In this issue of JCI Insight, El-Zaatari et al. explore how
Altered BM hematopoiesis and immune suppression are hallmarks of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). While the BM microenvironment influences malignant hematopoiesis, the mechanism leading to MDS-associated immune suppression is unknown. We tested whether mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to this process. Here, we developed a model to study cultured MSCs from patients with MDS (MDS-MSCs) compared with those from aged-matched normal controls for regulation of immune function. MDS-MSCs and healthy donor MSCs (HD-MSCs) exhibited a similar in vitro phenotype, and neither had a direct effect on NK cell function. However, when MDS- and HD-MSCs were cultured with monocytes, only the MDS-MSCs acquired phenotypic and metabolic properties of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), with resulting suppression of NK cell function, along with T cell proliferation. A MSC transcriptome was observed in MDS-MSCs compared with HD-MSCs, including increased expression of the ROS regulator, ENC1. High ENC1 expression in MDS-MSCs induced suppressive monocytes with increased INHBA, a gene that encodes for a member of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. These monocytes also had reduced expression of the TGF-β transcriptional repressor MAB21L2, further adding to their immune-suppressive function. Silencing ENC1 or inhibiting ROS production in MDS-MSCs abrogated the suppressive function of MDS-MSC–conditioned monocytes. In addition, silencing MAB21L2 in healthy MSC-conditioned monocytes mimicked the MDS-MSC–suppressive transformation of monocytes. Our data demonstrate that MDS-MSCs are responsible for inducing an immune-suppressive microenvironment in MDS through an indirect mechanism involving monocytes.
Dhifaf Sarhan, Jinhua Wang, Upasana Sunil Arvindam, Caroline Hallstrom, Michael R. Verneris, Bartosz Grzywacz, Erica Warlick, Bruce R. Blazar, Jeffrey S. Miller
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine phosphatase, has been shown to control T cell function. We found that in vitro–activated B cells and B cells from various lupus-prone mice and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus display increased PP2A activity. To understand the contribution of PP2A to B cell function, we generated a Cd19CrePpp2r1afl/fl (flox/flox) mouse which lacks functional PP2A only in B cells. Flox/flox mice displayed reduced spontaneous germinal center formation and decreased responses to T cell-dependent and T-independent antigens, while their B cells responded poorly in vitro to stimulation with an anti-CD40 antibody or CpG in the presence of IL-4. Transcriptome and metabolome studies revealed altered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and purine/pyrimidine metabolism and increased expression of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in PP2A-deficient B cells. Our results demonstrate that PP2A is required for optimal B cell function and may contribute to increased B cell activity in systemic autoimmunity.
Esra Meidan, Hao Li, Wenliang Pan, Michihito Kono, Shuilian Yu, Vasileios C. Kyttaris, Christina Ioannidis, Noe Rodriguez Rodriguez, Jose C. Crispin, Sokratis A. Apostolidis, Pui Lee, John Manis, Amir Sharabi, Maria G. Tsokos, George C. Tsokos
Renal activation of the complement system has been described in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), although its pathological relevance is still ill-defined. Here, we studied whether glomerular C3a, generated by uncontrolled complement activation, promotes podocyte damage, leading to proteinuria and renal injury in mice with type 2 diabetes. BTBR ob/ob mice exhibited podocyte loss, albuminuria, and glomerular injury accompanied by C3 deposits and increased C3a and C3a receptor (C3aR) levels. Decreased glomerular nephrin and α-actinin4 expression, coupled with integrin-linked kinase induction, were also observed. Treatment of DN mice with a C3aR antagonist enhanced podocyte density and preserved their phenotype, limiting proteinuria and glomerular injury. Mechanistically, ultrastructural and functional mitochondrial alterations, accompanied by downregulation of antioxidant superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and increased protein oxidation, occurred in podocytes and were normalized by C3aR blockade. In cultured podocytes, C3a induced cAMP-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation. Alterations of mitochondrial membrane potential, SOD2 expression, and energetic metabolism were also found in response to C3a. Notably, C3a-induced podocyte motility was inhibited by SS-31, a peptide with mitochondrial protective effects. These data indicate that C3a blockade represents a potentially novel therapeutic strategy in DN for preserving podocyte integrity through the maintenance of mitochondrial functions.
