In this issue, Maglione et al. examined a cohort of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients to investigate links between clinical parameters and the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD). ILD progression associated with increased levels of serum IgM, which was reflective of increased B cell hyperplasia and follicle formation in the lungs. The cover image shows extensive IgM (green) and IgD (red) staining in a lung biopsy from a CVID patient with ILD and high levels of serum IgM.
The circadian clock network is an evolutionarily conserved system involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis; however, its impacts on skeletal metabolism remain largely unknown. We herein demonstrated that the circadian clock network in the intestines plays pivotal roles in skeletal metabolism such that the lack of the Bmal1 gene in the intestines (Bmal1Int–/– mice) caused bone loss, with bone resorption being activated and bone formation suppressed. Mechanistically, Clock protein interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) accelerated its binding to the VDR response element by enhancing histone acetylation in a circadian-dependent manner, and this was lost in Bmal1Int–/– mice because nuclear translocation of Clock required the presence of Bmal1. Accordingly, the rhythmic expression of VDR target genes involved in transcellular calcium (Ca) absorption was created, and this was not observed in Bmal1Int–/– mice. As a result, transcellular Ca absorption was impaired and bone resorption was activated in Bmal1Int–/– mice. Additionally, sympathetic tone, the activation of which suppresses bone formation, was elevated through afferent vagal nerves in Bmal1Int–/– mice, the blockade of which partially recovered bone loss by increasing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption in Bmal1Int–/– mice. These results demonstrate that the intestinal circadian system regulates skeletal bone homeostasis.
Masanobu Kawai, Saori Kinoshita, Miwa Yamazaki, Keiko Yamamoto, Clifford J. Rosen, Shigeki Shimba, Keiichi Ozono, Toshimi Michigami
Treg differentiation, maintenance, and function are controlled by the transcription factor FoxP3, which can be destabilized under inflammatory or other pathological conditions. Tregs can be destabilized under inflammatory or other pathological conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Herein, we show that inflammatory cytokines induce ER stress response, which destabilizes Tregs by suppressing FoxP3 expression, suggesting a critical role of the ER stress response in maintaining Treg stability. Indeed, genetic deletion of Hrd1, an E3 ligase critical in suppressing the ER stress response, leads to elevated expression of ER stress–responsive genes in Treg and largely diminishes Treg suppressive functions under inflammatory condition. Mice with Treg-specific ablation of Hrd1 displayed massive multiorgan lymphocyte infiltration, body weight loss, and the development of severe small intestine inflammation with aging. At the molecular level, the deletion of Hrd1 led to the activation of both the ER stress sensor IRE1α and its downstream MAPK p38. Pharmacological suppression of IRE1α kinase, but not its endoribonuclease activity, diminished the elevated p38 activation and fully rescued the stability of Hrd1-null Tregs. Taken together, our studies reveal ER stress response as a previously unappreciated mechanism underlying Treg instability and that Hrd1 is crucial for maintaining Treg stability and functions through suppressing the IRE1α-mediated ER stress response.
Yuanming Xu, Johanna Melo-Cardenas, Yana Zhang, Isabella Gau, Juncheng Wei, Elena Montauti, Yusi Zhang, Beixue Gao, Hongjian Jin, Zhaolin Sun, Sang-Myeong Lee, Deyu Fang
Soluble stimulation–2 (ST2) is increased during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), while Tregs that express ST2 prevent GVHD through unknown mechanisms. Transplantation of Foxp3– T cells and Tregs that were collected and sorted from different Foxp3 reporter mice indicated that in mice that developed GVHD, ST2+ Tregs were thymus derived and predominantly localized to the intestine. ST2–/– Treg transplantation was associated with reduced total intestinal Treg frequency and activation. ST2–/– versus WT intestinal Treg transcriptomes showed decreased Treg functional markers and, reciprocally, increased Rorc expression. Rorc–/– T cells transplantation enhanced the frequency and function of intestinal ST2+ Tregs and reduced GVHD through decreased gut-infiltrating soluble ST2–producing type 1 and increased IL-4/IL-10–producing type 2 T cells. Cotransfer of ST2+ Tregs sorted from Rorc–/– mice with WT CD25-depleted T cells decreased GVHD severity and mortality, increased intestinal ST2+KLRG1+ Tregs, and decreased type 1 T cells after transplantation, indicating an intrinsic mechanism. Ex vivo IL-33–stimulated Tregs (TregIL-33) expressed higher amphiregulin and displayed better immunosuppression, and adoptive transfer prevented GVHD better than control Tregs or TregIL-33 cultured with IL-23/IL-17. Amphiregulin blockade by neutralizing antibody in vivo abolished the protective effect of TregIL-33. Our data show that inverse expression of ST2 and RORγt in intestinal Tregs determines GVHD and that TregIL-33 has potential as a cellular therapy avenue for preventing GVHD.
