erbitux-based IL-21 tumor-targeting fusion protein (Erb-IL21) to prolong the half-life and improve the antitumor efficacy of IL-21. Compared with Erb-IL2, Erb-IL21 demonstrated much lower toxicity in vivo. Mechanistically, Erb-IL21 selectively expanded functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes but not dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in the TME. We observed that the IL-21–mediated antitumor effect largely depended on the existing intratumoral CD8+ T cells, instead of newly migrated CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, Erb-IL21 overcame checkpoint blockade resistance in mice with advanced tumors. Our study reveals that Erb-IL21 can target IL-21 to tumors and maximize the antitumor potential of checkpoint blockade by expending a subset of tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells to achieve effective tumor control.
Sisi Deng, Zhichen Sun, Jian Qiao, Yong Liang, Longchao Liu, Chunbo Dong, Aijun Shen, Yang Wang, Hong Tang, Yang-Xin Fu, Hua Peng
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by mutations in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We report clinical, structural, ultrastructural, and electrophysiologic features of 4 CMS patients with 6 heteroallelic variants in AGRN, encoding agrin. One was a 7.9-kb deletion involving the N-terminal laminin–binding domain. Another, c.4744G>A — at the last nucleotide of exon 26 — caused skipping of exon 26. Four missense mutations (p.S1180L, p.R1509W, p.G1675S, and p.Y1877D) expressed in conditioned media decreased AChR clusters in C2C12 myotubes. The agrin-enhanced phosphorylation of MuSK was markedly attenuated by p.Y1877D in the LG3 domain and moderately attenuated by p.R1509W in the LG1 domain but not by the other 2 mutations. The p.S1180L mutation in the SEA domain facilitated degradation of secreted agrin. The p.G1675S mutation in the LG2 domain attenuated anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma by compromising its binding to heparin. Anchoring of agrin with p.R1509W in the LG1 domain was similarly attenuated. Mutations of agrin affect AChR clustering by enhancing agrin degradation or by suppressing MuSK phosphorylation and/or by compromising anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma of the neuromuscular junction.
Bisei Ohkawara, XinMing Shen, Duygu Selcen, Mohammad Nazim, Vera Bril, Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Lauren Brady, Sae Fukami, Anthony A. Amato, Uluc Yis, Kinji Ohno, Andrew G. Engel
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced neutrophil and alveolar macrophage numbers compared with male mice. Depletion of either neutrophils or alveolar macrophages was important for bacterial clearance; however, depletion of alveolar macrophages further exacerbated female susceptibility because of severe alterations in metabolic homeostasis. Our data highlight the importance of using both sexes when assessing host immune pathways.
Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Jeremy Seto, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker
Abnormal wound repair has been observed in the airway epithelium of patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma. Therapies focusing on repairing vulnerable airways, particularly in early life, present a potentially novel treatment strategy. We report defective lower airway epithelial cell repair to strongly associate with common pre–school-aged and school-aged wheezing phenotypes, characterized by aberrant migration patterns and reduced integrin α5β1 expression. Next generation sequencing identified the PI3K/Akt pathway as the top upstream transcriptional regulator of integrin α5β1, where Akt activation enhanced repair and integrin α5β1 expression in primary cultures from children with wheeze. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in primary cultures from children without wheeze reduced α5β1 expression and attenuated repair. Importantly, the FDA-approved drug celecoxib — and its non–COX2-inhibiting analogue, dimethyl-celecoxib — stimulated the PI3K/Akt–integrin α5β1 axis and restored airway epithelial repair in cells from children with wheeze. When compared with published clinical data sets, the identified transcriptomic signature was also associated with viral-induced wheeze exacerbations highlighting the clinical potential of such therapy. Collectively, these results identify airway epithelial restitution via targeting the PI3K–integrin α5β1 axis as a potentially novel therapeutic avenue for childhood wheeze and asthma. We propose that the next step in the therapeutic development process should be a proof-of-concept clinical trial, since relevant animal models to test the crucial underlying premise are unavailable.