Marina Morigi, Luca Perico, Daniela Corna, Monica Locatelli, Paola Cassis, Claudia Elisa Carminati, Silvia Bolognini, Carlamaria Zoja, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni, Simona Buelli
Carriers of the hydroxysteroid 17-β dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene variant (rs72613567:TA) have a reduced risk of NASH and cirrhosis but not steatosis. We determined its effect on liver histology, lipidome, and transcriptome using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. In carriers and noncarriers of the gene variant, we also measured pathways of hepatic fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis [DNL] and adipose tissue lipolysis [ATL] using 2H2O and 2H-glycerol) and insulin sensitivity using 3H-glucose and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and plasma cytokines. Carriers and noncarriers had similar age, sex and BMI. Fibrosis was significantly less frequent while phospholipids, but not other lipids, were enriched in the liver in carriers compared with noncarriers. Expression of 274 genes was altered in carriers compared with noncarriers, consisting predominantly of downregulated inflammation-related gene sets. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were lower, but DNL, ATL and hepatic insulin sensitivity were similar between the groups. In conclusion, carriers of the HSD17B13 variant have decreased fibrosis and expression of inflammation-related genes but increased phospholipids in the liver. These changes are not secondary to steatosis, DNL, ATL, or hepatic insulin sensitivity. The increase in phospholipids and decrease in fibrosis are opposite to features of choline-deficient models of liver disease and suggest HSD17B13 as an attractive therapeutic target.
Panu K. Luukkonen, Taru Tukiainen, Anne Juuti, Henna Sammalkorpi, P.A. Nidhina Haridas, Onni Niemelä, Johanna Arola, Marju Orho-Melander, Antti Hakkarainen, Petri T. Kovanen, Om Dwivedi, Leif Groop, Leanne Hodson, Amalia Gastaldelli, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Hannele Yki-Järvinen
A critical component of wound healing is the transition from the inflammatory phase to the proliferation phase to initiate healing and remodeling of the wound. Macrophages are critical for the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory phase during wound repair. In diabetes, macrophages display a sustained inflammatory phenotype in late wound healing characterized by elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α. Previous studies have shown that an altered epigenetic program directs diabetic macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype, contributing to a sustained inflammatory phase. Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that has been shown be a coactivator of TNF-α signaling and promote NF-κB–mediated gene transcription in prostate cancer cell lines. Based on MOF’s role in TNF-α/NF-κB–mediated gene expression, we hypothesized that MOF influences macrophage-mediated inflammation during wound repair. We used myeloid-specific Mof-knockout (Lyz2Cre Moffl/fl) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice to determine the function of MOF in diabetic wound healing. MOF-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, we found that wound macrophages from DIO mice had elevated MOF levels and higher levels of acetylated histone H4K16, MOF’s primary substrate of HAT activity, on the promoters of inflammatory genes. We further identified that MOF expression could be stimulated by TNF-α and that treatment with etanercept, an FDA-approved TNF-α inhibitor, reduced MOF levels and improved wound healing in DIO mice. This report is the first to our knowledge to define an important role for MOF in regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation in wound repair and identifies TNF-α inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds.
Aaron D. denDekker, Frank M. Davis, Amrita D. Joshi, Sonya J. Wolf, Ronald Allen, Jay Lipinski, Brenda Nguyen, Joseph Kirma, Dylan Nycz, Jennifer Bermick, Bethany B. Moore, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Steven L. Kunkel, Katherine A. Gallagher
Maintaining cellular proteostasis is essential for oligodendrocyte viability and function; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises 3 parallel branches, inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), is a major mechanism that maintains cellular proteostasis by facilitating protein folding, attenuating protein translation, and enhancing autophagy and ER-associated degradation. Here we report that impaired UPR in oligodendrocytes via deletion of PERK and ATF6α did not affect developmental myelination but caused late-onset mature oligodendrocyte dysfunction and death in young adult mice. The detrimental effects of the impaired UPR on mature oligodendrocytes were accompanied by autophagy impairment and intracellular proteolipid protein (PLP) accumulation and were rescued by PLP deletion. Data indicate that PLP was degraded by autophagy and that intracellular PLP accumulation was cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes. Thus, these findings imply that the UPR is required for maintaining cellular proteostasis and the viability and function of mature oligodendrocytes in adults by regulating autophagy of PLP.