Jinfeng Yang, Abdulraouf Ramadan, Dawn K. Reichenbach, Michael Loschi, Jilu Zhang, Brad Griesenauer, Hong Liu, Keli L. Hippen, Bruce R Blazar, Sophie Paczesny
The satiety effects and metabolic actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets in obesity for decades. We identified a potentially novel Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl–) current (CaCC) that is induced by CCK in intestinal vagal afferents of nodose neurons. The CaCC subunit Anoctamin 2 (Ano2/TMEM16B) is the dominant contributor to this current. Its expression is reduced, as is CCK current activity in obese mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Reduced expression of TMEM16B in the heterozygote KO of the channel in sensory neurons results in an obese phenotype with a loss of CCK sensitivity in intestinal nodose neurons, a loss of CCK-induced satiety, and metabolic changes, including decreased energy expenditure. The effect on energy expenditure is further supported by evidence in rats showing that CCK enhances sympathetic nerve activity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, and these effects are abrogated by a HFD and vagotomy. Our findings reveal that Ano2/TMEM16B is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in vagal afferents of nodose neurons and a major determinant of CCK-induced satiety, body weight control, and energy expenditure, making it a potential therapeutic target in obesity.
Runping Wang, Yongjun Lu, Michael Z. Cicha, Madhu V. Singh, Christopher J. Benson, Christopher J. Madden, Mark W. Chapleau, François M. Abboud
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) often presents with metastases and ascites. Granulocytic myeloid–derived suppressor cells are an immature population that impairs antitumor immunity. Since suppressive granulocytes in the ascites of patients with newly diagnosed EOC were morphologically mature, we hypothesized that PMN were rendered suppressive in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Circulating PMN from patients were not suppressive but acquired a suppressor phenotype (defined as ≥1 log10 reduction of anti-CD3/CD28–stimulated T cell proliferation) after ascites supernatant exposure. Ascites supernatants (20 of 31 supernatants) recapitulated the suppressor phenotype in PMN from healthy donors. T cell proliferation was restored with ascites removal and restimulation. PMN suppressors also inhibited T cell activation and cytokine production. PMN suppressors completely suppressed proliferation in naive, central memory, and effector memory T cells and in engineered tumor antigen–specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while antigen-specific cell lysis was unaffected. Inhibition of complement C3 activation and PMN effector functions, including CR3 signaling, protein synthesis, and vesicular trafficking, abrogated the PMN suppressor phenotype. Moreover, malignant effusions from patients with various metastatic cancers also induced the C3-dependent PMN suppressor phenotype. These results point to PMN impairing T cell expansion and activation in the TME and the potential for complement inhibition to abrogate this barrier to antitumor immunity.
Kelly L. Singel, Tiffany R. Emmons, ANM Nazmul H. Khan, Paul C. Mayor, Shichen Shen, Jerry T. Wong, Kayla Morrell, Kevin H. Eng, Jaron Mark, Richard B. Bankert, Junko Matsuzaki, Richard C. Koya, Anna M. Blom, Kenneth R. McLeish, Jun Qu, Sanjay Ram, Kirsten B. Moysich, Scott I. Abrams, Kunle Odunsi, Emese Zsiros, Brahm H. Segal
Although type-2–induced (T2-induced) epithelial dysfunction is likely to profoundly alter epithelial differentiation and repair in asthma, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. A role for specific mucins, heavily N-glycosylated epithelial glycoproteins, in orchestrating epithelial cell fate in response to T2 stimuli has not previously been investigated. Levels of a sialylated MUC4β isoform were found to be increased in airway specimens from asthmatic patients in association with T2 inflammation. We hypothesized that IL-13 would increase sialylation of MUC4β, thereby altering its function and that the β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) would regulate the sialylation. Using human biologic specimens and cultured primary human airway epithelial cells (HAECs),we demonstrated that IL-13 increases ST6GAL1-mediated sialylation of MUC4β and that both were increased in asthma, particularly in sputum supernatant and/or fresh isolated HAECs with elevated T2 biomarkers. ST6GAL1-induced sialylation of MUC4β altered its lectin binding and secretion. Both ST6GAL1 and MUC4β inhibited epithelial cell proliferation while promoting goblet cell differentiation. These in vivo and in vitro data provide strong evidence for a critical role for ST6GAL1-induced sialylation of MUC4β in epithelial dysfunction associated with T2-high asthma, thereby identifying specific sialylation pathways as potential targets in asthma.
