Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) transmembrane protein, activates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in skeletal muscle and, thereby, coordinates Ca2+ homeostasis, Ca2+-dependent gene expression, and contractility. STIM1 occupies space in the junctional SR membrane of the triads and the longitudinal SR at the Z-line. How STIM1 is organized and is retained in these specific subdomains of the SR is unclear. Here, we identified desmin, the major type III intermediate filament protein in muscle, as a binding partner for STIM1 based on a yeast 2-hybrid screen. Validation of the desmin-STIM1 interaction by immunoprecipitation and immunolocalization confirmed that the CC1-SOAR domains of STIM1 interact with desmin to enhance STIM1 oligomerization yet limit SOCE. Based on our studies of desmin-KO mice, we developed a model wherein desmin connected STIM1 at the Z-line in order to regulate the efficiency of Ca2+ refilling of the SR. Taken together, these studies showed that desmin-STIM1 assembles a cytoskeletal-SR connection that is important for Ca2+ signaling in skeletal muscle.
Hengtao Zhang, Victoria Graham Bryson, Chaojian Wang, TianYu Li, Jaclyn P. Kerr, Rebecca Wilson, Deborah M. Muoio, Robert J. Bloch, Christopher Ward, Paul B. Rosenberg
Obesity, a major healthcare issue, is characterized by metabolic abnormalities in multiple tissues, including the skeletal muscle. Although dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence the homeostasis of systemic energy, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found promoter hypermethylation and decreased gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) in the skeletal muscle of individuals with obesity using high-throughput sequencing. Reduced binding of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB1) to the hypermethylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element, which is a regulatory element upstream of the transcription initiation site, partially contributed to the downregulation of FGF6 in patients with obesity. Overexpression of Fgf6 in mice skeletal muscle stimulated protein synthesis, activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and prevented the increase in weight and the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice. Thus, our findings highlight the role played by Fgf6 in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy and whole-body metabolism, indicating its potential in strategies aimed at preventing and treating metabolic diseases.
Bo Xu, Caizhi Liu, Hong Zhang, Rong Zhang, Mengyang Tang, Yan Huang, Li Jin, Lingyan Xu, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia
Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) comprises a subfamily of cytoskeletal proteins encoded by MYBPC1 that is expressed in skeletal muscles where it contributes to myosin thick filament stabilization and actomyosin cross-bridge regulation. Recently, our group described the causal association of dominant missense pathogenic variants in MYBPC1 with an early-onset myopathy characterized by generalized muscle weakness, hypotonia, dysmorphia, skeletal deformities, and myogenic tremor occurring in the absence of neuropathy. To mechanistically interrogate the etiologies of this MYBPC1-associated myopathy in vivo, we generated a knock-in mouse model carrying the E248K pathogenic variant. Using a battery of phenotypic, behavioral, and physiological measurements spanning neonatal to young adult life, we find that heterozygous E248K mice faithfully recapitulate the onset and progression of generalized myopathy, tremor occurrence, and skeletal deformities seen in human carriers. Moreover, using a combination of biochemical, ultrastructural, and contractile assessments at the level of the tissue, cell, and myofilaments, we show that the loss-of-function phenotype observed in mutant muscles is primarily driven by disordered and misaligned sarcomeres containing fragmented and out-of-register internal membranes that result in reduced force production and tremor initiation. Collectively, our findings provide mechanistic insights underscoring the E248K-disease pathogenesis and offer a relevant preclinical model for therapeutic discovery.
Janelle Geist Hauserman, Janis Stavusis, Humberto C. Joca, Joel C. Robinett, Laurin Hanft, Jack Vandermeulen, Runchen Zhao, Joseph P Stains, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Kerry S. McDonald, Christopher Ward, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. While SMN restoration therapies are beneficial, they are not a cure. We aimed to identify potentially novel treatments to alleviate muscle pathology combining transcriptomics, proteomics, and perturbational data sets. This revealed potential drug candidates for repurposing in SMA. One of the candidates, harmine, was further investigated in cell and animal models, improving multiple disease phenotypes, including lifespan, weight, and key molecular networks in skeletal muscle. Our work highlights the potential of multiple and parallel data-driven approaches for the development of potentially novel treatments for use in combination with SMN restoration therapies.