Sarrabeth Stone, Shuangchan Wu, Klaus-Armin Nave, Wensheng Lin
The maintenance of functional independence is the top priority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Defects in mitochondrial energetics may compromise physical performance and independence. We investigated associations of the presence and severity of kidney disease with in vivo muscle energetics and the association of muscle energetics with physical performance. We performed measures of in vivo leg and hand muscle mitochondrial capacity (ATPmax) and resting ATP turnover (ATPflux) using 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and oxygen uptake (O2 uptake) by optical spectroscopy in 77 people (53 participants with CKD and 24 controls). We measured physical performance using the 6-minute walk test. Participants with CKD had a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 33 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Participants with CKD had a –0.19 mM/s lower leg ATPmax compared with controls but no difference in hand ATPmax. Resting O2 uptake was higher in CKD compared with controls, despite no difference in ATPflux. ATPmax correlated with eGFR and serum bicarbonate among participants with GFR <60. ATPmax of the hand and leg correlated with 6-minute walking distance. The presence and severity of CKD associate with muscle mitochondrial capacity. Dysfunction of muscle mitochondrial energetics may contribute to reduced physical performance in CKD.
Bryan Kestenbaum, Jorge Gamboa, Sophia Liu, Amir S. Ali, Eric Shankland, Thomas Jue, Cecilia Giulivi, Lucas R. Smith, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Ian H. de Boer, Kevin Conley, Baback Roshanravan
CD137 (4-1BB) is a member of the TNFR superfamily that represents a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. Recent insights into the function of TNFR agonist antibodies implicate epitope, affinity, and IgG subclass as critical features, and these observations help explain the limited activity and toxicity seen with clinically tested CD137 agonists. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CTX-471, a fully human IgG4 agonist of CD137 that engages a unique epitope that is shared by human, cynomolgus monkey, and mouse and is associated with a differentiated pharmacology and toxicology profile. In vitro, CTX-471 increased IFN-γ production by human T cells in an Fcγ receptor–dependent (FcγR-dependent) manner, displaying an intermediate level of activity between 2 clinical-stage anti-CD137 antibodies. In mice, CTX-471 exhibited curative monotherapy activity in various syngeneic tumor models and showed a unique ability to cure mice of very large (~500 mm3) tumors compared with validated antibodies against checkpoints and TNFR superfamily members. Extremely high doses of CTX-471 were well tolerated, with no signs of hepatic toxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CTX-471 is a unique CD137 agonist that displays an excellent safety profile and an unprecedented level of monotherapy efficacy against very large tumors.
Ugur Eskiocak, Wilson Guzman, Benjamin Wolf, Christine Cummings, Lauren Milling, Hsin-Jung Wu, Michael Ophir, Conner Lambden, Pearl Bakhru, Dana C. Gilmore, Samantha Ottinger, Lucy Liu, William K. McConaughy, Sunny Q. He, Chao Wang, Cheuk Lun Leung, Jason Lajoie, William F. Carson IV, Nora Zizlsperger, Michael M. Schmidt, Ana C. Anderson, Piotr Bobrowicz, Thomas J. Schuetz, Robert Tighe
Relatively little is known about interactions between the airway microbiome and airway host transcriptome in asthma. Since asthma affects and is affected by the entire airway, studying the upper (e.g., nasal) and lower (e.g., bronchial) airways together represents a powerful approach to understanding asthma. Here, we performed a systematic, integrative study of the nasal and bronchial microbiomes and nasal and bronchial host transcriptomes of children with severe persistent asthma and healthy controls. We found that (a) the microbiomes and host transcriptomes of asthmatic children are each distinct by site (nasal versus bronchial); (b) among asthmatic children, Moraxella and Alloiococcus are hub genera in the nasal microbiome, while there are no hubs among bronchial genera; (c) bronchial Actinomyces is negatively associated with bronchial genes for inflammation, suggesting Actinomyces may be protective; (d) compared with healthy children, asthmatic children express more nasal genes for ciliary function and harbor more nasal Streptococcus; and (e) nasal genera such as Corynebacterium are negatively associated with significantly more nasal genes for inflammation in healthy versus asthmatic children, suggesting a potentially stronger protective role for such nasal genera in healthy versus asthmatic children. Our systematic, integrative study provides a window into host-microbiome associations in asthma.