Xiuxia Zhou, Carol L. Kinlough, Rebecca P. Hughey, Mingzhu Jin, Hideki Inoue, Emily Etling, Brian D. Modena, Naftali Kaminski, Eugene R. Bleecker, Deborah A. Meyers, Nizar N. Jarjour, John B. Trudeau, Fernando Holguin, Anuradha Ray, Sally E. Wenzel
BACKGROUND. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is frequently complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD) for which etiology is unknown and therapy inadequate. METHODS. Medical record review implicated B cell dysregulation in CVID ILD progression. This was further studied in blood and lung samples using culture, cytometry, ELISA, and histology. Eleven CVID ILD patients were treated with rituximab and followed for 18 months. RESULTS. Serum IgM increased in conjunction with ILD progression, a finding that reflected the extent of IgM production within B cell follicles in lung parenchyma. Targeting these pulmonary B cell follicles with rituximab ameliorated CVID ILD, but disease recurred in association with IgM elevation. Searching for a stimulus of this pulmonary B cell hyperplasia, we found B cell–activating factor (BAFF) increased in blood and lungs of progressive and post-rituximab CVID ILD patients and detected elevation of BAFF-producing monocytes in progressive ILD. This elevated BAFF interacts with naive B cells, as they are the predominant subset in progressive CVID ILD, expressing BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) within pulmonary B cell follicles and blood to promote Bcl-2 expression. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was linked with exclusion of apoptosis from B cell follicles in CVID ILD and increased survival of naive CVID B cells cultured with BAFF. CONCLUSION. CVID ILD is driven by pulmonary B cell hyperplasia that is reflected by serum IgM elevation, ameliorated by rituximab, and bolstered by elevated BAFF-mediated apoptosis resistance via BAFF-R. FUNDING. NIH, Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium, and Rare Disease Foundation.
Paul J. Maglione, Gavin Gyimesi, Montserrat Cols, Lin Radigan, Huaibin M. Ko, Tamar Weinberger, Brian H. Lee, Emilie K. Grasset, Adeeb H. Rahman, Andrea Cerutti, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
β-2 Microglobulin (β2M) is a molecular chaperone for the major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) complex, hemochromatosis factor protein (HFE), and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), but β2M may also have less understood chaperone-independent functions. Elevated plasma β2M has a direct role in neurocognitive decline and is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. β2M mRNA is present in platelets at very high levels, and β2M is part of the activated platelet releasate. In addition to their more well-studied thrombotic functions, platelets are important immune regulatory cells that release inflammatory molecules and contribute to leukocyte trafficking, activation, and differentiation. We have now found that platelet-derived β2M is a mediator of monocyte proinflammatory differentiation through noncanonical TGFβ receptor signaling. Circulating monocytes from mice lacking β2M only in platelets (Plt-β2M–/–) had a more proreparative monocyte phenotype, in part dependent on increased platelet-derived TGFβ signaling in the absence of β2M. Using a mouse myocardial infarction (MI) model, Plt-β2M–/– mice had limited post-MI proinflammatory monocyte responses and, instead, demonstrated early proreparative monocyte differentiation, profibrotic myofibroblast responses, and a rapid decline in heart function compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate a potentially novel chaperone-independent, monocyte phenotype–regulatory function for platelet β2M and that platelet-derived 2M and TGFβ have opposing roles in monocyte differentiation that may be important in tissue injury responses.
Zachary T. Hilt, Daphne N. Pariser, Sara K. Ture, Amy Mohan, Pearl Quijada, Akua A. Asante, Scott J. Cameron, Julie A. Sterling, Alyssa R. Merkel, Andrew L. Johanson, Jermaine L. Jenkins, Eric M. Small, Kathleen E. McGrath, James Palis, Michael R. Elliott, Craig N. Morrell
Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 induces glycosuria and reduces glycemia. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce mortality and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, improved understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating these metabolic effects is required. Treatment of obese but nondiabetic mice with the SGLT2i canagliflozin (CANA) reduces adiposity, improves glucose tolerance despite reduced plasma insulin, increases plasma ketones, and improves plasma lipid profiles. Utilizing an integrated transcriptomic-metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that CANA modulates key nutrient-sensing pathways, with activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), independent of insulin or glucagon sensitivity or signaling. Moreover, CANA induces transcriptional reprogramming to activate catabolic pathways, increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerol content, and increase hepatic and plasma levels of FGF21. Given that these phenotypes mirror the effects of FGF21 to promote lipid oxidation, ketogenesis, and reduction in adiposity, we hypothesized that FGF21 is required for CANA action. Using FGF21-null mice, we demonstrate that FGF21 is not required for SGLT2i-mediated induction of lipid oxidation and ketogenesis but is required for reduction in fat mass and activation of lipolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SGLT2 inhibition triggers a fasting-like transcriptional and metabolic paradigm but requires FGF21 for reduction in adiposity.
