In this issue of JCI Insight, Roch et al. provide evidence that red blood cells stored for transfusion develop time- and temperature-dependent oxidative lesions. These lesions are accompanied by decreased NADPH and acquisition of osmotic fragility. Image credit: Romanenko Alexey/Shutterstock.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) relies on hyperactivated protein synthesis. Consistently, human and mouse PDAC lose expression of the translational repressor and mTOR target 4E-BP1. Using genome-wide polysome profiling, we here explore mRNAs whose translational efficiencies depend on the mTOR/4E-BP1 axis in pancreatic cancer cells. We identified a functional enrichment for mRNAs encoding DNA replication and repair proteins, including RRM2 and CDC6. Consequently, 4E-BP1 depletion favors DNA repair and renders DNA replication insensitive to mTOR inhibitors, in correlation with a sustained protein expression of CDC6 and RRM2, which is inversely correlated with 4E-BP1 expression in PDAC patient samples. DNA damage and pancreatic lesions induced by an experimental pancreatitis model uncover that 4E-BP1/2–deleted mice display an increased acinar cell proliferation and a better recovery than WT animals. Targeting translation, independently of 4E-BP1 status, using eIF4A RNA helicase inhibitors (silvestrol derivatives) selectively modulates translation and limits CDC6 expression and DNA replication, leading to reduced PDAC tumor growth. In summary, 4E-BP1 expression loss during PDAC development induces selective changes in translation of mRNA encoding DNA replication and repair protein. Importantly, targeting protein synthesis by eIF4A inhibitors circumvents PDAC resistance to mTOR inhibition.
David Müller, Sauyeun Shin, Théo Goullet de Rugy, Rémi Samain, Romain Baer, Manon Strehaiano, Laia Masvidal-Sanz, Julie Guillermet-Guibert, Christine Jean, Yoshinori Tsukumo, Nahum Sonenberg, Frédéric Marion, Nicolas Guilbaud, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann, Ola Larsson, Corinne Bousquet, Stéphane Pyronnet, Yvan Martineau
Islet transplantation is an effective therapy for achieving and maintaining normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the supply of transplantable human islets is limited. Upon removal from the pancreas, islets rapidly disintegrate and lose function, resulting in a short interval for studies of islet biology and pretransplantation assessment. Here, we developed a biomimetic platform that can sustain human islet physiology for a prolonged period ex vivo. Our approach involved the creation of a multichannel perifusion system to monitor dynamic insulin secretion and intracellular calcium flux simultaneously, enabling the systematic evaluation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under multiple conditions. Using this tool, we developed a nanofibrillar cellulose hydrogel–based islet-preserving platform (iPreP) that can preserve islet viability, morphology, and function for nearly 12 weeks ex vivo, and with the ability to ameliorate glucose levels upon transplantation into diabetic hosts. Our platform has potential applications in the prolonged maintenance of human islets, providing an expanded time window for pretransplantation assessment and islet studies.
Yi-Ju Chen, Taiji Yamazoe, Karla F. Leavens, Fabian L. Cardenas-Diaz, Andrei Georgescu, Dongeun Huh, Paul Gadue, Ben Z. Stanger
X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR, Mendelian Inheritance in Man #301220) is a rare syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and sterile multiorgan inflammation. The syndrome is caused by an intronic mutation in POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α (Pol-α), which is responsible for Okazaki fragment synthesis during DNA replication. Reduced POLA1 expression in this condition triggers spontaneous type I interferon expression, which can be linked to the autoinflammatory manifestations of the disease. However, the history of recurrent infections in this syndrome is as yet unexplained. Here we report that patients with XLPDR have reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity and decreased numbers of NK cells, particularly differentiated, stage V, cells (CD3–CD56dim). This phenotype is reminiscent of hypomorphic mutations in MCM4, which encodes a component of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complex that is functionally linked to Pol-α during the DNA replication process. We find that POLA1 deficiency leads to MCM4 depletion and that both can impair NK cell natural cytotoxicity and show that this is due to a defect in lytic granule polarization. Altogether, our study provides mechanistic connections between Pol-α and the MCM complex and demonstrates their relevance in NK cell function.