Yoojin Chun, Anh Do, Galina Grishina, Alexander Grishin, Gang Fang, Samantha Rose, Chantal Spencer, Alfin Vicencio, Eric Schadt, Supinda Bunyavanich
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern, whose effect on macrophages is not entirely elucidated. Here we identified that eCIRP promotes macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Septic mice had higher serum levels of eCIRP; this was associated with a reduced ex vivo immune response of their splenocytes to LPS. Pretreatment of macrophages with recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) resulted in a tolerance to LPS stimulation as demonstrated by a reduction of TNF-α production. We found that eCIRP increased phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) in macrophages. A STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic, rescued macrophages from rmCIRP-induced tolerance by restoring the release of TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. We discovered strong binding affinity between eCIRP and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) as revealed by Biacore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and their colocalization in macrophages by immunostaining assays. Blockade of IL-6R with its neutralizing Ab inhibited eCIRP-induced p-STAT3 and restored LPS-stimulated TNF-α release in macrophages. Incubation of macrophages with rmCIRP skewed them toward an M2 phenotype, while treatment with anti–IL-6R Ab prevented rmCIRP-induced M2 polarization. Thus, we have demonstrated that eCIRP activates p-STAT3 via a novel receptor, IL-6R, to promote macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Targeting eCIRP appears to be a new therapeutic option to correct immune tolerance in sepsis.
Mian Zhou, Monowar Aziz, Naomi-Liza Denning, Hao-Ting Yen, Gaifeng Ma, Ping Wang
The blood hormone erythropoietin (EPO), upon binding to its receptor (EpoR), modulates high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) obesity in mice, improves glucose tolerance, and prevents white adipose tissue inflammation. Transgenic mice with constitutive overexpression of human EPO solely in the brain (Tg21) were used to assess the neuroendocrine EPO effect without increasing the hematocrit. Male Tg21 mice resisted HFD-induced weight gain; showed lower serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and C-reactive protein levels; and prevented myeloid cell recruitment to the hypothalamus compared with WT male mice. HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation (HI) and microglial activation were higher in male mice, and Tg21 male mice exhibited a lower increase in HI than WT male mice. Physiological EPO function in the brain also showed sexual dimorphism in regulating HFD response. Female estrogen production blocked reduced weight gain and HI. Targeted deletion of EpoR gene expression in neuronal cells worsened HFD-induced glucose intolerance in both male and female mice but increased weight gain and HI in the hypothalamus in male mice only. Both male and female Tg21 mice kept on normal chow and HFD showed significantly improved glycemic control. Our data indicate that cerebral EPO regulates weight gain and HI in a sex-dependent response, distinct from EPO regulation of glycemic control, and independent of erythropoietic EPO response.
Soumyadeep Dey, Zhenzhong Cui, Oksana Gavrilova, Xiaojie Zhang, Max Gassmann, Constance T. Noguchi
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a recently discovered damage-associated molecular pattern. Understanding the precise mechanism by which it exacerbates inflammation is essential. Here we identified that eCIRP is a new biologically active endogenous ligand of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), fueling inflammation in sepsis. Surface plasmon resonance revealed a strong binding affinity between eCIRP and TREM-1, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay confirmed eCIRP’s interaction with TREM-1 in macrophages. Targeting TREM-1 by its siRNA or a decoy peptide, LP17, or by using TREM-1–/– mice dramatically reduced eCIRP-induced inflammation. We developed a potentially novel 7-aa peptide derived from human eCIRP, M3, which blocked the interaction of TREM-1 and eCIRP. M3 suppressed inflammation induced by eCIRP or agonist TREM-1 antibody cross-linking in murine macrophages or human peripheral blood monocytes. M3 also inhibited eCIRP-induced systemic inflammation and tissue injury. Treatment with M3 further protected mice from sepsis, improved acute lung injury, and increased survival. Thus, we have discovered a potentially novel TREM-1 ligand and developed a new peptide, M3, to block eCIRP–TREM-1 interaction and improve outcomes in sepsis.