Soravis Osataphan, Chiara Macchi, Garima Singhal, Jeremy Chimene-Weiss, Vicencia Sales, Chisayo Kozuka, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Hui Pan, Yanin Tangcharoenpaisan, Jordan Morningstar, Robert Gerszten, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
The routes by which antibody-based therapeutics reach malignant cells are poorly defined. Tofacitinib, an FDA-approved JAK inhibitor, reduced tumor-associated inflammatory cells and allowed increased delivery of antibody-based agents to malignant cells. Alone, tofacitinib exhibited no antitumor activity, but combinations with immunotoxins or an antibody-drug conjugate resulted in increased antitumor responses. Quantification using flow cytometry revealed that antibody-based agents accumulated in malignant cells at higher percentages following tofacitinib treatment. Profiling of tofacitinib-treated tumor-bearing mice indicated that cytokine transcripts and various proteins involved in chemotaxis were reduced compared with vehicle-treated mice. Histological analysis revealed significant changes to the composition of the tumor microenvironment, with reductions in monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Tumor-associated inflammatory cells contributed to non-target uptake of antibody-based therapeutics, with mice treated with tofacitinib showing decreased accumulation of therapeutics in intratumoral inflammatory cells and increased delivery to malignant cells. The present findings serve as a rationale for conducting trials where short-term treatments with tofacitinib could be administered in combination with antibody-based therapies.
Nathan Simon, Antonella Antignani, Stephen M. Hewitt, Massimo Gadina, Christine Alewine, David FitzGerald
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex inflammatory skin disease mediated by immune cells of both adaptive and innate types. Among them, CD4+ Th cells are one of major players of AD pathogenesis. Although the pathogenic role of Th2 cells has been well characterized, Th17/Th22 cells are also implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenic immune responses in AD remain unclear. We sought to investigate how the defect in the AD susceptibility gene, Ets1, is involved in AD pathogenesis in human and mice and its clinical relevance in disease severity by identifying Ets1 target genes and binding partners. Consistent with the decrease in ETS1 levels in severe AD patients and the experimental AD-like skin inflammation model, T cell–specific Ets1-deficient mice (Ets1ΔdLck) developed severe AD-like symptoms with increased pathogenic Th cell responses. A T cell–intrinsic increase of gp130 expression upon Ets1 deficiency promotes the gp130-mediated IL-6 signaling pathway, thereby leading to the development of severe AD-like symptoms. Functional blocking of gp130 by selective inhibitor SC144 ameliorated the disease pathogenesis by reducing pathogenic Th cell responses. Our results reveal a protective role of Ets1 in restricting pathogenic Th cell responses and suggest a potential therapeutic target for AD treatment.
Choong-Gu Lee, Ho-Keun Kwon, Hyeji Kang, Young Kim, Jong Hee Nam, Young Ho Won, Sunhee Park, Taemook Kim, Keunsoo Kang, Dipayan Rudra, Chang-Duk Jun, Zee Yong Park, Sin-Hyeog Im
Increased airway vagal sensory C-fiber activity contributes to the symptoms of inflammatory airway diseases. The KCNQ/Kv7/M-channel is a well-known determinant of neuronal excitability, yet whether it regulates the activity of vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers and airway reflex sensitivity remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue using single-cell RT-PCR, patch clamp technique, extracellular recording of single vagal nerve fibers innervating the mouse lungs, and telemetric recording of cough in free-moving mice. Single-cell mRNA analysis and biophysical properties of M-current (IM) suggest that KCNQ3/Kv7.3 is the major M-channel subunit in mouse nodose neurons. The M-channel opener retigabine negatively shifted the voltage-dependent activation of IM, leading to membrane hyperpolarization, increased rheobase, and suppression of both evoked and spontaneous action potential (AP) firing in nodose neurons in an M-channel inhibitor XE991–sensitive manner. Retigabine also markedly suppressed the α,β-methylene ATP–induced AP firing in nodose C-fiber terminals innervating the mouse lungs, and coughing evoked by irritant gases in awake mice. In conclusion, KCNQ/M-channels play a role in regulating the excitability of vagal airway C-fibers at both the cell soma and nerve terminals. Drugs that open M-channels in airway sensory afferents may relieve the sufferings associated with pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as chronic coughing.
