In this issue of JCI Insight, Shai Fuchs and colleagues demonstrate that loss of GLP-2R signaling exacerbates steatohepatitis in response to a high fat, high fructose, high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. GLP-2R localized to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which exhibited increased activation in GLP-2R-deficient mice. Together, these results reveal a role of GLP-2R in hepatic adaptation to nutrient excess and link GLP-2R signaling to HSC activity. The cover image shows the exacerbation of fibrosis (Sirus red) in the liver of a HFHC-fed
Over 55,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) yearly, and fewer than 20% of these patients survive a year beyond diagnosis. Chemotherapies are considered or used in nearly every PDAC case, but there is limited understanding of the complex signaling responses underlying resistance to these common treatments. Here, we take an unbiased approach to study protein kinase network changes following chemotherapies in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of PDAC to facilitate design of rational drug combinations. Proteomics profiling following chemotherapy regimens reveals that activation of JNK-JUN signaling occurs after 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin (5-FU + LEU) and FOLFOX (5-FU + LEU plus oxaliplatin [OX]), but not after OX alone or gemcitabine. Cell and tumor growth assays with the irreversible inhibitor JNK-IN-8 and genetic manipulations demonstrate that JNK and JUN each contribute to chemoresistance and cancer cell survival after FOLFOX. Active JNK1 and JUN are specifically implicated in these effects, and synergy with JNK-IN-8 is linked to FOLFOX-mediated JUN activation, cell cycle dysregulation, and DNA damage response. This study highlights the potential for JNK-IN-8 as a biological tool and potential combination therapy with FOLFOX in PDAC and reinforces the need to tailor treatment to functional characteristics of individual tumors.
Matthew B. Lipner, Xianlu L. Peng, Chong Jin, Yi Xu, Yanzhe Gao, Michael P. East, Naim U. Rashid, Richard A. Moffitt, Silvia G. Herrera Loeza, Ashley B. Morrison, Brian T. Golitz, Cyrus Vaziri, Lee M. Graves, Gary L. Johnson, Jen Jen Yeh
Septic cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by sepsis. Ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1) belongs to a group of host-defense peptides that specifically cleave extracellular RNA (eRNA). The activity of RNase 1 is inhibited by ribonuclease-inhibitor 1 (RNH1). However, the role of RNase 1 in septic cardiomyopathy and associated cardiac apoptosis is completely unknown. Here, we show that sepsis resulted in a significant increase in RNH1 and eRNA serum levels compared with those of healthy subjects. Treatment with RNase 1 resulted in a significant decrease of apoptosis, induced by the intrinsic pathway, and TNF expression in murine cardiomyocytes exposed to either necrotic cardiomyocytes or serum of septic patients for 16 hours. Additionally, treatment of septic mice with RNase 1 resulted in a reduction in cardiac apoptosis, TNF expression, and septic cardiomyopathy. These data demonstrate that eRNA plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the organ (cardiac) dysfunction in sepsis and that RNase and RNH1 may be new therapeutic targets and/or strategies to reduce the cardiac injury and dysfunction caused by sepsis.
Elisabeth Zechendorf, Caroline E. O’Riordan, Lara Stiehler, Natalie Wischmeyer, Fausto Chiazza, Debora Collotta, Bernd Denecke, Sabrina Ernst, Gerhard Müller-Newen, Sina M. Coldewey, Bianka Wissuwa, Massimo Collino, Tim-Philipp Simon, Tobias Schuerholz, Christian Stoppe, Gernot Marx, Christoph Thiemermann, Lukas Martin
The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33–driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.