Petro Starokadomskyy, Katelynn M. Wilton, Konrad Krzewski, Adam Lopez, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Brittany Overlee, Qing Chen, Ann Ray, Aleksandra Gil-Krzewska, Mary Peterson, Lisa N. Kinch, Luis Rohena, Eyal Grunebaum, Andrew R. Zinn, Nick V. Grishin, Daniel D. Billadeau, Ezra Burstein
Filoviruses of the genus Ebolavirus include 6 species with marked differences in their ability to cause disease in humans. From the highly virulent Ebola virus to the seemingly nonpathogenic Reston virus, case fatality rates can range between 0% and 90%. In order to understand the molecular basis of these differences, it is imperative to establish disease models that recapitulate human disease as faithfully as possible. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are the gold-standard models for filovirus pathogenesis, but comparative studies are skewed by the fact that Reston virus infection can be lethal for NHPs. Here we used HLA-A2–transgenic, NOD–scid–IL-2γ receptor–knockout (NSG-A2) mice reconstituted with human hematopoiesis to compare Ebola virus and Reston virus pathogenesis in a human-like environment. While markedly less pathogenic than Ebola virus, Reston virus killed 20% of infected mice, a finding that was linked to exacerbated inflammation and viral replication in the liver. In addition, the case fatality ratios of different Ebolavirus species in humans were recapitulated in the humanized mice. Our findings point to humanized mice as a putative model to test the pathogenicity of newly discovered filoviruses, and suggest that further investigations on Reston virus pathogenesis in humans are warranted.
Beatriz Escudero-Pérez, Paula Ruibal, Monika Rottstegge, Anja Lüdtke, Julia R. Port, Kristin Hartmann, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Jürgen Müller-Guhl, Emily V. Nelson, Susanne Krasemann, Estefanía Rodríguez, César Muñoz-Fontela
The RBC storage lesion is a multiparametric response that occurs during storage at 4°C, but its impact on transfused patients remains unclear. In studies of the RBC storage lesion, the temperature transition from cold storage to normal body temperature that occurs during transfusion has received limited attention. We hypothesized that multiple deleterious events might occur in this period of increasing temperature. We show dramatic alterations in several properties of therapeutic blood units stored at 4°C after warming them to normal body temperature (37°C), as well as febrile temperature (40°C). In particular, the intracellular content and redox state of NADP(H) were directly affected by post-storage incubation at 37°C, as well as by pro-oxidant storage conditions. Modulation of the NADPH-producing pentose phosphate pathway, but not the prevention of hemoglobin autoxidation by conversion of oxyhemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin, provided protection against storage-induced alterations in RBCs, demonstrating the central role of NADPH in mitigating increased susceptibility of stored RBCs to oxidative stress. We propose that assessing RBC oxidative status after restoration of body temperature constitutes a sensitive method for detecting storage-related alterations that has the potential to improve the quality of stored RBCs for transfusion.
Aline Roch, Nicholas J. Magon, Jessica Maire, Cacang Suarna, Anita Ayer, Sophie Waldvogel, Beat A. Imhof, Mark J. Koury, Roland Stocker, Marc Schapira
Lysosomes are at the epicenter of cellular processes critical for inflammasome activation in macrophages. Inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion are implicated in myocardial infarction (MI) and resultant heart failure; however, little is known about how macrophage lysosomes regulate these processes. In mice subjected to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and humans with ischemic cardiomyopathy, we observed evidence of lysosomal impairment in macrophages. Inducible macrophage-specific overexpression of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis (Mϕ-TFEB), attenuated postinfarction remodeling, decreased abundance of proinflammatory macrophages, and reduced levels of myocardial IL-1β compared with controls. Surprisingly, neither inflammasome suppression nor Mϕ-TFEB–mediated attenuation of postinfarction myocardial dysfunction required intact ATG5-dependent macroautophagy (hereafter termed “autophagy”). RNA-seq of flow-sorted macrophages postinfarction revealed that Mϕ-TFEB upregulated key targets involved in lysosomal lipid metabolism. Specifically, inhibition of the TFEB target, lysosomal acid lipase, in vivo abrogated the beneficial effect of Mϕ-TFEB on postinfarction ventricular function. Thus, TFEB reprograms macrophage lysosomal lipid metabolism to attenuate remodeling after IR, suggesting an alternative paradigm whereby lysosome function affects inflammation.
Ali Javaheri, Geetika Bajpai, Antonino Picataggi, Smrithi Mani, Layla Foroughi, Hosannah Evie, Attila Kovacs, Carla J. Weinheimer, Krzystztof Hyrc, Qingli Xiao, Andrea Ballabio, Jin-Moo Lee, Scot J. Matkovich, Babak Razani, Joel D. Schilling, Kory J. Lavine, Abhinav Diwan
Worldwide, over a billion people suffer from chronic liver diseases, which often lead to fibrosis and then cirrhosis. Treatments for fibrosis remain experimental, in part because no unifying mechanism has been identified that initiates liver fibrosis. Necroptosis has been implicated in multiple liver diseases. Here, we report that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification protects against hepatocyte necroptosis and initiation of liver fibrosis. Decreased O-GlcNAc levels were seen in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and in mice with ethanol-induced liver injury. Liver-specific O-GlcNAc transferase–KO (OGT-LKO) mice exhibited hepatomegaly and ballooning degeneration at an early age and progressed to liver fibrosis and portal inflammation by 10 weeks of age. OGT-deficient hepatocytes underwent excessive necroptosis and exhibited elevated protein expression levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), which are key mediators of necroptosis. Furthermore, glycosylation of RIPK3 by OGT is associated with reduced RIPK3 protein stability. Taken together, these findings identify OGT as a key suppressor of hepatocyte necroptosis, and OGT-LKO mice may serve as an effective spontaneous genetic model of liver fibrosis.