Hui Sun, An-Hsuan Lin, Fei Ru, Mayur J. Patil, Sonya Meeker, Lu-Yuan Lee, Bradley J. Undem
Genomic studies revealed the existence of health- and acne-associated P. acnes strains and suggested novel approaches for broadening understanding of acne vulgaris. However, clinical association of P. acnes with disease or health has yet to be corroborated experimentally. Current animal models of acne do not closely mimic human disease and have unclear translational value. We have developed a murine model of acne by combining P. acnes inoculation with topical application of a synthetic human sebum. We showed that human sebum promoted persistence of intradermally injected P. acnes with little loss of viability after 1 week and permitted use of more physiologic inoculums. Application of acne-associated P. acnes RT4/5 strains led to development of moderate to severe skin pathology compared with application of health-associated type II P. acnes strains (RT2/6). RT4/5 P. acnes strains uniformly induced higher levels of KC (IL-8), IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo compared with type II P. acnes strains. Overall, our data provide immunopathologic corroboration of health and disease association of clinical P. acnes strains and inform on a platform to query putative virulence factors uncovered by genomic studies.
Stacey L. Kolar, Chih-Ming Tsai, Juan Torres, Xuemo Fan, Huiying Li, George Y. Liu
BACKGROUND. The relation between the menopause transition (MT) and changes in body composition or weight remains uncertain. We hypothesized that, independent of chronological aging, the MT would have a detrimental influence on body composition. METHODS. Participants were from the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) cohort. We assessed body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable mixed effects regressions fitted piece-wise linear models to repeated measures of outcomes as a function of time before or after the final menstrual period (FMP). Covariates were age at FMP, race, study site, and hormone therapy. RESULTS. Fat and lean mass increased prior to the MT. At the start of the MT, rate of fat gain doubled, and lean mass declined; gains and losses continued until 2 years after the FMP. After that, the trajectories of fat and lean mass decelerated to zero slope. Weight climbed linearly during premenopause without acceleration at the MT. Its trajectory became flat after the MT. CONCLUSION. Accelerated gains in fat mass and losses of lean mass are MT-related phenomena. The rate of increase in the sum of fat mass and lean mass does not differ between premenopause and the MT; thus, there is no discernable change in rate of weight gain at the start of the MT. FUNDING. NIH, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), through the National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Nursing Research, and NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health (U01NR004061, U01AG012505, U01AG012535, U01AG012531, U01AG012539, U01AG012546, U01AG012553, U01AG012554, and U01AG012495).
Gail A. Greendale, Barbara Sternfeld, MeiHua Huang, Weijuan Han, Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez, Kristine Ruppert, Jane A. Cauley, Joel S. Finkelstein, Sheng-Fang Jiang, Arun S. Karlamangla
The tumor microenvironment presents physical, immunologic, and metabolic barriers to durable immunotherapy responses. We have recently described roles for both T cell metabolic insufficiency as well as tumor hypoxia as inhibitory mechanisms that prevent T cell activity in murine tumors, but whether intratumoral T cell activity or response to immunotherapy varies between patients as a function of distinct metabolic profiles in tumor cells remains unclear. Here, we show that metabolic derangement can vary widely in both degree and type in patient-derived cell lines and in ex vivo analysis of patient samples, such that some cells demonstrate solely deregulated oxidative or glycolytic metabolism. Further, deregulated oxidative, but not glycolytic, metabolism was associated with increased generation of hypoxia upon implantation into immunodeficient animals. Generation of murine single-cell melanoma cell lines that lacked either oxidative or glycolytic metabolism showed that elevated tumor oxygen consumption was associated with increased T cell exhaustion and decreased immune activity. Moreover, melanoma lines lacking oxidative metabolism were solely responsive to anti–PD-1 therapy among those tested. Prospective analysis of patient sample immunotherapy revealed that oxidative, but not glycolytic, metabolism was associated with progression on PD-1 blockade. Our data highlight a role for oxygen as a crucial metabolite required for the tumor-infiltrating T cells to differentiate appropriately upon PD-1 blockade, and suggest that tumor oxidative metabolism may be a target to improve immunotherapeutic response.