Michael A. Portelli, F. Nicole Dijk, Maria E. Ketelaar, Nick Shrine, Jenny Hankinson, Sangita Bhaker, Néomi S. Grotenboer, Ma’en Obeidat, Amanda P. Henry, Charlotte K. Billington, Dominick Shaw, Simon R. Johnson, Zara E.K. Pogson, Andrew Fogarty, Tricia M. McKeever, David C. Nickle, Yohan Bossé, Maarten van den Berge, Alen Faiz, Sharon Brouwer, Judith M. Vonk, Paul de Vos, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Cornelis J. Vermeulen, Amisha Singapuri, Liam G. Heaney, Adel H. Mansur, Rekha Chaudhuri, Neil C. Thomson, John W. Holloway, Gabrielle A. Lockett, Peter H. Howarth, Robert Niven, Angela Simpson, John D. Blakey, Martin D. Tobin, Dirkje S. Postma, Ian P. Hall, Louise V. Wain, Martijn C. Nawijn, Christopher E. Brightling, Gerard H. Koppelman, Ian Sayers
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a genetic condition associated with hypocalciuria, hypercalcemia, and, in some cases, inappropriately high levels of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH). FHH is associated with inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR, and GNA11 encoding G protein subunit α 11 (Gα11), implicating defective GPCR signaling as the root pathophysiology for FHH. However, the downstream mechanism by which CaSR activation inhibits PTH production/secretion is incompletely understood. Here, we show that mice lacking the transient receptor potential canonical channel 1 (TRPC1) develop chronic hypercalcemia, hypocalciuria, and elevated PTH levels, mimicking human FHH. Ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed that TRPC1 serves a necessary and sufficient mediator to suppress PTH secretion from parathyroid glands (PTGs) downstream of CaSR in response to high extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Gα11 physically interacted with both the N- and C-termini of TRPC1 and enhanced CaSR-induced TRPC1 activity in transfected cells. These data identify TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ signaling as an essential component of the cellular apparatus controlling PTH secretion in the PTG downstream of CaSR.
Marta Onopiuk, Bonnie Eby, Vasyl Nesin, Peter Ngo, Megan Lerner, Caroline M. Gorvin, Victoria J. Stokes, Rajesh V. Thakker, Maria Luisa Brandi, Wenhan Chang, Mary Beth Humphrey, Leonidas Tsiokas, Kai Lau
Glucokinase (GK) is highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); however, its role is currently unknown. We found that GK in the PVN acts as part of a glucose-sensing mechanism within the PVN that regulates glucose homeostasis by controlling glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release. GLP-1 is released from enteroendocrine L cells in response to oral glucose. Here we identify a brain mechanism critical to the release of GLP-1 in response to oral glucose. We show that increasing expression of GK or injection of glucose into the PVN increases GLP-1 release in response to oral glucose. On the contrary, decreasing expression of GK or injection of nonmetabolizable glucose into the PVN prevents GLP-1 release. Our results demonstrate that gluco-sensitive GK neurons in the PVN are critical to the response to oral glucose and subsequent release of GLP-1.
Yue Ma, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Ivan De Backer, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Joyceline Cuenco, Ben Jones, Christopher D. John, Brian Y.H. Lam, Guy A. Rutter, Giles S.H. Yeo, Waljit S. Dhillo, James Gardiner
Heart failure (HF) remains a grievous illness with poor prognosis even with optimal care. The apelin receptor (APJ) counteracts the pressor effect of angiotensin II, attenuates ischemic injury, and has the potential to be a novel target to treat HF. Intravenous administration of apelin improves cardiac function acutely in patients with HF. However, its short half-life restricts its use to infusion therapy. To identify a longer acting APJ agonist, we conducted a medicinal chemistry campaign, leading to the discovery of potent small-molecule APJ agonists with comparable activity to apelin by mimicking the C-terminal portion of apelin-13. Acute infusion increased systolic function and reduced systemic vascular resistance in 2 rat models of impaired cardiac function. Similar results were obtained in an anesthetized but not a conscious canine HF model. Chronic oral dosing in a rat myocardial infarction model reduced myocardial collagen content and improved diastolic function to a similar extent as losartan, a RAS antagonist standard-of-care therapy, but lacked additivity with coadministration. Collectively, this work demonstrates the feasibility of developing clinical, viable, potent small-molecule agonists that mimic the endogenous APJ ligand with more favorable drug-like properties and highlights potential limitations for APJ agonism for this indication.