Naomi-Liza Denning, Monowar Aziz, Atsushi Murao, Steven D. Gurien, Mahendar Ochani, Jose M. Prince, Ping Wang
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HSV-1 both can cause genital herpes, a chronic infection that establishes a latent reservoir in the nervous system. Clinically, the recurrence frequency of HSV-1 genital herpes is considerably less than HSV-2 genital herpes, which correlates with reduced neuronal infection. The factors dictating the disparate outcomes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital herpes are unclear. In this study, we show that vaginal infection of mice with HSV-1 leads to the rapid appearance of mature DCs in the draining lymph node, which is dependent on an early burst of NK cell–mediated IFN-γ production in the vagina that occurs after HSV-1 infection but not HSV-2 infection. Rapid DC maturation after HSV-1 infection, but not HSV-2 infection, correlates with the accelerated generation of a neuroprotective T cell response and early accumulation of IFN-γ–producing T cells at the site of infection. Depletion of T cells or loss of IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) expression in sensory neurons both lead to a marked loss of neuroprotection only during HSV-1, recapitulating a prominent feature of HSV-2 infection. Our experiments reveal key differences in host control of neuronal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection after genital exposure of mice, and they define parameters of a successful immune response against genital herpes.
Aisha G. Lee, Jason M. Scott, Maria Rita Fabbrizi, Xiaoping Jiang, Dorothy K. Sojka, Mark J. Miller, Megan T. Baldridge, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Haina Shin
Recent studies have presented compelling evidence that it is not tissue-resident, but rather monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (TR-AMs and Mo-AMs, respectively) that are essential to development of experimental lung fibrosis. However, whether apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which is produced abundantly by Mo-AMs in the lung, plays a role in the pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that pulmonary ApoE was almost exclusively produced by Mo-AMs in mice with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. We showed that, although ApoE was not necessary for developing maximal fibrosis in bleomycin-injured lung, it was required for the resolution of this pathology. We found that ApoE directly bound to Collagen I and mediated Collagen I phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo, and this process was dependent on low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 1 (LPR1). Furthermore, interference of ApoE/LRP1 interaction impaired the resolution of lung fibrosis in bleomycin-treated WT mice. In contrast, supplementation of ApoE promoted this process in ApoE–/– animals. In conclusion, Mo-AM–derived ApoE is beneficial to the resolution of lung fibrosis, supporting the notion that Mo-AMs may have distinct functions in different phases of lung fibrogenesis. The findings also suggest a potentially novel therapeutic target for treating lung fibrosis, to which effective remedies remain scarce.
Huachun Cui, Dingyuan Jiang, Sami Banerjee, Na Xie, Tejaswini Kulkarni, Rui-Ming Liu, Steven R. Duncan, Gang Liu
Patients with active acromegaly (ACRO) exhibit low hepatocellular lipids (HCL), despite pronounced insulin resistance (IR). This contrasts the strong association of IR with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the general population. Since low HCL levels in ACRO might be caused by changes in oxidative substrate metabolism, we investigated mitochondrial activity and plasma metabolomics/lipidomics in active ACRO. Fifteen subjects with ACRO and seventeen healthy controls, matched for age, BMI, sex, and body composition, underwent 31P/1H-7-T MR spectroscopy of the liver and skeletal muscle as well as plasma metabolomic profiling and an oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects with ACRO showed significantly lower HCL levels, but the ATP synthesis rate was significantly increased compared with that in controls. Furthermore, a decreased ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated intrahepatocellular fatty acids was found in subjects with ACRO. Within assessed plasma lipids, lipidomics, and metabolomics, decreased carnitine species also indicated increased mitochondrial activity. We therefore concluded that excess of growth hormone (GH) in humans counteracts HCL accumulation by increased hepatic ATP synthesis. This was accompanied by a decreased ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated lipids in hepatocytes and by a metabolomic profile, reflecting the increase in mitochondrial activity. Thus, these findings help to better understanding of GH-regulated antisteatotic pathways and provide a better insight into potentially novel therapeutic targets for treating NAFLD.