Thomas Iosifidis, Erika N. Sutanto, Alysia G. Buckley, Laura Coleman, Erin E. Gill, Amy H. Lee, Kak-Ming Ling, Jessica Hillas, Kevin Looi, Luke W. Garratt, Kelly M. Martinovich, Nicole C. Shaw, Samuel T. Montgomery, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Yuliya V. Karpievitch, Peter Le Souëf, Ingrid A. Laing, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Francis J. Lannigan, Paul J. Rigby, Robert E.W. Hancock, Darryl A. Knight, Stephen M. Stick, Anthony Kicic., Western Australian Epithelial Research Program (WAERP), Australian Respiratory Epithelium Consortium (AusREC)
Systemic cytokine release and on-target/off-tumor toxicity to normal tissues are the main adverse effects limiting the clinical utility of T cell–redirecting therapies. This study was designed to determine how binding affinity for CD3 and tumor target HER2 impact the efficacy and nonclinical safety of anti-HER2/CD3 T cell–dependent antibodies (TDBs). Affinity was found to be a major determinant for the overall tolerability. Higher affinity for CD3 associated with rapidly elevated peripheral cytokine concentrations, weight loss in mice, and poor tolerability in cynomolgus monkeys. A TDB with lower CD3 affinity was better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys compared with a higher CD3–affinity TDB. In contrast to tolerability, T cell binding affinity had only limited impact on in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. High affinity for HER2 was critical for the tumor-killing activity of anti-HER2/CD3 TDBs, but higher HER2 affinity also associated with a more severe toxicity profile, including cytokine release and damage to HER2-expressing tissues. The tolerability of the anti-HER2/CD3 was improved by implementing a dose-fractionation strategy. Fine-tuning the affinities for both the tumor target and CD3 is likely a valuable strategy for achieving maximal therapeutic index of CD3 bispecific antibodies.
Karin Staflin, Christina L. Zuch de Zafra, Leah K. Schutt, Vanessa Clark, Fiona Zhong, Maria Hristopoulos, Robyn Clark, Ji Li, Mary Mathieu, Xiaocheng Chen, Jennifer Johnston, Justin Low, Ryan Ybarra, Dionysos Slaga, Jihong Yang, Meric Ovacik, Noël O. Dybdal, Klara Totpal, Melissa R. Junttila, Diego Ellerman, Genee Lee, Mark S. Dennis, Rodney Prell, Teemu T. Junttila
Renal cysts are the defining feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD); however, the substantial interstitial inflammation is an often-overlooked aspect of this disorder. Recent studies suggest that immune cells in the cyst microenvironment affect ADPKD progression. Here we report that microRNAs (miRNAs) are new molecular signals in this crosstalk. We found that miR-214 and its host long noncoding RNA Dnm3os are upregulated in orthologous ADPKD mouse models and cystic kidneys from humans with ADPKD. In situ hybridization revealed that interstitial cells in the cyst microenvironment are the primary source of miR-214. While genetic deletion of miR-214 does not affect kidney development or homeostasis, surprisingly, its inhibition in Pkd2- and Pkd1-mutant mice aggravates cyst growth. Mechanistically, the proinflammatory TLR4/IFN-γ/STAT1 pathways transactivate the miR-214 host gene. miR-214, in turn as a negative feedback loop, directly inhibits Tlr4. Accordingly, miR-214 deletion is associated with increased Tlr4 expression and enhanced pericystic macrophage accumulation. Thus, miR-214 upregulation is a compensatory protective response in the cyst microenvironment that restrains inflammation and cyst growth.
Ronak Lakhia, Matanel Yheskel, Andrea Flaten, Harini Ramalingam, Karam Aboudehen, Silvia Ferrè, Laurence Biggers, Abheepsa Mishra, Christopher Chaney, Darren P. Wallace, Thomas Carroll, Peter Igarashi, Vishal Patel
The role of the renal organic anion transporters OAT1 (also known as SLC22A6, originally identified as NKT) and OAT3 (also known as SLC22A8) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains poorly understood. This is particularly so from the viewpoint of residual proximal tubular secretion, a key adaptive mechanism to deal with protein-bound uremic toxins in CKD. Using the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model, plasma metabolites accumulating in STN rats treated with and without the OAT inhibitor, probenecid, were identified. Comparisons with metabolomics data from Oat1-KO and Oat3-KO mice support the centrality of the OATs in residual tubular secretion of uremic solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, kynurenate, and anthranilate. Overlapping our data with those of published metabolomics data regarding gut microbiome–derived uremic solutes — which can have dual roles in signaling and toxicity — indicates that OATs play a critical role in determining their plasma levels in CKD. Thus, the OATs, along with other SLC and ABC drug transporters, are critical to the movement of uremic solutes across tissues and into various body fluids, consistent with the remote sensing and signaling theory. The data support a role for OATs in modulating remote interorganismal and interorgan communication (gut microbiota–blood-liver-kidney-urine). The results also have implications for understanding drug-metabolite interactions involving uremic toxins.