Yana G. Najjar, Ashley V. Menk, Cindy Sander, Uma Rao, Arivarasan Karunamurthy, Roma Bhatia, Shuyan Zhai, John M. Kirkwood, Greg M. Delgoffe
Pompe disease is a rare inherited disorder of lysosomal glycogen metabolism due to acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using alglucosidase alfa, a recombinant human GAA (rhGAA), is the only approved treatment for Pompe disease. Although alglucosidase alfa has provided clinical benefits, its poor targeting to key disease-relevant skeletal muscles results in suboptimal efficacy. We are developing an rhGAA, ATB200 (Amicus proprietary rhGAA), with high levels of mannose-6-phosphate that are required for efficient cellular uptake and lysosomal trafficking. When administered in combination with the pharmacological chaperone AT2221 (miglustat), which stabilizes the enzyme and improves its pharmacokinetic properties, ATB200/AT2221 was substantially more potent than alglucosidase alfa in a mouse model of Pompe disease. The new investigational therapy is more effective at reversing the primary abnormality — intralysosomal glycogen accumulation — in multiple muscles. Furthermore, unlike the current standard of care, ATB200/AT2221 dramatically reduces autophagic buildup, a major secondary defect in the diseased muscles. The reversal of lysosomal and autophagic pathologies leads to improved muscle function. These data demonstrate the superiority of ATB200/AT2221 over the currently approved ERT in the murine model.
Su Xu, Yi Lun, Michelle Frascella, Anadina Garcia, Rebecca Soska, Anju Nair, Abdul S. Ponery, Adriane Schilling, Jessie Feng, Steven Tuske, Maria Cecilia Della Valle, José A. Martina, Evelyn Ralston, Russell Gotschall, Kenneth J. Valenzano, Rosa Puertollano, Hung V. Do, Nina Raben, Richie Khanna
Molecular profiling of prostate cancer with liquid biopsies, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acid analysis, yields informative yet distinct data sets. Additional insights may be gained by simultaneously interrogating multiple liquid biopsy components to construct a more comprehensive molecular disease profile. We conducted an initial proof-of-principle study aimed at piloting this multiparametric approach. Peripheral blood samples from men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer were analyzed simultaneously for CTC enumeration, single-cell copy number variations, CTC DNA and matched cell-free DNA mutations, and plasma cell-free RNA levels of androgen receptor (AR) and AR splice variant (ARV7). In addition, liquid biopsies were compared with matched tumor profiles when available, and a second liquid biopsy was drawn and analyzed at disease progression in a subset of patients. In this manner, multiparametric liquid biopsy profiles were successfully generated for each patient and time point, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and highlighting shared as well as unique cancer-relevant alterations. With further refinement and validation in large cohorts, multiparametric liquid biopsies can optimally integrate disparate but clinically informative data sets and maximize their utility for molecularly directed, real-time patient management.
Emmanuelle Hodara, Gareth Morrison, Alexander Cunha, Daniel Zainfeld, Tong Xu, Yucheng Xu, Paul W. Dempsey, Paul C. Pagano, Farideh Bischoff, Aditi Khurana, Samuel Koo, Marc Ting, Philip D. Cotter, Mathew W. Moore, Shelly Gunn, Joshua Usher, Shahrooz Rabizadeh, Peter Danenberg, Kathleen Danenberg, John Carpten, Tanya Dorff, David Quinn, Amir Goldkorn
Human adipose cells cannot secrete endogenous PPARγ ligands and are dependent on unknown exogenous sources. We postulated that the adipose tissue microvascular endothelial cells (aMVECs) cross-talk with the adipose cells for fatty acid (FA) transport and storage and also may secrete PPARγ ligands. We isolated aMVECs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue and showed that in these cells, but not in (pre)adipocytes from the same donors, exogenous FAs increased cellular PPARγ activation and markedly increased FA transport and the transporters FABP4 and CD36. Importantly, aMVECs only accumulated small lipid droplets and could not be differentiated to adipose cells and are not adipose precursor cells. FA exchange between aMVECs and adipose cells was bidirectional, and FA-induced PPARγ activation in aMVECs was dependent on functional adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein while deleting hormone-sensitive lipase in aMVECs had no effect. aMVECs also released lipids to the medium, which activated PPARγ in reporter cells as well as in adipose cells in coculture experiments, and this positive cross-talk was also dependent on functional ATGL in aMVECs. In sum, aMVECs are highly specialized endothelial cells, cannot be differentiated to adipose cells, are adapted to regulating lipid transport and secreting lipids that activate PPARγ, and thus, regulate adipose cell function.
Silvia Gogg, Annika Nerstedt, Jan Boren, Ulf Smith
Macrophages are well recognized for their dual roles in orchestrating inflammatory responses and regulating tissue repair. In almost all acutely inflamed tissues, 2 main subclasses of macrophages coexist. These include embryonically derived resident tissue macrophages and BM-derived recruited macrophages. While it is clear that macrophage subsets categorized in this fashion display distinct transcriptional and functional profiles, whether all cells within these categories and in the same inflammatory microenvironment share similar functions or whether further specialization exists has not been determined. To investigate inflammatory macrophage heterogeneity on a more granular level, we induced acute lung inflammation in mice and performed single cell RNA sequencing of macrophages isolated from the airspaces during health, peak inflammation, and resolution of inflammation. In doing so, we confirm that cell origin is the major determinant of alveolar macrophage (AM) programing, and, to our knowledge, we describe 2 previously uncharacterized, transcriptionally distinct subdivisions of AMs based on proliferative capacity and inflammatory programing.