Brandon Ason, Yinhong Chen, Qi Guo, Kimberly M. Hoagland, Ray W. Chui, Mark Fielden, Weston Sutherland, Rhonda Chen, Ying Zhang, Shirley Mihardja, Xiaochuan Ma, Xun Li, Yaping Sun, Dongming Liu, Khanh Nguyen, Jinghong Wang, Ning Li, Sridharan Rajamani, Yusheng Qu, BaoXi Gao, Andrea Boden, Vishnu Chintalgattu, Jim R. Turk, Joyce Chan, Liaoyuan A. Hu, Paul Dransfield, Jonathan Houze, Jingman Wong, Ji Ma, Vatee Pattaropong, Murielle M. Véniant, Hugo M. Vargas, Gayathri Swaminath, Aarif Y. Khakoo
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is secreted by ventricular cardiomyocytes in response to various types of cardiac stress and has been used as a heart failure marker. In septic patients, increased BNP suggests poor prognosis; however, no causal link has been established. Among various effects, BNP decreases systemic vascular resistance and increases natriuresis that leads to lower blood pressure. We previously observed that JNK inhibition corrects cardiac dysfunction and suppresses cardiac BNP mRNA in endotoxemia. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional mechanism that regulates BNP expression and the involvement of plasma BNP in causing septic hypotension. Our in vitro and in vivo findings confirmed that activation of JNK signaling increases BNP expression in sepsis via direct binding of c-Jun in activating protein–1 (AP-1) regulatory elements of the Nppb promoter. Accordingly, genetic ablation of BNP, as well as treatment with a potentially novel neutralizing anti-BNP monoclonal antibody (19B3) or suppression of its expression via administration of JNK inhibitor SP600125 improved cardiac output, stabilized blood pressure, and improved survival in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. Therefore, inhibition of JNK signaling or BNP in sepsis appears to stabilize blood pressure and improve survival.
Matthew Hoffman, Ioannis D. Kyriazis, Alexandra Dimitriou, Santosh K. Mishra, Walter J. Koch, Konstantinos Drosatos
Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, but the molecular pathways determining the differentiation potential of these cells remain unclear. Here, we report that microRNA-148a (miR-148a) serves as a critical regulator for moDC differentiation. First, miR-148a deficiency impaired the moDC development in vitro and in vivo. A mechanism study showed that MAFB, a transcription factor that hampers moDC differentiation, was a direct target of miR-148a. In addition, a promoter study identified that miR-148a could be transcriptionally induced by PU.1, which is crucial for moDC generation. miR-148a ablation eliminated the inhibition of PU.1 on MAFB. Furthermore, we found that miR-148a increased in monocytes from patients with psoriasis, and miR-148a deficiency or intradermal injection of antagomir-148a immensely alleviated the development of psoriasis-like symptoms in a psoriasis-like mouse model. Therefore, these results identify a pivotal role for the PU.1-miR-148a-MAFB circuit in moDC differentiation and suggest a potential therapeutic avenue for autoimmunity.
Yao Meng, Jun Li, Zhizhong Ye, Zhihua Yin, Qing Sun, Zhuojun Liao, Guanhua Li, Jun Deng, Lu Liu, Yuqing Yu, Li Wu, Haibo Zhou, Nan Shen
Atrial fibrillation (AF) alters atrial cardiomyocyte (ACM) Ca2+ handling, promoting ectopic beat formation. We examined the effects of AF-associated remodeling on Ca2+-related action potential dynamics and consequences for AF susceptibility. AF was maintained electrically in dogs by right atrial (RA) tachypacing. ACMs isolated from AF dogs showed increased Ca2+ release refractoriness, spontaneous Ca2+ spark frequency, and cycle length (CL) threshold for Ca2+ and action potential duration (APD) alternans versus controls. AF increased the in situ CL threshold for Ca2+/APD alternans and spatial dispersion in Ca2+ release recovery kinetics, leading to spatially discordant alternans associated with reentrant rotor formation and susceptibility to AF induction/maintenance. The clinically available agent dantrolene reduced Ca2+ leak and CL threshold for Ca2+/APD alternans in ACMs and AF dog right atrium, while suppressing AF susceptibility; caffeine increased Ca2+ leak and CL threshold for Ca2+/APD alternans in control dog ACMs and RA tissues. In vivo, the atrial repolarization alternans CL threshold was increased in AF versus control, as was AF vulnerability. Intravenous dantrolene restored repolarization alternans threshold and reduced AF vulnerability. Immunoblots showed reduced expression of total and phosphorylated ryanodine receptors and calsequestrin in AF and unchanged phospholamban/SERCA expression. Thus, along with promoting spontaneous ectopy, AF-induced Ca2+ handling abnormalities favor AF by enhancing vulnerability to repolarization alternans, promoting initiation and maintenance of reentrant activity; dantrolene provides a lead molecule to target this mechanism.