Paul Fellinger, Peter Wolf, Lorenz Pfleger, Patrik Krumpolec, Martin Krssak, Kristaps Klavins, Stefan Wolfsberger, Alexander Micko, Patricia Carey, Bettina Gürtl, Greisa Vila, Wolfgang Raber, Clemens Fürnsinn, Thomas Scherer, Siegfried Trattnig, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Krebs, Yvonne Winhofer
Long-term memory depends on the control of activity-dependent neuronal gene expression, which is regulated by epigenetic modifications. The epigenetic modification of histones is orchestrated by the opposing activities of 2 classes of regulatory complexes: permissive coactivators and silencing corepressors. Much work has focused on coactivator complexes, but little is known about the corepressor complexes that suppress the expression of plasticity-related genes. Here, we define a critical role for the corepressor SIN3A in memory and synaptic plasticity, showing that postnatal neuronal deletion of Sin3a enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term contextual fear memory. SIN3A regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins in the postsynaptic density. Loss of SIN3A increases expression of the synaptic scaffold Homer1, alters the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α) and mGluR5 dependence of long-term potentiation, and increases activation of ERK in the hippocampus after learning. Our studies define a critical role for corepressors in modulating neural plasticity and memory consolidation and reveal that Homer1/mGluR signaling pathways may be central molecular mechanisms for memory enhancement.
Morgan Bridi, Hannah Schoch, Cédrick Florian, Shane G. Poplawski, Anamika Banerjee, Joshua D. Hawk, Giulia S. Porcari, Camille Lejards, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Karl-Peter Giese, Robbert Havekes, Nelson Spruston, Ted Abel
Development of gastric cancer is often preceded by chronic inflammation, but the immune cellular mechanisms underlying this process are unclear. Here we demonstrated that an inflammasome molecule, absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2), was upregulated in patients with gastric cancer and in spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia of chronically Helicobacter felis–infected stomachs in mice. However, we found that Aim2 was not necessary for inflammasome function during gastritis. In contrast, Aim2 deficiency led to an increase in gastric CD8+ T cell frequency, which exacerbated metaplasia. These gastric CD8+ T cells from Aim2–/– mice were found to have lost their homing receptor expression (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 [S1PR1] and CD62L), a feature of tissue-resident memory T cells. The process was not mediated by Aim2-dependent regulation of IFN-β or by dendritic cell–intrinsic Aim2. Rather, Aim2 deficiency contributed to an increased production of CXCL16 by B cells, which could suppress S1PR1 and CD62L in CD8+ T cells. This study describes a potentially novel function of Aim2 that regulates CD8+ T cell infiltration and retention within chronically inflamed solid organ tissue. This function operates independent of the inflammasome, IFN-β, or dendritic cells. We provide evidence that B cells can contribute to this mechanism via CXCL16.
Mohamad El-Zaatari, Shrinivas Bishu, Min Zhang, Helmut Grasberger, Guoqing Hou, Henry Haley, Brock Humphries, Li-Jyun Syu, Andrzej A. Dlugosz, Kathy Luker, Gary D. Luker, Kathryn Eaton, Nobuhiko Kamada, Marilia Cascalho, John Y. Kao
The specificity of antibodies (Abs) generated against influenza A virus (IAV) infection can significantly alter protection and viral clearance. At present, the impact of age upon this process is relatively unexplored. Here, we evaluated the Ab response in newborn and adult African green monkeys following infection with IAV using a strain that enables us to determine the immunodominance (ID) hierarchy of the Ab response to hemagglutinin (HA), the principal target of protective Abs. This revealed altered ID patterns in the early IgM anti-HA response in newborns versus adults that converged over time. While the IgG ID profiles for HA in newborn and adult monkeys were similar, this was not the case for IgA. Importantly, HA stem–specific Abs were generated robustly and similarly in newborns and adults in terms of quality and quantity. Together, these results demonstrate that newborns and adults can differ in the Ab ID pattern established following infection and that the ID pattern can vary across isotypes. In addition, newborns have the ability to generate potent HA stem–specific Ab responses. Our findings further the understanding of the newborn response to IAV antigens and inform the development of improved vaccines for this at-risk population.