Bichen Zhang, Min-Dian Li, Ruonan Yin, Yuyang Liu, Yunfan Yang, Kisha A. Mitchell-Richards, Jin Hyun Nam, Rui Li, Li Wang, Yasuko Iwakiri, Dongjun Chung, Marie E. Robert, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Anton M. Bennett, Jun Yu, Michael H. Nathanson, Xiaoyong Yang
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance results from impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation, linked to augmented lipid availability. Despite greater intramuscular lipids, athletes are highly insulin sensitive, which could result from higher rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis or glucose transport/phosphorylation and oxidation. Thus, we examined the time course of muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations during low and high systemic lipid availability.METHODS Eight endurance-trained and 9 sedentary humans (VO2 peak: 56 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05) underwent 6-hour hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp tests with infusions of triglycerides or saline in a randomized crossover design. Glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were monitored in vastus lateralis muscles using 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.RESULTS Athletes displayed a 25% greater (P < 0.05) insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (Rd) than sedentary participants. During Intralipid infusion, insulin sensitivity remained higher in the athletes (ΔRd: 25 ± 3 vs. 17 ± 3 μmol/kg/min, P < 0.05), supported by higher glucose transporter type 4 protein expression than in sedentary humans. Compared to saline infusion, AUC of glucose-6-phosphate remained unchanged during Intralipid infusion in athletes (1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 [mmol/L] × h, P = n.s.) but tended to decrease by 36% in sedentary humans (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 [mmol/L] × h, P < 0.059). This drop was accompanied by a 72% higher rate of net glycogen synthesis in the athletes upon Intralipid infusion (47 ± 9 vs. 13 ± 3 μmol/kg/min, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION Athletes feature higher skeletal muscle glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis during increased lipid availability, which primarily results from maintained insulin-stimulated glucose transport with increased myocellular glucose-6-phosphate levels for subsequent glycogen synthesis.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01229059.FUNDING German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG).
Esther Phielix, Paul Begovatz, Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Esther Kornips, Gert Schaart, Matthijs K. C. Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen, Michael Roden
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promise in experimental models of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to test the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles produced by human BM MSCs (MEx) in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and investigate mechanisms of action. Adult C57BL/6 mice were challenged with endotracheal instillation of bleomycin and treated with MEx concurrently, or for reversal models, at day 7 or 21. Experimental groups were assessed at day 7, 14, or 28. Bleomycin-challenged mice presented with severe septal thickening and prominent fibrosis, and this was effectively prevented or reversed by MEx treatment. MEx modulated lung macrophage phenotypes, shifting the proportions of lung proinflammatory/classical and nonclassical monocytes and alveolar macrophages toward the monocyte/macrophage profiles of control mice. A parallel immunomodulatory effect was demonstrated in the BM. Notably, transplantation of MEx-preconditioned BM-derived monocytes alleviated core features of pulmonary fibrosis and lung inflammation. Proteomic analysis revealed that MEx therapy promotes an immunoregulatory, antiinflammatory monocyte phenotype. We conclude that MEx prevent and revert core features of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and that the beneficial actions of MEx may be mediated via systemic modulation of monocyte phenotypes.
Nahal Mansouri, Gareth R. Willis, Angeles Fernandez-Gonzalez, Monica Reis, Sina Nassiri, S. Alex Mitsialis, Stella Kourembanas
Targeted therapies and immunotherapy have shown promise in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the majority of patients fail or become resistant to treatment, emphasizing the need for novel treatments. In this study, we confirm the prognostic value of levels of AXL, a member of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, in NSCLC and demonstrate potent antitumor activity of the AXL-targeting antibody-drug conjugate enapotamab vedotin across different NSCLC subtypes in a mouse clinical trial of human NSCLC. Tumor regression or stasis was observed in 17/61 (28%) of the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and was associated with AXL mRNA expression levels. Significant single-agent activity of enapotamab vedotin was validated in vivo in 9 of 10 AXL-expressing NSCLC xenograft models. In a panel of EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines rendered resistant to EGFR inhibitors in vitro, we observed de novo or increased AXL protein expression concomitant with enapotamab vedotin–mediated cytotoxicity. Enapotamab vedotin also showed antitumor activity in vivo in 3 EGFR-mutant, EGFR inhibitor–resistant PDX models, including an osimertinib-resistant NSCLC PDX model. In summary, enapotamab vedotin has promising therapeutic potential in NSCLC. The safety and preliminary efficacy of enapotamab vedotin are currently being evaluated in the clinic across multiple solid tumor types, including NSCLC.
Louise A. Koopman, Mikkel G. Terp, Gijs G. Zom, Maarten L. Janmaat, Kirstine Jacobsen, Elke Gresnigt-van den Heuvel, Marcel Brandhorst, Ulf Forssmann, Freddy de Bree, Nora Pencheva, Andreas Lingnau, Maria A. Zipeto, Paul W.H.I Parren, Esther C.W. Breij, Henrik J. Ditzel
Severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) defines a subset of human asthmatics with allergy to 1 or more fungal species and difficult-to-control asthma. We have previously reported that human asthmatics sensitized to fungi have worse lung function and a higher degree of atopy, which was associated with higher IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. IL-1RA further demonstrated a significant negative association with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Here, we show that IL-1α and IL-1β are elevated in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from human asthmatics sensitized to fungi, implicating an association with IL-1α, IL-1β, or IL-1RA in fungal asthma severity. In an experimental model of fungal-associated allergic airway inflammation, we demonstrate that IL-1R1 signaling promotes type 1 (IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10) and type 17 (IL-17A, IL-22) responses that were associated with neutrophilic inflammation and increased airway hyperreactivity. Each of these were exacerbated in the absence of IL-1RA. Administration of human recombinant IL-1RA (Kineret/anakinra) during fungal-associated allergic airway inflammation improved airway hyperreactivity and lowered type 1 and type 17 responses. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-1R1 signaling contributes to fungal asthma severity via immunopathogenic type 1 and type 17 responses and can be targeted for improving allergic asthma severity.
Matthew S. Godwin, Kristen M. Reeder, Jaleesa M. Garth, Jonathan P. Blackburn, MaryJane Jones, Zhihong Yu, Sadis Matalon, Annette T. Hastie, Deborah A. Meyers, Chad Steele
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the developing retina of preterm infants. ROP can lead to blindness because of abnormal angiogenesis that is the result of suspended vascular development and vaso-obliteration leading to severe retinal stress and hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that the use of the human progenitor cell combination, bone marrow–derived CD34+ cells and vascular wall–derived endothelial colony–forming cells (ECFCs), would synergistically protect the developing retinal vasculature in a mouse model of ROP, called oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). CD34+ cells alone, ECFCs alone, or the combination thereof were injected intravitreally at either P5 or P12 and pups were euthanized at P17. Retinas from OIR mice injected with ECFCs or the combined treatment revealed formation of the deep vascular plexus (DVP) while still in hyperoxia, with normal-appearing connections between the superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and the DVP. In addition, the combination of cells completely prevented aberrant retinal neovascularization and was more effective anatomically and functionally at rescuing the ischemia phenotype than either cell type alone. We show that the beneficial effects of the cell combination are the result of their ability to orchestrate an acceleration of vascular development and more rapid ensheathment of pericytes on the developing vessels. Lastly, our proteomic and transcriptomic data sets reveal pathways altered by the dual cell therapy, including many involved in neuroretinal maintenance, and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that cell therapy restored OIR retinas to a state that was closely associated with age-matched normal retinas. Together, these data herein support the use of dual cell therapy as a promising preventive treatment for the development of ROP in premature infants.
Sergio Li Calzi, Lynn C. Shaw, Leni Moldovan, William C. Shelley, Xiaoping Qi, Lyne Racette, Judith L. Quigley, Seth D. Fortmann, Michael E. Boulton, Mervin C. Yoder, Maria B. Grant
High levels of circulating miR-16 in the serum of multiple myeloma (MM) patients are independently associated with longer survival. Although the tumor suppressor function of intracellular miR-16 in MM plasma cells (PCs) has been elucidated, its extracellular role in maintaining a nonsupportive cancer microenvironment has not been fully explored. Here, we show that miR-16 is abundantly released by MM cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs) and that differences in its intracellular expression as associated with chromosome 13 deletion (Del13) are correlated to extracellular miR-16 levels. We also demonstrate that EVs isolated from MM patients and from the conditioned media of MM-PCs carrying Del13 more strongly differentiate circulating monocytes to M2-tumor supportive macrophages (TAMs), compared with MM-PCs without this chromosomal aberration. Mechanistically, our data show that miR-16 directly targets the IKKα/β complex of the NF-κB canonical pathway, which is critical not only in supporting MM cell growth, but also in polarizing macrophages toward an M2 phenotype. By using a miR–15a-16-1–KO mouse model, we found that loss of the miR-16 cluster supports polarization to M2 macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate the therapeutic benefit of miR-16 overexpression in potentiating the anti-MM activity by a proteasome inhibitor in the presence of MM-resident bone marrow TAM.
Jihane Khalife, Jayeeta Ghose, Marianna Martella, Domenico Viola, Alberto Rocci, Estelle Troadec, Cesar Terrazas, Abhay R. Satoskar, Emine Gulsen Gunes, Ada Dona, James F. Sanchez, P. Leif Bergsagel, Marta Chesi, Alex Pozhitkov, Steven Rosen, Guido Marcucci, Jonathan J. Keats, Craig C. Hofmeister, Amrita Krishnan, Enrico Caserta, Flavia Pichiorri
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) and hypertension are common, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) degrades angiotensin II (ANGII). We hypothesized that decreasing ERAP1 increases BP via ANGII-mediated effects on aldosterone (ALDO) production and/or renovascular function. Compared with WT littermate mice, ERAP1-deficient (ERAP1+/–) mice had increased tissue ANGII, systolic and diastolic BP, and SSBP, indicating that ERAP1 deficiency leads to volume expansion. However, the mechanisms underlying the volume expansion differed according to sex. Male ERAP1+/– mice had increased ALDO levels and normal renovascular responses to volume expansion (decreased resistive and pulsatility indices and increased glomerular volume). In contrast, female ERAP1+/– mice had normal ALDO levels but lacked normal renovascular responses. In humans, ERAP1 rs30187, a loss-of-function gene variant that reduces ANGII degradation in vitro, is associated with hypertension. In our cohort from the Hypertensive Pathotype (HyperPATH) Consortium, there was a significant dose-response association between rs30187 risk alleles and systolic and diastolic BP as well as renal plasma flow in men, but not in women. Thus, lowering ERAP1 led to volume expansion and increased BP. In males, the volume expansion was due to elevated ALDO with normal renovascular function, whereas in females the volume expansion was due to impaired renovascular function with normal ALDO levels.
Sanjay Ranjit, Jian Yao Wong, Jia W. Tan, Chee Sin Tay, Jessica M. Lee, Kelly Yin Han Wong, Luminita H. Pojoga, Danielle L. Brooks, Amanda E. Garza, Stephen A. Maris, Isis Akemi Katayama, Jonathan S. Williams, Alicia Rivera, Gail K. Adler, Gordon H. Williams, Jose R. Romero
Neutrophils play critical roles during the initial phase of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI). However, the regulation of neutrophil activation, infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine secretion has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we revealed that OX40 was expressed by neutrophils, its expression in neutrophils was time-dependently upregulated following HIRI, and Ox40 knockout markedly alleviated liver injury. Compared with wild-type neutrophils, the adoptive transfer of Ox40–/– neutrophils decreased HIRI in neutrophil-depleted Rag2/Il2rg–/– or Ox40–/– mice. Moreover, consistently, the in vitro experiments showed that Ox40 not only prolonged neutrophil survival but also promoted proinflammatory cytokines, ROS production, and even neutrophil chemotaxis. Further investigation demonstrated that the knockout of Ox40 in neutrophils inhibited NF-κB signaling via the TRAF1/2/4 and IKKα/IKKβ/IκBα pathways. OX40L and OX86 stimulation could enhance neutrophil activation and survival in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our study provides a new understanding of OX40, which is expressed not only in adaptive immune cells but also in innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils, contributing to the activation and survival of neutrophils. These findings provide a novel potential therapeutic target for the prevention of HIRI during liver transplantation or hepatic surgery.
Hua Jin, Chunpan Zhang, Chengyang Sun, Xinyan Zhao, Dan Tian, Wen Shi, Yue Tian, Kai Liu, Guangyong Sun, Hufeng Xu, Dong Zhang
Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are congenital, nonneoplastic vascular malformations associated with postzygotic activating PIK3CA mutations. The mutation spectrum within LMs is narrow, with the majority having 1 of 3 hotspot mutations. Despite this relative genetic homogeneity, clinical presentations differ dramatically. We used molecular inversion probes and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction to perform deep, targeted sequencing of PIK3CA in 271 affected and unaffected tissue samples from 81 individuals with isolated LMs and retrospectively collected clinical data. Pathogenic PIK3CA mutations were identified in affected LM tissue in 64 individuals (79%) with isolated LMs, with variant allele fractions (VAFs) ranging from 0.1% to 13%. Initial analyses revealed no correlation between VAF and phenotype variables. Recognizing that different mutations activate PI3K to varying degrees, we developed a metric, the genotype-adjusted VAF (GVAF), to account for differences in mutation strength, and found significantly higher GVAFs in LMs with more severe clinical characteristics including orofacial location or microcystic structure. In addition to providing insight into LM pathogenesis, we believe GVAF may have broad applicability for genotype-phenotype analyses in mosaic disorders.
Kaitlyn Zenner, Chi Vicky Cheng, Dana M. Jensen, Andrew E. Timms, Giridhar Shivaram, Randall Bly, Sheila Ganti, Kathryn B. Whitlock, William B. Dobyns, Jonathan Perkins, James T. Bennett
BACKGROUND In this study, we identified the lipidomic predictors of early type 2 diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression, which are currently undefined.METHODS This longitudinal study included 92 American Indians with type 2 diabetes. Serum lipids (406 from 18 classes) were quantified using mass spectrometry from baseline samples when iothalamate-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was at least 90 mL/min. Affymetrix GeneChip Array was used to measure renal transcript expression. DKD progression was defined as at least 40% decline in GFR during follow-up.RESULTS Participants had a mean age of 45 ± 9 years and median urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 43 (interquartile range 11–144). The 32 progressors had significantly higher relative abundance of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a lower abundance of C16–C20 acylcarnitines (ACs) (P < 0.001). In a Cox regression model, the main effect terms of unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamines and the interaction terms of C16–C20 ACs and short-low-double-bond TAGs by categories of albuminuria independently predicted DKD progression. Renal expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase–encoding gene (ACACA) correlated with serum diacylglycerols in the glomerular compartment (r = 0.36, and P = 0.006) and with low-double-bond TAGs in the tubulointerstitial compartment (r = 0.52, and P < 0.001).CONCLUSION Collectively, the findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between lipid markers of impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation and enhanced lipogenesis and DKD progression in individuals with preserved GFR. Renal acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation accompanies these lipidomic changes and suggests that it may be the underlying mechanism linking lipid abnormalities to DKD progression.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00340678.FUNDING NIH R24DK082841, K08DK106523, R03DK121941, P30DK089503, P30DK081943, and P30DK020572.
Farsad Afshinnia, Viji Nair, Jiahe Lin, Thekkelnaycke M. Rajendiran, Tanu Soni, Jaeman Byun, Kumar Sharma, Patrice E. Fort, Thomas W. Gardner, Helen C. Looker, Robert G. Nelson, Frank C. Brosius, Eva L. Feldman, George Michailidis, Matthias Kretzler, Subramaniam Pennathur
Transcriptomic profiling classifies pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) into several molecular subtypes with distinctive histological and clinical characteristics. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that define each subtype and their correlation with clinical outcome. Mutant KRAS is the most prominent driver in PDAC, present in over 90% of tumors, but the dependence of tumors on oncogenic KRAS signaling varies between subtypes. In particular, the squamous subtype is relatively independent of oncogenic KRAS signaling and typically displays much more aggressive clinical behavior versus the progenitor subtype. Here, we identified that yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) activation is enriched in the squamous subtype and associated with poor prognosis. Activation of YAP1 in progenitor subtype cancer cells profoundly enhanced malignant phenotypes and transformed progenitor subtype cells into squamous subtype. Conversely, depletion of YAP1 specifically suppressed tumorigenicity of squamous subtype PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we uncovered a significant positive correlation between WNT5A expression and YAP1 activity in human PDAC and demonstrated that WNT5A overexpression led to YAP1 activation and recapitulated a YAP1-dependent but Kras-independent phenotype of tumor progression and maintenance. Thus, our study identifies YAP1 oncogene as a major driver of squamous subtype PDAC and uncovers the role of WNT5A in driving PDAC malignancy through activation of the YAP pathway.
Bo Tu, Jun Yao, Sammy Ferri-Borgogno, Jun Zhao, Shujuan Chen, Qiuyun Wang, Liang Yan, Xin Zhou, Cihui Zhu, Seungmin Bang, Qing Chang, Christopher A. Bristow, Ya’an Kang, Hongwu Zheng, Huamin Wang, Jason B. Fleming, Michael Kim, Timothy P. Heffernan, Giulio F. Draetta, Duojia Pan, Anirban Maitra, Wantong Yao, Sonal Gupta, Haoqiang Ying
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and vascular hyperpermeability in ocular tissues and is therefore a key therapeutic target for eye conditions in which these processes are dysregulated. In contrast, the therapeutic potential of VEGF’s neurotrophic roles in the eye has remained unexploited. In particular, it is not known whether modulating levels of any of the 3 major alternatively spliced VEGF isoforms might provide a therapeutic approach to promote neural health in the eye without inducing vascular pathology. Here, we have used a variety of mouse models to demonstrate differences in overall VEGF levels and VEGF isoform ratios across tissues in the healthy eye. We further show that VEGF isoform expression was differentially regulated in retinal versus corneal disease models. Among the 3 major isoforms — termed VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188 — VEGF188 was upregulated to the greatest extent in injured cornea, where it was both necessary and sufficient for corneal nerve regeneration. Moreover, topical VEGF188 application further promoted corneal nerve regeneration without inducing pathological neovascularization. VEGF isoform modulation should therefore be explored further for its potential in promoting neural health in the eye.