Tao Liu, Feng Xiong, Xiao-Yan Qi, Jiening Xiao, Louis Villeneuve, Issam Abu-Taha, Dobromir Dobrev, Congxin Huang, Stanley Nattel
BACKGROUND Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) vary widely in terms of the patient’s overall survival (OS). There is no current, valid method that could exactly predict the survival. The effects of intratumoral immune infiltration on clinical outcome have been widely reported. Thus, we aim to develop an immune infiltration signature to predict the survival of LGG patients.METHODS We analyzed 1216 LGGs from 5 public data sets, including 2 RNA sequencing data sets and 3 microarray data sets. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was used to select an immune infiltration signature and build a risk score. The performance of the risk score was assessed in the training set (329 patients), internal validation set (140 patients), and 4 external validation sets (405, 118, 88, and 136 patients).RESULTS An immune infiltration signature consisting of 20 immune metagenes was used to generate a risk score. The performance of the risk score was thoroughly verified in the training and validation sets. Additionally, we found that the risk score was positively correlated with the expression levels of TGF-β and PD-L1, which were important targets of combination immunotherapy. Furthermore, a nomogram incorporating the risk score, patient’s age, and tumor grade was developed to predict the OS, and it performed well in all the training and validation sets (C-index: 0.873, 0.881, 0.781, 0.765, 0.721, and 0.753).CONCLUSION The risk score based on the immune infiltration signature has reliable prognostic and predictive value for patients with LGGs and is a potential biomarker for the cotargeting immunotherapy.FUNDING This work was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 81472370 and 81672506), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (grant no. J180005), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program, grant no. 2014AA020610), and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, grant no. 2014CB542006).
Lai-Rong Song, Jian-Cong Weng, Cheng-Bei Li, Xu-Lei Huo, Huan Li, Shu-Yu Hao, Zhen Wu, Liang Wang, Da Li, Jun-Ting Zhang
Although blockade of the programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint has revolutionized cancer treatment, how it works on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing the same antigen at various differentiation stages remains elusive. Here, we found that the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 identified 3 distinct differentiation states of intratumor CD8+ T cell subsets. Adoptively transferred antigen-specific CX3CR1–CD8+ T cells generated phenotypically and functionally distinct CX3CR1int and CX3CR1hi subsets in the periphery. Notably, expression of coinhibitory receptors and T cell factor 1 (Tcf1) inversely correlated with the degree of T cell differentiation defined by CX3CR1. Despite lower expression of coinhibitory receptors and potent cytolytic activity, in vivo depletion of the CX3CR1hi subset did not alter the antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, differentiated CX3CR1int and CX3CR1hi subsets were impaired in their ability to undergo proliferation upon restimulation and had no impact on established tumors upon second adoptive transfer compared with the CX3CR1– subset that remained effective. Accordingly, anti–PD-L1 therapy preferentially rescued proliferation and cytokine production of the CX3CR1– subset and enhanced antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. These findings provide a better understanding of the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and can be exploited to develop more effective immunotherapy.
Takayoshi Yamauchi, Toshifumi Hoki, Takaaki Oba, Hidehito Saito, Kristopher Attwood, Michael S. Sabel, Alfred E. Chang, Kunle Odunsi, Fumito Ito
In type 1 diabetes (T1D), autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells leads to insulin deficiency and loss of glycemic control. However, knowledge about human pancreas pathophysiology in T1D remains incomplete. To address this limitation, we established a pancreas tissue slice platform of donor organs with and without diabetes, facilitating the first live cell studies of human pancreas in T1D pathogenesis to our knowledge. We show that pancreas tissue slices from organ donors allow thorough assessment of processes critical for disease development, including insulin secretion, β cell physiology, endocrine cell morphology, and immune infiltration within the same donor organ. Using this approach, we compared detailed pathophysiological profiles for 4 pancreata from donors with T1D with 19 nondiabetic control donors. We demonstrate that β cell loss, β cell dysfunction, alterations of β cell physiology, and islet infiltration contributed differently to individual cases of T1D, allowing insight into pathophysiology and heterogeneity of T1D pathogenesis. Thus, our study demonstrates that organ donor pancreas tissue slices represent a promising and potentially novel approach in the search for successful prevention and reversal strategies of T1D.
Julia K. Panzer, Helmut Hiller, Christian M. Cohrs, Joana Almaça, Stephen J. Enos, Maria Beery, Sirlene Cechin, Denise M. Drotar, John R. Weitz, Jorge Santini, Mollie K. Huber, Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Ricardo L. Pastori, Juan Domínguez-Bendala, Edward A. Phelps, Mark A. Atkinson, Alberto Pugliese, Alejandro Caicedo, Irina Kusmartseva, Stephan Speier
BACKGROUND Prehospital plasma improves survival in severely injured patients transported by air ambulance. We hypothesized that prehospital plasma would be associated with a reduction in immune imbalance and endothelial damage.METHODS We sampled blood from 405 trauma patients enrolled in the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial upon hospital admission (0 hours) and 24 hours post admission across 6 U.S. sites. We assayed samples for 21 inflammatory mediators and 7 markers associated with endothelial function and damage. We performed hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of these biomarkers of the immune response and endothelial injury. Regression analysis was used to control for differences across study and to assess any association with prehospital plasma resuscitation.RESULTS HCA distinguished two patient clusters with different injury patterns and outcomes. Patients in cluster A had greater injury severity and incidence of blunt trauma, traumatic brain injury, and mortality. Cluster A patients that received prehospital plasma showed improved 30-day survival. Prehospital plasma did not improve survival in cluster B patients. In an adjusted analysis of the most seriously injured patients, prehospital plasma was associated with an increase in adiponectin, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and IL-17E upon admission, and a reduction in syndecan-1, TM, VEGF, IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α, and an increase in IL-33, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-17E 24 hours later.CONCLUSION Prehospital plasma may ameliorate immune dysfunction and the endotheliopathy of trauma. These effects of plasma may contribute to improved survival in injured patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT01818427.FUNDING Department of Defense; National Institutes of Health, U.S. Army.
Danielle S. Gruen, Joshua B. Brown, Francis X. Guyette, Yoram Vodovotz, Pär I. Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, Derek A. Barclay, Jinling Yin, Brian J. Daley, Richard S. Miller, Brian G. Harbrecht, Jeffrey A. Claridge, Herb A. Phelan, Matthew D. Neal, Brian S. Zuckerbraun, Timothy R. Billiar, Jason L. Sperry, PAMPer study group
Increased subchondral bone angiogenesis with blood vessels breaching the tidemark into the avascular cartilage is a diagnostic feature of human osteoarthritis. However, the mechanisms that initiate subchondral bone angiogenesis remain unclear. We show that abnormally increased platelet-derived growth factor–BB (PDGF-BB) secretion by mononuclear preosteoclasts induces subchondral bone angiogenesis, contributing to osteoarthritis development. In mice after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), aberrant joint subchondral bone angiogenesis developed during an early stage of osteoarthritis, before articular cartilage damage occurred. Mononuclear preosteoclasts in subchondral bone secrete excessive amounts of PDGF-BB, which activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor–β (PDGFR-β) signaling in pericytes for neo-vessel formation. Selective knockout of PDGF-BB in preosteoclasts attenuates subchondral bone angiogenesis and abrogates joint degeneration and subchondral innervation induced by DMM. Transgenic mice that express PDGF-BB in preosteoclasts recapitulate pathological subchondral bone angiogenesis and develop joint degeneration and subchondral innervation spontaneously. Our study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that PDGF-BB derived from preosteoclasts is a key driver of pathological subchondral bone angiogenesis during osteoarthritis development and offers a new avenue for developing early treatments for this disease.
Weiping Su, Guanqiao Liu, Xiaonan Liu, Yangying Zhou, Qi Sun, Gehua Zhen, Xiao Wang, Yihe Hu, Peisong Gao, Shadpour Demehri, Xu Cao, Mei Wan
Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as a global threat due to its widespread antimicrobial resistance. Transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies have high mortality rate, suggesting host factors in susceptibility. We developed a model of pulmonary infection using ST258 strain C4, KPC-2 clone, which are predominant K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing (KPC-producing) bacteria, and demonstrated that Rag2–/– Il2rg–/– mice — but not WT C57BL/6 or Rag2–/– mice — were susceptible to this opportunistic infection. Using single cell RNA sequencing in infected Rag2–/– mice, we identified distinct clusters of Ifng+ NK cells and Il17a+, Il22+, and inducible T cell costimulatory molecule–positive (ICOS+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that were critical for host resistance. As solid organ transplantation is a risk factor, we generated a more clinically relevant model using FK506 in WT C57BL/6 mice. We further demonstrated that immunotherapy with recombinant IL-22 treatment ameliorated the ST258 pulmonary infection in both FK506-treated WT mice and Rag2–/– Il2rg–/– mice via hepatic IL-22ra1 signaling. These data support the development of host-directed immunotherapy as an adjunct treatment to new antibiotics.
Naoki Iwanaga, Ivy Sandquist, Alanna Wanek, Janet McCombs, Kejing Song, Jay K. Kolls
Recent studies show gut microbiota modulate antitumor immune responses; one proposed mechanism is cross-reactivity between antigens expressed in commensal bacteria and neoepitopes. We found that T cells targeting an epitope called SVYRYYGL (SVY), expressed in the commensal bacterium Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve), cross-react with a model neoantigen, SIYRYYGL (SIY). Mice lacking B. breve had decreased SVY-reactive T cells compared with B. breve–colonized mice, and the T cell response was transferable by SVY immunization or by cohousing mice without Bifidobacterium with ones colonized with Bifidobacterium. Tumors expressing the model SIY neoantigen also grew faster in mice lacking B. breve compared with Bifidobacterium-colonized animals. B. breve colonization also shaped the SVY-reactive TCR repertoire. Finally, SVY-specific T cells recognized SIY-expressing melanomas in vivo and led to decreased tumor growth and extended survival. Our work demonstrates that commensal bacteria can stimulate antitumor immune responses via cross-reactivity and how bacterial antigens affect the T cell landscape.
Catherine A. Bessell, Ariel Isser, Jonathan J. Havel, Sangyun Lee, David R. Bell, John W. Hickey, Worarat Chaisawangwong, Joan Glick Bieler, Raghvendra Srivastava, Fengshen Kuo, Tanaya Purohit, Ruhong Zhou, Timothy A. Chan, Jonathan P. Schneck
A glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analog is used in individuals with intestinal failure who are at risk for liver disease, yet the hepatic actions of GLP-2 are not understood. Treatment of high-fat diet–fed (HFD-fed) mice with GLP-2 did not modify the development of hepatosteatosis or hepatic inflammation. In contrast, Glp2r–/– mice exhibited increased hepatic lipid accumulation, deterioration in glucose tolerance, and upregulation of biomarkers of hepatic inflammation. Both mouse and human liver expressed the canonical GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), and hepatic Glp2r expression was upregulated in mice with hepatosteatosis. Cell fractionation localized the Glp2r to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and markers of HSC activation and fibrosis were increased in livers of Glp2r–/– mice. Moreover, GLP-2 directly modulated gene expression in isolated HSCs ex vivo. Taken together, these findings define an essential role for the GLP-2R in hepatic adaptation to nutrient excess and unveil a gut hormone-HSC axis, linking GLP-2R signaling to control of HSC activation.
Shai Fuchs, Bernardo Yusta, Laurie L. Baggio, Elodie M. Varin, Dianne Matthews, Daniel J. Drucker
BK channels are expressed in intercalated cells (ICs) and principal cells (PCs) in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of the mammalian kidney and have been proposed to be responsible for flow-induced K+ secretion (FIKS) and K+ adaptation. To examine the IC-specific role of BK channels, we generated a mouse with targeted disruption of the pore-forming BK α subunit (BKα) in ICs (IC-BKα–KO). Whole cell charybdotoxin–sensitive (ChTX-sensitive) K+ currents were readily detected in control ICs but largely absent in ICs of IC-BKα–KO mice. When placed on a high K+ (HK) diet for 13 days, blood [K+] was significantly greater in IC-BKα–KO mice versus controls in males only, although urinary K+ excretion rates following isotonic volume expansion were similar in males and females. FIKS was present in microperfused CCDs isolated from controls but was absent in IC-BKα–KO CCDs of both sexes. Also, flow-stimulated epithelial Na+ channel–mediated (ENaC–mediated) Na+ absorption was greater in CCDs from female IC-BKα–KO mice than in CCDs from males. Our results confirm a critical role of IC BK channels in FIKS. Sex contributes to the capacity for adaptation to a HK diet in IC-BKα–KO mice.
Rolando Carrisoza-Gaytan, Evan C. Ray, Daniel Flores, Allison L. Marciszyn, Peng Wu, Leah Liu, Arohan R. Subramanya, WenHui Wang, Shaohu Sheng, Lubika J. Nkashama, Jingxin Chen, Edwin K. Jackson, Stephanie M. Mutchler, Szilvia Heja, Donald E. Kohan, Lisa M. Satlin, Thomas R. Kleyman
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a T cell–mediated immunological disorder and the leading cause of nonrelapse mortality in patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. Based on recent observations that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and arginine methylation are upregulated in activated memory T cells, we hypothesized that PRMT5 is involved in the pathogenesis of aGVHD. Here, we show that PRMT5 expression and enzymatic activity were upregulated in activated T cells in vitro and in T cells from mice developing aGVHD after allogeneic transplant. PRMT5 expression was also upregulated in T cells of patients who developed aGVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant compared with those who did not develop aGVHD. PRMT5 inhibition using a selective small-molecule inhibitor (C220) substantially reduced mouse and human allogeneic T cell proliferation and inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokine production. Administration of PRMT5 small-molecule inhibitors substantially improves survival, reducing disease incidence and clinical severity in mouse models of aGVHD without adversely affecting engraftment. Importantly, we show that PRMT5 inhibition retained the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect by maintaining cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Mechanistically, we show that PRMT5 inhibition potently reduced STAT1 phosphorylation as well as transcription of proinflammatory genes, including interferon-stimulated genes and IL-17. Additionally, PRMT5 inhibition deregulates the cell cycle in activated T cells and disrupts signaling by affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, we have identified PRMT5 as a regulator of T cell responses and as a therapeutic target in aGVHD.
Katiri J. Snyder, Nina C. Zitzer, Yandi Gao, Hannah K. Choe, Natalie E. Sell, Lotus Neidemire-Colley, Anora Ignaci, Charuta Kale, Raymond D. Devine, Maria G. Abad, Maciej Pietrzak, Min Wang, Hong Lin, Yang W. Zhang, Gregory K. Behbehani, Jane E. Jackman, Ramiro Garzon, Kris Vaddi, Robert A. Baiocchi, Parvathi Ranganathan