Kevin T. Bush, Prabhleen Singh, Sanjay K. Nigam
C5a is a potent inflammatory mediator that binds C5aR1 and C5aR2. Although pathogenic roles of the C5a/C5aR1 axis in inflammatory disorders are well documented, the roles for the C5a/C5aR2 axis in inflammatory disorders and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that the C5a/C5aR2 axis contributes to renal inflammation and tissue damage in a mouse model of acute pyelonephritis. Compared with WT littermates, C5ar2–/– mice had significantly reduced renal inflammation, tubular damage, and renal bacterial load following bladder inoculation with uropathogenic E. coli. The decrease in inflammatory responses in the kidney of C5ar2–/– mice was correlated with reduced intrarenal levels of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), NLRP3 inflammasome components, cleaved caspase-1, and IL-1β. In vitro, C5a stimulation of macrophages from C5ar1–/– mice (lacking C5aR1 but expressing C5aR2) led to significant upregulation of HMGB1 release, NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 inflammasome activation, and IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, blockade of HMGB1 significantly reduced C5a-mediated upregulation of NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in the macrophages, implying a HMGB1-dependent upregulation of NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for the C5a/C5aR2 axis in renal injury following renal infection and suggest that the C5a/C5aR2 axis contributes to renal inflammation and tissue damage through upregulation of HMGB1 and NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 inflammasome.
Ting Zhang, Kun-yi Wu, Ning Ma, Ling-lin Wei, Malgorzata Garstka, Wuding Zhou, Ke Li
Leptin receptor–expressing (LepRb-expressing) neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS; LepRbNTS neurons) receive gut signals that synergize with leptin action to suppress food intake. NTS neurons that express preproglucagon (Ppg) (and that produce the food intake–suppressing PPG cleavage product glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP1]) represent a subpopulation of mouse LepRbNTS cells. Using Leprcre, Ppgcre, and Ppgfl mouse lines, along with Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), we examined roles for Ppg in GLP1NTS and LepRbNTS cells for the control of food intake and energy balance. We found that the cre-dependent ablation of NTS Ppgfl early in development or in adult mice failed to alter energy balance, suggesting the importance of pathways independent of NTS GLP1 for the long-term control of food intake. Consistently, while activating GLP1NTS cells decreased food intake, LepRbNTS cells elicited larger and more durable effects. Furthermore, while the ablation of NTS Ppgfl blunted the ability of GLP1NTS neurons to suppress food intake during activation, it did not impact the suppression of food intake by LepRbNTS cells. While Ppg/GLP1-mediated neurotransmission plays a central role in the modest appetite-suppressing effects of GLP1NTS cells, additional pathways engaged by LepRbNTS cells dominate for the suppression of food intake.
Wenwen Cheng, Ermelinda Ndoka, Chelsea Hutch, Karen Roelofs, Andrew MacKinnon, Basma Khoury, Jack Magrisso, Ki Suk Kim, Christopher J. Rhodes, David P. Olson, Randy J. Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, Martin G. Myers Jr.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by a particularly broad metastatic swath, and, enigmatically, when the pancreas is a destination, the disease is associated with improved survival. Intrigued by this observation, we sought to characterize the clinical behavior, therapeutic implications, and underlying biology. While pancreatic metastases (PM) are infrequent, we identified 31 patients across 2 institutional cohorts and show that improved survival is independent of established prognostic variables, that these tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenic agents and resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and that they are characterized by a distinctive biology. Primary tumors of patients with PM exhibited frequent PBRM1 mutations, 3p loss, and 5q amplification, along with a lower frequency of aggressive features such as BAP1 mutations and loss of 9p, 14q, and 4q. Gene expression analyses revealed constrained evolution with remarkable uniformity, reduced effector T cell gene signatures, and increased angiogenesis. Similar findings were observed histopathologically. Thus, RCC metastatic to the pancreas is characterized by indolent biology, heightened angiogenesis, and an uninflamed stroma, likely underlying its good prognosis, sensitivity to antiangiogenic therapies, and refractoriness to ICI. These data suggest that metastatic organotropism may be an indicator of a particular biology with prognostic and treatment implications for patients.