James T. Brash, Laura Denti, Christiana Ruhrberg, Franziska Bucher
Islet transplantation can restore lost glycemic control in type 1 diabetes subjects but is restricted in its clinical application by a limiting supply of islets and the need for heavy immune suppression to prevent rejection. TNFAIP3, encoding the ubiquitin editing enzyme A20, regulates the activation of immune cells by raising NF-κB signaling thresholds. Here, we show that increasing A20 expression in allogeneic islet grafts resulted in permanent survival for ~45% of recipients, and > 80% survival when combined with subtherapeutic rapamycin. Allograft survival was dependent upon Tregs and was antigen specific, and grafts showed reduced expression of inflammatory factors. Transplantation of islets with A20 containing a loss-of-function variant (I325N) resulted in increased RIPK1 ubiquitination and NF-κB signaling, graft hyperinflammation, and acute allograft rejection. Overexpression of A20 in human islets potently reduced expression of inflammatory mediators, with no impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Therapeutic administration of A20 raises inflammatory signaling thresholds to favor immune tolerance and promotes islet allogeneic survival. Clinically, this would allow for reduced immunosuppression and support the use of alternate islet sources.
Nathan W. Zammit, Stacey N. Walters, Karen L. Seeberger, Philip J. O’Connell, Gregory S. Korbutt, Shane T. Grey
Loss of Thy-1 expression in fibroblasts correlates with lung fibrogenesis; however, the clinical relevance of therapeutic targeting of myofibroblasts via Thy-1–associated pathways remains to be explored. Using single (self-resolving) or repetitive (nonresolving) intratracheal administration of bleomycin in type 1 collagen-GFP reporter mice, we report that Thy-1 surface expression, but not mRNA, is reversibly diminished in activated fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in self-resolving fibrosis. However, Thy-1 mRNA expression is silenced in lung with nonresolving fibrosis following repetitive bleomycin administration, associated with persistent activation of αv integrin. Thy1-null mice showed progressive αv integrin activation and myofibroblast accumulation after a single dose of bleomycin. In vitro, targeting of αv integrin by soluble Thy-1-Fc (sThy-1), but not RLE-mutated Thy-1 or IgG, reversed TGF-β1–induced myofibroblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that Thy-1’s integrin-binding RGD motif is required for the reversibility of myofibroblast differentiation. In vivo, treatment of established fibrosis induced either by single-dose bleomycin in WT mice or by induction of active TGF-β1 by doxycycline in Cc10-rtTA-tTS-Tgfb1 mice with sThy-1 (1000 ng/kg, i.v.) promoted resolution of fibrosis. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that sThy-1 therapeutically inhibits the αv integrin–driven feedback loop that amplifies and sustains fibrosis.
Chunting Tan, Min Jiang, Simon S. Wong, Celia R. Espinoza, Ceonne Kim, Xiaoping Li, Edward Connors, James S. Hagood
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disorder that frequently complicates critical illness and commonly occurs in sepsis. Although numerous clinical and environmental risk factors exist, not all patients with risk factors develop ARDS, raising the possibility of genetic underpinnings for ARDS susceptibility. We have previously reported that circulating cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is elevated during sepsis, and higher levels predict worse outcomes. Excess CFH is rapidly scavenged by haptoglobin (Hp). A common HP genetic variant, HP2, is unique to humans and is common in many populations worldwide. HP2 haptoglobin has reduced ability to inhibit CFH-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the alternative HP1. We hypothesized that HP2 increases ARDS susceptibility during sepsis when plasma CFH levels are elevated. In a murine model of sepsis with elevated CFH, transgenic mice homozygous for Hp2 had increased lung inflammation, pulmonary vascular permeability, lung apoptosis, and mortality compared with wild-type mice. We then tested the clinical relevance of our findings in 496 septic critically ill adults, finding that HP2 increased ARDS susceptibility after controlling for clinical risk factors and plasma CFH. These observations identify HP2 as a potentially novel genetic ARDS risk factor during sepsis and may have important implications in the study and treatment of ARDS.
V. Eric Kerchberger, Julie A. Bastarache, Ciara M. Shaver, Hiromasa Nagata, J. Brennan McNeil, Stuart R. Landstreet, Nathan D. Putz, Wen-Kuang Yu, Jordan Jesse, Nancy E. Wickersham, Tatiana N. Sidorova, David R. Janz, Chirag R. Parikh, Edward D. Siew, Lorraine B. Ware
BACKGROUND HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are prescribed to millions of people. Statins are antiinflammatory independent of their cholesterol-reducing effects. To date, most reports on the immune effects of statins have assayed a narrow array of variables and have focused on cell lines, rodent models, or patient cohorts. We sought to define the effect of rosuvastatin on the “immunome” of healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects.METHODS We conducted a prospective study of rosuvastatin (20 mg/d × 28 days) in 18 statin-naive adults with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL. A panel of >180 immune/biochemical/endocrinologic variables was measured at baseline and on days 14, 28, and 42 (14 days after drug withdrawal). Drug effect was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Potential interactions between drug and baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were evaluated.RESULTS A wide array of immune measures changed (nominal P < 0.05) during rosuvastatin treatment, although the changes were modest in magnitude, and few met an FDR of 0.05. Among changes noted were a concordant increase in proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-α) and peripheral blood neutrophil frequency, and a decline in activated Treg frequency. Several drug effects were significantly modified by baseline hsCRP, and some did not resolve after drug withdrawal. Among other unexpected rosuvastatin effects were changes in erythrocyte indices, glucose-regulatory hormones, CD8+ T cells, and haptoglobin.CONCLUSION Rosuvastatin induces modest changes in immunologic and metabolic measures in normocholesterolemic subjects, with several effects dependent on baseline CRP. Future, larger studies are warranted to validate these changes and their physiological significance.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01200836.FUNDING This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Z01 ES102005), and the trans-NIH Center for Human Immunology.
Peer W.F. Karmaus, Min Shi, Shira Perl, Angélique Biancotto, Julián Candia, Foo Cheung, Yuri Kotliarov, Neal Young, Michael B. Fessler, the CHI Consortium
Accumulation of lysosomal storage material and late-stage neurodegeneration are hallmarks of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) affecting the brain. Yet, for most LSDs, including CLN3 disease, the most common form of childhood dementia, it is unclear what mechanisms drive neurologic symptoms. Do deficits arise from loss of function of the mutated protein or toxicity from storage accumulation? Here, using in vitro voltage-sensitive dye imaging and in vivo electrophysiology, we find progressive hippocampal dysfunction occurs before notable lysosomal storage and neuronal loss in 2 CLN3 disease mouse models. Pharmacologic reversal of lysosomal storage deposition in young mice does not rescue this circuit dysfunction. Additionally, we find that CLN3 disease mice lose an electrophysiologic marker of new memory encoding — hippocampal sharp-wave ripples. This discovery, which is also seen in Alzheimer’s disease, suggests the possibility of a shared electrophysiologic signature of dementia. Overall, our data describe new insights into previously unknown network-level changes occurring in LSDs affecting the central nervous system and highlight the need for new therapeutic interventions targeting early circuit defects.
Rebecca C. Ahrens-Nicklas, Luis Tecedor, Arron F. Hall, Elena Lysenko, Akiva S. Cohen, Beverly L. Davidson, Eric D. Marsh
Inflammation may play a role in the link between high salt intake and its deleterious consequences. However, it is unknown whether salt can induce proinflammatory priming of monocytes and macrophages in humans. We investigated the effects of salt on monocytes and macrophages in vitro and in vivo by performing a randomized crossover trial in which 11 healthy human subjects adhered to a 2-week low-salt and high-salt diet. We demonstrate that salt increases monocyte expression of CCR2, a chemokine receptor that mediates monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases. In line with this, we show a salt-induced increase of plasma MCP-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and skin macrophage density after high-salt diet. Macrophages demonstrate signs of an increased proinflammatory phenotype after salt exposure, as represented by boosted LPS-induced cytokine secretion of IL-6, TNF, and IL-10 in vitro, and by increased HLA-DR expression and decreased CD206 expression on skin macrophages after high-salt diet. Taken together, our data open up the possibility for inflammatory monocyte and macrophage responses as potential contributors to the deleterious effects of high salt intake.
Eliane F.E. Wenstedt, Sanne G.S. Verberk, Jeffrey Kroon, Annette E. Neele, Jeroen Baardman, Nike Claessen, Özge T. Pasaoglu, Emma Rademaker, Esmee M. Schrooten, Rosa D. Wouda, Menno P.J. de Winther, Jan Aten, Liffert Vogt, Jan Van den Bossche
Human cancer cells were eradicated by adoptive transfer of T cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) made from an antibody (237Ab) that is highly specific for the murine Tn-glycosylated podoplanin (Tn-PDPN). The objectives were to determine the specificity of these CAR-transduced T (CART) cells and the mechanism for the absence of relapse. We show that although the 237Ab bound only to cell lines expressing murine Tn-PDPN, the 237Ab-derived 237CART cells lysed multiple different human and murine cancers not predicted by the 237Ab binding. Nevertheless, the 237CART cell reactivities remained cancer specific because all recognitions were dependent on the Tn glycosylation that resulted from COSMC mutations that were not present in normal tissues. While Tn was required for the recognition by 237CART, Tn alone was not sufficient for 237CART cell activation. Activation of 237CART cells required peptide backbone recognition but tolerated substitutions of up to 5 of the 7 amino acid residues in the motif recognized by 237Ab. Together, these findings demonstrate what we believe is a new principle whereby simultaneous recognition of multiple independent Tn-glycopeptide antigens on a cancer cell makes tumor escape due to antigen loss unlikely.
Yanran He, Karin Schreiber, Steven P. Wolf, Frank Wen, Catharina Steentoft, Jonathan Zerweck, Madeline Steiner, Preeti Sharma, H. Michael Shepard, Avery Posey, Carl H. June, Ulla Mandel, Henrik Clausen, Matthias Leisegang, Stephen C. Meredith, David M. Kranz, Hans Schreiber