Kara J. Mould, Nathan D. Jackson, Peter M. Henson, Max Seibold, William J. Janssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Mounting evidence supports a central role for β cell alterations in triggering the activation of self-reactive T cells in T1D. However, the early deleterious events that occur in β cells, underpinning islet autoimmunity, are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications induced in β cells by inflammatory mediators play a key role in initiating the autoimmune response. We analyzed DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns and gene expression in human islets exposed to IFN-α, a cytokine associated with T1D development. We found that IFN-α triggers DNA demethylation and increases expression of genes controlling inflammatory and immune pathways. We then demonstrated that DNA demethylation was caused by upregulation of the exoribonuclease, PNPase old-35 (PNPT1), which caused degradation of miR-26a. This in turn promoted the upregulation of ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) enzyme and increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels in human islets and pancreatic β cells. Moreover, we showed that specific IFN-α expression in the β cells of IFNα–INS1CreERT2 transgenic mice led to development of T1D that was preceded by increased islet DNA hydroxymethylation through a PNPT1/TET2–dependent mechanism. Our results suggest a new mechanism through which IFN-α regulates DNAm in β cells, leading to changes in expression of genes in inflammatory and immune pathways that can initiate islet autoimmunity in T1D.
Mihaela Stefan-Lifshitz, Esra Karakose, Lingguang Cui, Abora Ettela, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Yaron Tomer
INTRODUCTION. A local renin-angiotensin system exists in the pulmonary nodules of lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients. Sirolimus, the standard treatment for lymphangioleiomyomatosis, stabilizes lung function, but all patients do not respond to or tolerate sirolimus. As renin-angiotensin systems may affect tumor growth and metastasis, we questioned if angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affected lymphangioleiomyomatosis disease progression. METHODS. Retrospective study of 426 patients was performed, examining angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, pulmonary function data, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment. RESULTS. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were elevated in approximately 33% of patients, increased with duration of disease, and were inversely correlated with pulmonary function. Levels decreased significantly over time with sirolimus treatment. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was reported by approximately 15% of patients and was significantly associated with a slower rate of decline in percentage predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in patients not treated with sirolimus. No significant differences in rates of decline of FEV1 or DLCO were seen in patients treated with both inhibitors and sirolimus versus sirolimus alone. CONCLUSIONS. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may slow decline of pulmonary function in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis not treated with sirolimus. These inhibitors may be an option or adjunct in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A clinical trial may be warranted to examine this possibility. FUNDING. NIH.
Wendy K. Steagall, Mario Stylianou, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Joel Moss
Paracrine interactions between pancreatic islet cells have been proposed as a mechanism to regulate hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate the importance of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs) for α to β cell communication and control of insulin secretion. Signaling through this system occurs through both the glucagon-like peptide receptor (Glp1r) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr). Loss of PGDPs, or blockade of their receptors, decreases insulin secretion in response to both metabolic and nonmetabolic stimulation of mouse and human islets. This effect is due to reduced β cell cAMP and affects the quantity but not dynamics of insulin release, indicating that PGDPs dictate the magnitude of insulin output in an isolated islet. In healthy mice, additional factors that stimulate cAMP can compensate for loss of PGDP signaling; however, input from α cells is essential to maintain glucose tolerance during the metabolic stress induced by high-fat feeding. These findings demonstrate an essential role for α cell regulation of β cells, raising the possibility that abnormal paracrine signaling contributes to impaired insulin secretion in diabetes. Moreover, these findings support reconsideration of the role for α cells in postprandial glucose control.
Megan E. Capozzi, Berit Svendsen, Sara E. Encisco, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Mackenzie D. Martin, Haopeng Lin, Justin L. Jaffe, Reilly W. Coch, Jonathan M. Haldeman, Patrick E. MacDonald, Matthew J. Merrins, David A. D’Alessio, Jonathan E. Campbell
During endochondral bone formation, chondrocyte hypertrophy represents a crucial turning point from chondrocyte differentiation to bone formation. Both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Using multiple mouse genetics models, we demonstrate in vivo that HDAC4 is required for the effects of PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. We further show in vivo that PTHrP leads to reduced HDAC4 phosphorylation at the 14-3-3–binding sites and subsequent HDAC4 nuclear translocation. The Hdac4-KO mouse shares a similar but milder phenotype with the Pthrp-KO mouse, indicating the possible existence of other mediators of PTHrP action. We identify HDAC5 as an additional mediator of PTHrP signaling. While the Hdac5-KO mouse has no growth plate phenotype at birth, the KO of Hdac5 in addition to the KO of Hdac4 is required to block fully PTHrP action on chondrocyte differentiation at birth in vivo. Finally, we show that PTHrP suppresses myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) action that allows runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression needed for chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP inhibits chondrocyte hypertrophy and subsequent bone formation in vivo by allowing HDAC4 and HDAC5 to block the Mef2/Runx2 signaling cascade. These results explain the phenotypes of several genetic abnormalities in humans.