Elene Clemens, Davide Angeletti, Beth C. Holbrook, Masaru Kanekiyo, Matthew J. Jorgensen, Barney S. Graham, Jonathan Yewdell, Martha A. Alexander-Miller
Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthetase 1 (CTPS1) deficiency is caused by a unique homozygous frameshift splice mutation (c.1692-1G>C, p.T566Dfs26X). CTPS1-deficient patients display severe bacterial and viral infections. CTPS1 is responsible for CTP nucleotide de novo production involved in DNA/RNA synthesis. Herein, we characterized in depth lymphocyte defects associated with CTPS1 deficiency. Immune phenotyping performed in 7 patients showed absence or low numbers of mucosal-associated T cells, invariant NKT cells, memory B cells, and NK cells, whereas other subsets were normal. Proliferation and IL-2 secretion by T cells in response to TCR activation were markedly decreased in all patients, while other T cell effector functions were preserved. The CTPS1T566Dfs26X mutant protein was found to be hypomorphic, resulting in 80%–90% reduction of protein expression and CTPS activity in cells of patients. Inactivation of CTPS1 in a T cell leukemia fully abolished cell proliferation. Expression of CTPS1T566Dfs26X failed to restore proliferation of CTPS1-deficient leukemia cells to normal, except when forcing its expression to a level comparable to that of WT CTPS1. This indicates that CTPS1T566Dfs26X retained normal CTPS activity, and thus the loss of function of CTPS1T566Dfs26X is completely attributable to protein instability. This study supports that CTPS1 represents an attractive therapeutic target to selectively inhibit pathological T cell proliferation, including lymphoma.
Emmanuel Martin, Norbert Minet, Anne-Claire Boschat, Sylvia Sanquer, Steicy Sobrino, Christelle Lenoir, Jean Pierre de Villartay, Maria Leite-de-Moraes, Capucine Picard, Claire Soudais, Tim Bourne, Sophie Hambleton, Stephen M. Hughes, Robert F. Wynn, Tracy A. Briggs, Genomics England Research Consortium, Smita Patel, Monica G. Lawrence, Alain Fischer, Peter D. Arkwright, Sylvain Latour
Diabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis. In this study, we used a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the effect of prior Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We found that, at 6–7 months after Mtb infection, 90% of the Mtb-infected T2DM mice died, whereas only 50% of BCG-vaccinated T2DM-Mtb–infected mice died. Moreover, 40% of the PBS-treated uninfected T2DM mice and 30% of the uninfected BCG-vaccinated T2DM mice died, whereas all uninfected and infected nondiabetic mice survived. BCG vaccination was less effective in reducing the lung bacterial burden of Mtb-infected T2DM mice compared with Mtb-infected nondiabetic mice. BCG vaccination significantly reduced lung inflammation in Mtb-infected T2DM mice compared with that of unvaccinated T2DM mice infected with Mtb. Furthermore, reduced mortality of BCG-vaccinated Mtb-infected T2DM mice is associated with expansion of IL-13–producing CXCR3+ Tregs in the lungs of Mtb-infected T2DM mice. Recombinant IL-13 and Tregs from BCG-vaccinated Mtb-infected T2DM mice converted proinflammatory M1 macrophages to antiinflammatory M2 macrophages. Our findings suggest a potentially novel role for BCG in preventing excess inflammation and mortality in T2DM mice infected with Mtb.
Rajesh Kumar Radhakrishnan, Ramya Sivangala Thandi, Deepak Tripathi, Padmaja Paidipally, Madeline Kay McAllister, Sachin Mulik, Buka Samten, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati