Despite the long-standing recognition that the immune response to acute myocardial injury contributes to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, it has not been possible to effectively target this clinically. Using 2 different in vivo models of acute myocardial injury, we show that pirfenidone confers beneficial effects in the murine heart through an unexpected mechanism that depends on cardiac B lymphocytes. Naive hearts contained a large population of CD19+CD11b–CD23–CD21–IgD+IgMlo lymphocytes, and 2 smaller populations of CD19+CD11b+ B1a and B1b cells. In response to tissue injury, there was an increase in neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, as well as an increase in CD19+ CD11b– B lymphocytes. Treatment with pirfenidone had no effect on the number of neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages, but decreased CD19+CD11b– lymphocytes. B cell depletion abrogated the beneficial effects of pirfenidone. In vitro studies demonstrated that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and extracts from necrotic cells activated CD19+ lymphocytes through a TIRAP-dependent pathway. Treatment with pirfenidone attenuated this activation of B cells. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity of myocardial B lymphocytes within the inflammatory infiltrate triggered by cardiac injury and suggest that pirfenidone exerts beneficial effects in the heart through a unique mechanism that involves modulation of cardiac B lymphocytes.
Luigi Adamo, Lora J. Staloch, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Scot J. Matkovich, Wenlong Jiang, Geetika Bajpai, Carla J. Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Joel D. Schilling, Philip M. Barger, Deepta Bhattacharya, Douglas L. Mann
We present a new technique to fully automate the segmentation of an organ from 3D ultrasound (3D-US) volumes, using the placenta as the target organ. Image analysis tools to estimate organ volume do exist but are too time consuming and operator dependant. Fully automating the segmentation process would potentially allow the use of placental volume to screen for increased risk of pregnancy complications. The placenta was segmented from 2,393 first trimester 3D-US volumes using a semiautomated technique. This was quality controlled by three operators to produce the “ground-truth” data set. A fully convolutional neural network (OxNNet) was trained using this ground-truth data set to automatically segment the placenta. OxNNet delivered state-of-the-art automatic segmentation. The effect of training set size on the performance of OxNNet demonstrated the need for large data sets. The clinical utility of placental volume was tested by looking at predictions of small-for-gestational-age babies at term. The receiver-operating characteristics curves demonstrated almost identical results between OxNNet and the ground-truth). Our results demonstrated good similarity to the ground-truth and almost identical clinical results for the prediction of SGA.
Pádraig Looney, Gordon N. Stevenson, Kypros H. Nicolaides, Walter Plasencia, Malid Molloholli, Stavros Natsis, Sally L. Collins
Multiple modes of immunosuppression restrain immune function within tumors. We previously reported that phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inactivation in mice confers resistance to a range of tumor models by disrupting immunosuppression mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). The PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib has proven highly effective in the clinical treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the potential to extend the use of PI3Kδ inhibitors to nonhematological cancers is being evaluated. In this work, we demonstrate that the antitumor effect of PI3Kδ inactivation is primarily mediated through the disruption of Treg function, and correlates with tumor dependence on Treg immunosuppression. Compared with Treg-specific PI3Kδ deletion, systemic PI3Kδ inactivation is less effective at conferring resistance to tumors. We show that PI3Kδ deficiency impairs the maturation and reduces the capacity of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to kill tumor cells in vitro, and to respond to tumor antigen–specific immunization in vivo. PI3Kδ inactivation antagonized the antitumor effects of tumor vaccines and checkpoint blockade therapies intended to boost the CD8+ T cell response. These findings provide insights into mechanisms by which PI3Kδ inhibition promotes antitumor immunity and demonstrate that the mechanism is distinct from that mediated by immune checkpoint blockade.
Ee Lyn Lim, Fiorella M. Cugliandolo, Dalya R. Rosner, David Gyori, Rahul Roychoudhuri, Klaus Okkenhaug
Redundancy and compensation provide robustness to biological systems but may contribute to therapy resistance. Both tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells promote tumor progression by limiting antitumor immunity. Here we show that genetic ablation of CSF1 in colorectal cancer cells reduces the influx of immunosuppressive CSF1R+ TAMs within tumors. This reduction in CSF1-dependent TAMs resulted in increased CD8+ T cell attack on tumors, but its effect on tumor growth was limited by a compensatory increase in Foxp3+ Treg cells. Similarly, disruption of Treg cell activity through their experimental ablation produced moderate effects on tumor growth and was associated with elevated numbers of CSF1R+ TAMs. Importantly, codepletion of CSF1R+ TAMs and Foxp3+ Treg cells resulted in an increased influx of CD8+ T cells, augmentation of their function, and a synergistic reduction in tumor growth. Further, inhibition of Treg cell activity either through systemic pharmacological blockade of PI3Kδ, or its genetic inactivation within Foxp3+ Treg cells, sensitized previously unresponsive solid tumors to CSF1R+ TAM depletion and enhanced the effect of CSF1R blockade. These findings identify CSF1R+ TAMs and PI3Kδ-driven Foxp3+ Treg cells as the dominant compensatory cellular components of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, with implications for the design of combinatorial immunotherapies.
David Gyori, Ee Lyn Lim, Francis M. Grant, Dominik Spensberger, Rahul Roychoudhuri, Stephen J. Shuttleworth, Klaus Okkenhaug, Len R. Stephens, Phillip T. Hawkins
Functional bowel disorder patients can suffer from chronic abdominal pain, likely due to visceral hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli. As there is only a limited understanding of the basis of chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH), drug-based management strategies are ill defined, vary considerably, and include NSAIDs, opioids, and even anticonvulsants. We previously reported that the 1.1 subtype of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV; NaV1.1) channel family regulates the excitability of sensory nerve fibers that transmit a mechanical pain message to the spinal cord. Herein, we investigated whether this channel subtype also underlies the abdominal pain that occurs with CVH. We demonstrate that NaV1.1 is functionally upregulated under CVH conditions and that inhibiting channel function reduces mechanical pain in 3 mechanistically distinct mouse models of chronic pain. In particular, we use a small molecule to show that selective NaV1.1 inhibition (a) decreases sodium currents in colon-innervating dorsal root ganglion neurons, (b) reduces colonic nociceptor mechanical responses, and (c) normalizes the enhanced visceromotor response to distension observed in 2 mouse models of irritable bowel syndrome. These results provide support for a relationship between NaV1.1 and chronic abdominal pain associated with functional bowel disorders.
Juan Salvatierra, Joel Castro, Andelain Erickson, Qian Li, Joao Braz, John Gilchrist, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y. Rychkov, Annemie Deiteren, Rana Rais, Glenn F. King, Barbara S. Slusher, Allan Basbaum, Pankaj J. Pasricha, Stuart M. Brierley, Frank Bosmans
Lupus nephritis is a major cause of morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Among the different types of lupus nephritis, intracapillary immune complex (IC) deposition and accumulation of monocytes are hallmarks of lupus nephritis class III and IV. The relevance of intracapillary ICs in terms of monocyte recruitment and activation, as well as the nature and function of these monocytes are not well understood. For the early focal form of lupus nephritis (class III) we demonstrate a selective accumulation of the proinflammatory population of 6-sulfo LacNAc+ (slan) monocytes (slanMo), which locally expressed TNF-α. Immobilized ICs induced a direct recruitment of slanMo from the microcirculation via interaction with Fc γ receptor IIIA (CD16). Interestingly, intravenous immunoglobulins blocked CD16 and prevented cell recruitment. Engagement of immobilized ICs by slanMo induced the production of neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL2 as well as TNF-α, which in a forward feedback loop stimulated endothelial cells to produce the slanMo-recruiting chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine). In conclusion, we observed that expression of CD16 equips slanMo with a unique capacity to orchestrate early IC-induced inflammatory responses in glomeruli and identified slanMo as a pathogenic proinflammatory cell type in lupus nephritis.
Florina Olaru, Thomas Döbel, Anke S. Lonsdorf, Stephanie Oehrl, Michael Maas, Alexander H. Enk, Marc Schmitz, Elisabeth F. Gröne, Hermann-J. Gröne, Knut Schäkel
Metabolic syndrome contributes to cardiovascular disease partly through systemic risk factors. However, local processes in the artery wall are becoming increasingly recognized to exacerbate atherosclerosis both in mice and humans. We show that arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) glucose metabolism markedly synergizes with metabolic syndrome in accelerating atherosclerosis progression, using a low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mouse model. SMCs in proximity to atherosclerotic lesions express increased levels of the glucose transporter GLUT1. Cytokines, such as TNF-α produced by lesioned arteries, promote GLUT1 expression in SMCs, which in turn increases expression of the chemokine CCL2 through increased glycolysis and the polyol pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of GLUT1 in SMCs, but not in myeloid cells, accelerates development of larger, more advanced lesions in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome, which also exhibits elevated levels of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes expressing the CCL2 receptor CCR2. Accordingly, monocyte tracing experiments demonstrate that targeted SMC GLUT1 overexpression promotes Ly6Chi monocyte recruitment to lesions. Strikingly, SMC-targeted GLUT1 overexpression fails to accelerate atherosclerosis in mice that do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome phenotype or monocytosis. These results reveal a potentially novel mechanism whereby arterial smooth muscle glucose metabolism synergizes with metabolic syndrome to accelerate monocyte recruitment and atherosclerosis progression.
Valerie Z. Wall, Shelley Barnhart, Jenny E. Kanter, Farah Kramer, Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Neeta Adhikari, Thomas N. Wight, Jennifer L. Hall, Karin E. Bornfeldt
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease dominated by a CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2) cell signature. The immune response amplifies in self-enforcing loops, promoting Th2-driven cellular immunity and leaving the host unable to terminate inflammation. Posttranscriptional mechanisms, including microRNAs (miRs), are pivotal in maintaining immune homeostasis. Since an altered expression of various miRs has been associated with T cell–driven diseases, including asthma, we hypothesized that miRs control mechanisms ensuring Th2 stability and maintenance in the lung. We isolated murine CD4+ Th2 cells from allergic inflamed lungs and profiled gene and miR expression. Instead of focusing on the magnitude of miR differential expression, here we addressed the secondary consequences for the set of molecular interactions in the cell, the interactome. We developed the Impact of Differential Expression Across Layers, a network-based algorithm to prioritize disease-relevant miRs based on the central role of their targets in the molecular interactome. This method identified 5 Th2-related miRs (mir27b, mir206, mir106b, mir203, and mir23b) whose antagonization led to a sharp reduction of the Th2 phenotype. Overall, a systems biology tool was developed and validated, highlighting the role of miRs in Th2-driven immune response. This result offers potentially novel approaches for therapeutic interventions.
Ayşe Kılıç, Marc Santolini, Taiji Nakano, Matthias Schiller, Mizue Teranishi, Pascal Gellert, Yuliya Ponomareva, Thomas Braun, Shizuka Uchida, Scott T. Weiss, Amitabh Sharma, Harald Renz
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a disease with limited therapeutic options and dismal prognosis. Despite its etiologic heterogeneity, the underlying unifying pathophysiology is characterized by increased vascular tone and adverse remodeling of the pulmonary circulation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme abundantly expressed in neutrophils, has potent vasoconstrictive and profibrotic properties, thus qualifying as a potential contributor to this disease. Here, we sought to investigate whether MPO is causally linked to the pathophysiology of PAH. Investigation of 2 independent clinical cohorts revealed that MPO plasma levels were elevated in subjects with PAH and predicted adverse outcome. Experimental analyses showed that, upon hypoxia, right ventricular pressure was less increased in Mpo–/– than in WT mice. The hypoxia-induced activation of the Rho-kinase pathway, a critical subcellular signaling pathway yielding vasoconstriction and structural vascular remodeling, was blunted in Mpo–/– mice. Mice subjected to i.v. infusion of MPO revealed activation of Rho-kinase and increased right ventricular pressure, which was prevented by coinfusion of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. In the Sugen5416/hypoxia rat model, PAH was attenuated by the MPO inhibitor AZM198. The current data demonstrate a tight mechanistic link between MPO, the activation of Rho-kinase, and adverse pulmonary vascular function, thus pointing toward a potentially novel avenue of treatment.
Anna Klinke, Eva Berghausen, Kai Friedrichs, Simon Molz, Denise Lau, Lisa Remane, Matthias Berlin, Charlotte Kaltwasser, Matti Adam, Dennis Mehrkens, Martin Mollenhauer, Kashish Manchanda, Thorben Ravekes, Gustavo A. Heresi, Metin Aytekin, Raed A. Dweik, Jan K. Hennigs, Lukas Kubala, Erik Michaëlsson, Stephan Rosenkranz, Tanja K. Rudolph, Stanley L. Hazen, Hans Klose, Ralph T. Schermuly, Volker Rudolph, Stephan Baldus
Oncogenic Kras expression specifically in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) induces a rapidly fatal myeloproliferative neoplasm in mice, suggesting that Kras signaling plays a dominant role in normal hematopoiesis. However, such a conclusion is based on expression of an oncogenic version of Kras. Hence, we sought to determine the effect of simply increasing the amount of endogenous wild-type Kras on HSC fate. To this end, we utilized a codon-optimized version of the murine Kras gene (Krasex3op) that we developed, in which silent mutations in exon 3 render the encoded mRNA more efficiently translated, leading to increased protein expression without disruption to the normal gene architecture. We found that Kras protein levels were significantly increased in bone marrow (BM) HSCs in Krasex3op/ex3op mice, demonstrating that the translation of Kras in HSCs is normally constrained by rare codons. Krasex3op/ex3op mice displayed expansion of BM HSCs, progenitor cells, and B lymphocytes, but no evidence of myeloproliferative disease or leukemia in mice followed for 12 months. BM HSCs from Krasex3op/ex3op mice demonstrated increased multilineage repopulating capacity in primary competitive transplantation assays, but secondary competitive transplants revealed exhaustion of long-term HSCs. Following total body irradiation, Krasex3op/ex3op mice displayed accelerated hematologic recovery and increased survival. Mechanistically, HSCs from Krasex3op/ex3op mice demonstrated increased proliferation at baseline, with a corresponding increase in Erk1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (Cdk4/6) activation. Furthermore, both the enhanced colony-forming capacity and in vivo repopulating capacity of HSCs from Krasex3op/ex3op mice were dependent on Cdk4/6 activation. Finally, BM transplantation studies revealed that augmented Kras expression produced expansion of HSCs, progenitor cells, and B cells in a hematopoietic cell–autonomous manner, independent from effects on the BM microenvironment. This study provides fundamental demonstration of codon usage in a mammal having a biological consequence, which may speak to the importance of codon usage in mammalian biology.
Joshua P. Sasine, Heather A. Himburg, Christina M. Termini, Martina Roos, Evelyn Tran, Liman Zhao, Jenny Kan, Michelle Li, Yurun Zhang, Stéphanie C. de Barros, Dinesh S. Rao, Christopher M. Counter, John P. Chute
Sepsis causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients, although the pathophysiology remains unclear. The receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3), a cardinal regulator of necroptosis, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease. In mice subjected to polymicrobial sepsis, we demonstrate that RIPK3 promotes sepsis-induced AKI. Utilizing genetic deletion and biochemical approaches in vitro and in vivo, we identify a potentially novel pathway by which RIPK3 aggravates kidney tubular injury independently of the classical mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein–dependent (MLKL-dependent) necroptosis pathway. In kidney tubular epithelial cells, we show that RIPK3 promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction involving upregulation of NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) and inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and –III, and that RIPK3 and NOX4 are critical for kidney tubular injury in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RIPK3 is required for increased mitochondrial translocation of NOX4 in response to proinflammatory stimuli, by a mechanism involving protein-protein interactions. Finally, we observed elevated urinary and plasma RIPK3 levels in human patients with sepsis-induced AKI, representing potential markers of this condition. In conclusion, we identify a pathway by which RIPK3 promotes kidney tubular injury via mitochondrial dysfunction, independently of MLKL, which may represent a promising therapeutic target in sepsis-induced AKI.
Angara Sureshbabu, Edwin Patino, Kevin C. Ma, Kristian Laursen, Eli J. Finkelsztein, Oleh Akchurin, Thangamani Muthukumar, Stefan W. Ryter, Lorraine Gudas, Augustine M. K. Choi, Mary E. Choi
The WNT pathway has become an attractive target for skeletal therapies. High-bone-mass phenotypes in patients with loss-of-function mutations in the LRP5/6 inhibitor Sost (sclerosteosis), or in its downstream enhancer region (van Buchem disease), highlight the utility of targeting Sost/sclerostin to improve bone properties. Sclerostin-neutralizing antibody is highly osteoanabolic in animal models and in human clinical trials, but antibody-based inhibition of another potent LRP5/6 antagonist, Dkk1, is largely inefficacious for building bone in the unperturbed adult skeleton. Here, we show that conditional deletion of Dkk1 from bone also has negligible effects on bone mass. Dkk1 inhibition increases Sost expression, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism that might explain why Dkk1 suppression lacks anabolic action. To test this concept, we deleted Sost from osteocytes in, or administered sclerostin neutralizing antibody to, mice with a Dkk1-deficient skeleton. A robust anabolic response to Dkk1 deletion was manifest only when Sost/sclerostin was impaired. Whole-body DXA scans, μCT measurements of the femur and spine, histomorphometric measures of femoral bone formation rates, and biomechanical properties of whole bones confirmed the anabolic potential of Dkk1 inhibition in the absence of sclerostin. Further, combined administration of sclerostin and Dkk1 antibody in WT mice produced a synergistic effect on bone gain that greatly exceeded individual or additive effects of the therapies, confirming the therapeutic potential of inhibiting multiple WNT antagonists for skeletal health. In conclusion, the osteoanabolic effects of Dkk1 inhibition can be realized if sclerostin upregulation is prevented. Anabolic therapies for patients with low bone mass might benefit from a strategy that accounts for the compensatory milieu of WNT inhibitors in bone tissue.
Phillip C. Witcher, Sara E. Miner, Daniel J. Horan, Whitney A. Bullock, Kyung-Eun Lim, Kyung Shin Kang, Alison L. Adaniya, Ryan D. Ross, Gabriela G. Loots, Alexander G. Robling
Lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often develop resistance. More effective and safe therapeutic agents are urgently needed to overcome TKI resistance. Here, we propose a medical genetics–based approach to identify indications for over 1,000 US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) drugs with high accuracy. We identified a potentially novel indication for an approved antidepressant drug, sertraline, for the treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that sertraline inhibits the viability of NSCLC cells and shows a synergy with erlotinib. Specifically, the cotreatment of sertraline and erlotinib effectively promotes autophagic flux in cells, as indicated by LC3-II accumulation and autolysosome formation. Mechanistic studies further reveal that dual treatment of sertraline and erlotinib reciprocally regulates the AMPK/mTOR pathway in NSCLC cells. The blockade of AMPK activation decreases the anticancer efficacy of either sertraline alone or the combination. Efficacy of this combination regimen is decreased by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy or genetic knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin 1. Importantly, our results suggest that sertraline and erlotinib combination suppress tumor growth and prolong mouse survival in an orthotopic NSCLC mouse model (P = 0.0005). In summary, our medical genetics–based approach facilitates discovery of new anticancer indications for FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of NSCLC.
Xingwu Jiang, Weiqiang Lu, Xiaoyang Shen, Quan Wang, Jing Lv, Mingyao Liu, Feixiong Cheng, Zhongming Zhao, Xiufeng Pang
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by CNS inflammation leading to demyelination and axonal damage. IFN-β is an established treatment for MS; however, up to 30% of IFN-β–treated MS patients develop neutralizing antidrug antibodies (nADA), leading to reduced drug bioactivity and efficacy. Mechanisms driving antidrug immunogenicity remain uncertain, and reliable biomarkers to predict immunogenicity development are lacking. Using high-throughput flow cytometry, NOTCH2 expression on CD14+ monocytes and increased frequency of proinflammatory monocyte subsets were identified as baseline predictors of nADA development in MS patients treated with IFN-β. The association of this monocyte profile with nADA development was validated in 2 independent cross-sectional MS patient cohorts and a prospective cohort followed before and after IFN-β administration. Reduced monocyte NOTCH2 expression in nADA+ MS patients was associated with NOTCH2 activation measured by increased expression of Notch-responsive genes, polarization of monocytes toward a nonclassical phenotype, and increased proinflammatory IL-6 production. NOTCH2 activation was T cell dependent and was only triggered in the presence of serum from nADA+ patients. Thus, nADA development was driven by a proinflammatory environment that triggered activation of the NOTCH2 signaling pathway prior to first IFN-β administration.
Marsilio Adriani, Petra Nytrova, Cyprien Mbogning, Signe Hässler, Karel Medek, Poul Erik H. Jensen, Paul Creeke, Clemens Warnke, Kathleen Ingenhoven, Bernhard Hemmer, Claudia Sievers, Raija L.P. Lindberg Gasser, Nicolas Fissolo, Florian Deisenhammer, Zsolt Bocskei, Vincent Mikol, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, Eva Kubala Havrdova, Philippe Broët, Pierre Dönnes, Claudia Mauri, Elizabeth C. Jury, The ABIRISK Consortium
Cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) is the most commonly mutated gene associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Haploinsufficiency of full-length MYBPC3 and disruption of proteostasis have both been proposed as central to HCM disease pathogenesis. Discriminating the relative contributions of these 2 mechanisms requires fundamental knowledge of how turnover of WT and mutant MYBPC3 proteins is regulated. We expressed several disease-causing mutations in MYBPC3 in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. In contrast to WT MYBPC3, mutant proteins showed reduced expression and failed to localize to the sarcomere. In an unbiased coimmunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screen, we identified HSP70-family chaperones as interactors of both WT and mutant MYBPC3. Heat shock cognate 70 kDa (HSC70) was the most abundant chaperone interactor. Knockdown of HSC70 significantly slowed degradation of both WT and mutant MYBPC3, while pharmacologic activation of HSC70 and HSP70 accelerated degradation. HSC70 was expressed in discrete striations in the sarcomere. Expression of mutant MYBPC3 did not affect HSC70 localization, nor did it induce a protein folding stress response or ubiquitin proteasome dysfunction. Together these data suggest that WT and mutant MYBPC3 proteins are clients for HSC70, and that the HSC70 chaperone system plays a major role in regulating MYBPC3 protein turnover.
Amelia A. Glazier, Neha Hafeez, Dattatreya Mellacheruvu, Venkatesha Basrur, Alexey I. Nesvizhskii, Lap Man Lee, Hao Shao, Vi Tang, Jaime M. Yob, Jason E. Gestwicki, Adam S. Helms, Sharlene M. Day
The macrophage is a major phagocytic cell type, and its impaired function is a primary cause of immune paralysis, organ injury, and death in sepsis. An incomplete understanding of the endogenous molecules that regulate macrophage bactericidal activity is a major barrier for developing effective therapies for sepsis. Using an in vitro killing assay, we report here that the endogenous purine ATP augments the killing of sepsis-causing bacteria by macrophages through P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs). Using newly developed transgenic mice expressing a bioluminescent ATP probe on the cell surface, we found that extracellular ATP levels increase during sepsis, indicating that ATP may contribute to bacterial killing in vivo. Studies with P2X4R-deficient mice subjected to sepsis confirm the role of extracellular ATP acting on P2X4Rs in killing bacteria and protecting against organ injury and death. Results with adoptive transfer of macrophages, myeloid-specific P2X4R-deficient mice, and P2rx4 tdTomato reporter mice indicate that macrophages are essential for the antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and organ protective effects of P2X4Rs in sepsis. Pharmacological targeting of P2X4Rs with the allosteric activator ivermectin protects against bacterial dissemination and mortality in sepsis. We propose that P2X4Rs represent a promising target for drug development to control bacterial growth in sepsis and other infections.
Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H. Németh, Ildikó Szabó, Daryl L. Davies, Zoltán V. Varga, János Pálóczi, Simonetta Falzoni, Francesco Di Virgilio, Rieko Muramatsu, Toshihide Yamashita, Pál Pacher, György Haskó
The nasal mucosa is an important component of mucosal immunity. Immunogenic particles in inspired air are known to activate the local nasal mucosal immune system and can lead to sinonasal inflammation; however, little is known about the effect of this activation on the lung immune environment. Here, we showed that nasal inoculation of murine coronavirus (CoV) in the absence of direct lung infection primes the lung immune environment by recruiting activated monocytes (Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes) and NK cells into the lungs. Unlike infiltration of these cells into directly infected lungs, a process that requires type I IFN signaling, nasally induced infiltration of Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes into the lungs is IFN-I independent. These activated macrophages ingested antigen and migrated to pulmonary lymph nodes, and enhanced both innate and adaptive immunity after heterologous virus infection. Clinically, such nasal-only inoculation of MHV-1 failed to cause pneumonia but significantly reduced mortality and morbidity of lethal pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) or influenza A virus. Together, the data indicate that the nose and upper airway remotely prime the lung immunity to protect the lungs from direct viral infections.
Xiaoyang Hua, Rahul Vijay, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Jeremiah Athmer, David K. Meyerholz, Nitin Pagedar, Stephen Tilley, Stanley Perlman
Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and keep immune responses in check. Upon activation, Tregs are transferred into an effector state expressing transcripts essential for their suppressive activity, migration, and survival. However, it is not completely understood how different intrinsic and environmental factors control differentiation. Here, we present for the first time to our knowledge data suggesting that Treg-intrinsic expression of CD83 is essential for Treg differentiation upon activation. Interestingly, mice with Treg-intrinsic CD83 deficiency are characterized by a proinflammatory phenotype. Furthermore, the loss of CD83 expression by Tregs leads to the downregulation of Treg-specific differentiation markers and the induction of an inflammatory profile. In addition, Treg-specific conditional knockout mice showed aggravated autoimmunity and an impaired resolution of inflammation. Altogether, our results show that CD83 expression in Tregs is an essential factor for the development and function of effector Tregs upon activation. Since Tregs play a crucial role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and thus prevention of autoimmune disorders, our findings are also clinically relevant.
Marina Doebbeler, Christina Koenig, Lena Krzyzak, Christine Seitz, Andreas Wild, Thomas Ulas, Kevin Baßler, Dmitry Kopelyanskiy, Alina Butterhof, Christine Kuhnt, Simon Kreiser, Lena Stich, Elisabeth Zinser, Ilka Knippertz, Stefan Wirtz, Christin Riegel, Petra Hoffmann, Matthias Edinger, Lars Nitschke, Thomas Winkler, Joachim L. Schultze, Alexander Steinkasserer, Matthias Lechmann
Lingegowda S. Mangala, Hongyu Wang, Dahai Jiang, Sherry Y. Wu, Anoma Somasunderam, David E. Volk, Ganesh L. R. Lokesh, Xin Li, Sunila Pradeep, Xianbin Yang, Monika Haemmerle, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Archana S Nagaraja, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Emine Bayraktar, Recep Bayraktar, Li Li, Takemi Tanaka, Wei Hu, Cristina Ivan, Kshipra M Gharpure, Michael H. McGuire, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, Xinna Zhang, Sourindra N. Maiti, Nataliya Bulayeva, Hyun-Jin Choi, Piotr L. Dorniak, Laurence J.N. Cooper, Kevin P. Rosenblatt, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, David G. Gorenstein, Anil K. Sood
Archana S. Nagaraja, Robert L. Dood, Guillermo Armaiz-Pena, Yu Kang, Sherry Y. Wu, Julie K. Allen, Nicholas B. Jennings, Lingegowda S. Mangala, Sunila Pradeep, Yasmin Lyons, Monika Haemmerle, Kshipra M. Gharpure, Nouara C. Sadaoui, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristina Ivan, Ying Wang, Keith Baggerly, Prahlad Ram, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Jinsong Liu, Samuel C. Mok, Lorenzo Cohen, Susan K. Lutgendorf, Steve W. Cole, Anil K. Sood