Shigeki Nishimori, Forest Lai, Mieno Shiraishi, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Elena Kozhemyakina, Tso-Pang Yao, Andrew B. Lassar, Henry M. Kronenberg
The lack of intrinsic motivation to engage in, and adhere to, physical exercise has major health consequences. However, the neurobiological bases of exercise motivation are still unknown. This study aimed at examining whether the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in this process. To do so, we developed an operant conditioning paradigm wherein mice unlocked a running wheel with nose pokes. Using pharmacological tools and conditional mutants for cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors, we provide evidence that CB1 receptors located on GABAergic neurons are both necessary and sufficient to positively control running motivation. Conversely, this receptor population proved dispensable for the modulation of running duration per rewarded sequence. Although the ECS mediated the motivation for another reward, namely palatable food, such a regulation was independent from CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons. In addition, we report that the lack of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons decreases the preference for running over palatable food when mice were proposed an exclusive choice between the two rewards. Beyond providing a paradigm that enables motivation processes for exercise to be dissected either singly or in concurrence, this study is the first to our knowledge to identify a neurobiological mechanism that might contribute to sedentary behavior.
Carolina Muguruza, Bastien Redon, Giulia R. Fois, Imane Hurel, Amandine Scocard, Claire Nguyen, Christopher Stevens, Edgar Soria-Gomez, Marjorie Varilh, Astrid Cannich, Justine Daniault, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Teresa Pelliccia, Stéphanie Caillé, François Georges, Giovanni Marsicano, Francis Chaouloff
The lymphatic system plays crucial roles in tissue homeostasis, lipid absorption, and immune cell trafficking. Although lymphatic valves ensure unidirectional lymph flows, the flow itself controls lymphatic valve formation. Here, we demonstrate that a mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1 senses oscillating shear stress (OSS) and incorporates the signal into the genetic program controlling lymphatic valve development and maintenance. Time-controlled deletion of Piezo1 using a pan-endothelial Cre driver (Cdh5[PAC]-CreERT2) or lymphatic-specific Cre driver (Prox1-CreERT2) equally inhibited lymphatic valve formation in newborn mice. Furthermore, Piezo1 deletion in adult lymphatics caused substantial lymphatic valve degeneration. Piezo1 knockdown in cultured lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) largely abrogated the OSS-induced upregulation of the lymphatic valve signature genes. Conversely, ectopic Piezo1 overexpression upregulated the lymphatic valve genes in the absence of OSS. Remarkably, activation of Piezo1 using chemical agonist Yoda1 not only accelerated lymphatic valve formation in animals, but also triggered upregulation of some lymphatic valve genes in cultured LECs without exposure to OSS. In summary, our studies together demonstrate that Piezo1 is the force sensor in the mechanotransduction pathway controlling lymphatic valve development and maintenance, and Piezo1 activation is a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for congenital and surgery-associated lymphedema.
Dongwon Choi, Eunkyung Park, Eunson Jung, Boksik Cha, Somin Lee, James Yu, Paul M. Kim, Sunju Lee, Yeo Jin Hong, Chester J. Koh, Chang-Won Cho, Yifan Wu, Noo Li Jeon, Alex K. Wong, Laura Shin, S. Ram Kumar, Ivan Bermejo-Moreno, R. Sathish Srinivasan, Il-Taeg Cho, Young-Kwon Hong
Inflammatory arthritis encompasses a set of common diseases characterized by immune-mediated attack on joint tissues. Most but not all affected patients manifest circulating autoantibodies. Decades of study in human and animal arthritis have identified key roles for autoantibodies in immune complexes and through direct modulation of articular biology. However, joint inflammation can arise because of pathogenic T cells and other pathways that are antibody-independent. Here we review the evidence for these parallel tracks, in animal models and in humans, to explore the range of mechanisms engaged in the pathophysiology of arthritis and to highlight opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention.
Margaret H. Chang, Peter A. Nigrovic