Nirmish Singla, Zhiqun Xie, Ze Zhang, Ming Gao, Qurratulain Yousuf, Oreoluwa Onabolu, Tiffani McKenzie, Vanina Toffessi Tcheuyap, Yuanqing Ma, Jacob Choi, Renee McKay, Alana Christie, Oscar Reig Torras, Isaac A. Bowman, Vitaly Margulis, Ivan Pedrosa, Christopher Przybycin, Tao Wang, Payal Kapur, Brian Rini, James Brugarolas
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) promote inflammation and atherosclerosis progression. NETs are increased in diabetes and impair the resolution of inflammation during wound healing. Atherosclerosis resolution, a process resembling wound healing, is also impaired in diabetes. Thus, we hypothesized that NETs impede atherosclerosis resolution in diabetes by increasing plaque inflammation. Indeed, transcriptomic profiling of plaque macrophages from NET+ and NET– areas in low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice revealed inflammasome and glycolysis pathway upregulation, indicating a heightened inflammatory phenotype. We found that NETs declined during atherosclerosis resolution, which was induced by reducing hyperlipidemia in nondiabetic mice, but they persisted in diabetes, exacerbating macrophage inflammation and impairing resolution. In diabetic mice, deoxyribonuclease 1 treatment reduced plaque NET content and macrophage inflammation, promoting atherosclerosis resolution after lipid lowering. Given that humans with diabetes also exhibit impaired atherosclerosis resolution with lipid lowering, these data suggest that NETs contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this population and are a potential therapeutic target.
Tatjana Josefs, Tessa J. Barrett, Emily J. Brown, Alexandra Quezada, Xiaoyun Wu, Maud Voisin, Jaume Amengual, Edward A. Fisher
Recent studies in distinct preclinical tumor models have established the nucleotide synthesis enzyme inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a viable target for antitumor therapy. IMPDH inhibitors have been used clinically for decades as safe and effective immunosuppressants. However, the potential to repurpose these pharmacological agents for antitumor therapy requires further investigation, including direct comparisons of available compounds. Therefore, we tested structurally distinct IMPDH inhibitors in multiple cell and mouse tumor models of the genetic tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC-associated tumors are driven by uncontrolled activation of the growth-promoting protein kinase complex mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which is also aberrantly activated in the majority of sporadic cancers. Despite eliciting similar immunosuppressive effects, the IMPDH inhibitor mizoribine, used clinically throughout Asia, demonstrated far superior antitumor activity compared with the FDA-approved IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolate mofetil (or CellCept, a prodrug of mycophenolic acid). When compared directly to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, mizoribine treatment provided a more durable antitumor response associated with tumor cell death. These results provide preclinical support for repurposing mizoribine, over other IMPDH inhibitors, as an alternative to mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of TSC-associated tumors and possibly other tumors featuring uncontrolled mTORC1 activity.
Alexander J. Valvezan, Molly C. McNamara, Spencer K. Miller, Margaret E. Torrence, John M. Asara, Elizabeth P. Henske, Brendan D. Manning
Achromatopsia (ACHM) is an autosomal recessive disease that results in severe visual loss. Symptoms of ACHM include impaired visual acuity, nystagmus, and photoaversion starting from infancy; furthermore, ACHM is associated with bilateral foveal hypoplasia and absent or severely reduced cone photoreceptor function on electroretinography. Here, we performed genetic sequencing in 3 patients from 2 families with ACHM, identifying and functionally characterizing 2 mutations in the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) gene. We identified a homozygous deletion covering exons 8–14 of the ATF6 gene from 2 siblings from the same family. In another patient from a different family, we identified a heterozygous deletion covering exons 2 and 3 of the ATF6 gene found in trans with a previously identified ATF6 c.970C>T (p.Arg324Cys) ACHM disease allele. Recombinant ATF6 proteins bearing these exon deletions showed markedly impaired transcriptional activity by qPCR and RNA-Seq analysis compared with WT-ATF6. Finally, RNAscope revealed that ATF6 and the related ATF6B transcripts were expressed in cones as well as in all retinal layers in normal human retina. Overall, our data identify loss-of-function ATF6 disease alleles that cause human foveal disease.
Eun-Jin Lee, Wei-Chieh Jerry Chiang, Heike Kroeger, Chloe Xiaoke Bi, Daniel L. Chao, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Rebecca R. Mastey, Stephen H. Tsang, Leon Chea, Kyle Kim, Scott R. Lambert, Julia M.D. Grandjean, Britta Baumann, Isabelle Audo, Susanne Kohl, Anthony T. Moore, R. Luke Wiseman, Joseph Carroll, Jonathan H. Lin
BACKGROUND Metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes have been associated with a decrease in insulin pulse frequency and amplitude. We hypothesized that the T allele at rs7903146 in TCF7L2, previously associated with β cell dysfunction, would be associated with changes in these insulin pulse characteristics.METHODS Twenty-nine nondiabetic subjects (age 46 ± 2, BMI 28 ± 1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Of these, 16 were homozygous for the C allele at rs7903146 and 13 were homozygous for the T allele. Deconvolution of peripheral C-peptide concentrations allowed the reconstruction of portal insulin secretion over time. These data were used for subsequent analyses. Pulse orderliness was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), and the dispersion of insulin pulses was measured by a frequency dispersion index (FDI) after a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of individual insulin secretion rates.RESULTS During fasting conditions, the CC genotype group exhibited decreased pulse disorderliness compared with the TT genotype group (1.10 ± 0.03 vs. 1.19 ± 0.04, P = 0.03). FDI decreased in response to hyperglycemia in the CC genotype group, perhaps reflecting less entrainment of insulin secretion during fasting.CONCLUSION Diabetes-associated variation in TCF7L2 is associated with decreased orderliness and pulse dispersion, unchanged by hyperglycemia. Quantification of ApEn and FDI could represent novel markers of β cell health.FUNDING This work was funded by US NIH (DK78646, DK116231), University of Padova research grant CPDA145405, and Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center (UL1 TR000135).
Marcello C. Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T. Varghese, James C. Andrews, Robert A. Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Giuseppe De Nicolao, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella
Changes in maternal immunity during pregnancy can result in an altered immune state, and as a natural perturbation, this provides an opportunity to understand functional interactions of the immune system in vivo. We report characterization of maternal peripheral immune phenotypes for 33 longitudinally sampled normal pregnancies, using clinical measurements of complete blood counts and major immune cell populations, as well as high parameter flow cytometry for 30 leukocyte antigens characterizing 79 cell populations, and monitoring of 1305 serum proteins using the SomaLogic platform. Cellular analyses characterized transient changes in T cell polarization and more persistent alterations in T and B cell subset frequencies and activation. Serum proteomic analysis identified a potentially novel set of 7 proteins that are predictive of gestational age: DDR1, PLAU, MRC1, ACP5, ROBO2, IGF2R, and GNS. We further show that gestational age can be predicted from the parameters obtained by complete blood count tests and clinical flow cytometry characterizing 5 major immune cell populations. Inferring gestational age from this routine clinical phenotyping data could be useful in resource-limited settings that lack obstetric ultrasound. Overall, both the cellular and proteomic analyses validate previously reported phenotypic immunological changes of pregnancy and uncover potentially new alterations and predictive markers.
Richard Apps, Yuri Kotliarov, Foo Cheung, Kyu Lee Han, Jinguo Chen, Angélique Biancotto, Ashley Babyak, Huizhi Zhou, Rongye Shi, Lisa Barnhart, Sharon M. Osgood, Yasmine Belkaid, Steven M. Holland, John S. Tsang, Christa S. Zerbe