Katharina E. Meijboom, Viola Volpato, Jimena Monzón-Sandoval, Joseph M. Hoolachan, Suzan M. Hammond, Frank Abendroth, Olivier G. de Jong, Gareth Hazell, Nina Ahlskog, Matthew J.A. Wood, Caleb Webber, Melissa Bowerman
Neurogenic muscle atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with nerve injury and in denervating diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aside from prompt restoration of innervation and exercise where feasible, there are currently no effective strategies for maintaining skeletal muscle mass in the setting of denervation. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of gene expression changes occurring in atrophying skeletal muscle, and identified Gadd45a as a gene that shows one of the earliest and most sustained increases in expression in skeletal muscle after denervation. We evaluated the role of this induction using genetic mouse models and found that mice lacking GADD45A show accelerated and exacerbated neurogenic muscle atrophy, as well as loss of fiber type identity. Our genetic analyses demonstrate that, rather than directly contributing to muscle atrophy as proposed in earlier studies, GADD45A induction likely represents a protective negative feedback response to denervation. Establishing the downstream effectors that mediate this protective effect and the pathways they participate in may yield new opportunities to modify the course of muscle atrophy.
Jeffrey T. Ehmsen, Riki Kawaguchi, Damlanur Kaval, Anna E. Johnson, Daniel Nachun, Giovanni Coppola, Ahmet Höke
ORM1-like 3 (ORMDL3) has strong genetic linkage to childhood onset asthma. To determine whether ORMDL3 selective expression in airway smooth muscle (ASM) influences ASM function we used cre/lox techniques to generate transgenic mice (hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre) which express human ORMDL3 selectively in smooth muscle cells. In vitro studies of ASM cells isolated from the bronchi of hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice demonstrated that they developed hypertrophy (quantitated by FACS and image analysis), hyperplasia (assessed by BrdU incorporation), and expressed increased levels of tropomysin proteins TPM1 and TPM4. siRNA knockdown of TPM1 or TPM4 demonstrated their importance to ORMDL3 mediated ASM proliferation but not hypertrophy. In addition, ASM derived from hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice had increased contractility to histamine in vitro which was associated with increased levels of intracellular Ca2+, increased cell surface membrane Orai1 Ca2+ channels which mediate influx of Ca2+ into the cytoplasm, and increased expression of ASM contractile genes Serca2b and Sm22. In vivo studies of hORMDL3Myh11eGFP-cre mice demonstrated that they had a spontaneous increase in ASM and AHR. ORMDL3 expression in ASM thus induces changes in ASM (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, increased contractility) which may explain the contribution of ORMDL3 to the development of AHR in childhood onset asthma which is highly linked to ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q12-21.
Alexa K. Pham, Marina Miller, Peter Rosenthal, Sudipta Das, Ning Weng, Sunghoon Jang, Richard C. Kurten, Jana Badrani, Taylor A. Doherty, Brian G. Oliver, David H. Broide
During denervation induced muscle atrophy, the loss of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ) integrity and the consequent cessation of nerve signal transmission to muscle, lead to a decline in myofiber size mass and contractile activity. However, the identity of the cell types implicated in the muscle response to nerve injury has not been clearly defined. Here, we describe a subpopulation of muscle resident glial cells activated by loss of NMJ integrity. Gene expression analysis at bulk and single cell level revealed the existence of a population of Itga7-expressing cells, which are distinct from muscle satellite cells and are selectively activated upon nerve injury. Upon nerve lesion, these cells expanded and activated a neurotrophic gene program, including the expression of a prospective selection marker – Ngfr – and a number of neurotrophic genes as well as ECM components. Among them, we observed that Tenascin C (Tnc) was specifically produced by muscle glial cells activated by nerve injury and preferentially localized to NMJ. Activation of muscle-resident glial cells by nerve injury induced a neurotrophic phenotype, which was reversible upon recovery of NMJ integrity; by contrast, muscle-resident glial cells in skeletal muscles of a mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) steadily increased over the course of the disease and exhibited an impaired neurotrophic activity, suggesting that pathogenic activation of glial cells may be implicated in ALS progression.
Daisy Proietti, Lorenzo Giordani, Marco De Bardi, Chiara D'Ercole, Biliana Lozanoska-Ochser, Susanna Amadio, Cinzia Volontè, Sara Marinelli, Antoine Muchir, Marina Bouchè, Giovanna Borsellino, Alessandra Sacco, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Luca Madaro
Cantu Syndrome (CS) is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in pore-forming (Kir6.1, KCNJ8) and accessory (SUR2, ABCC9) KATP channel subunits, the most common mutations being SUR2[R1154Q] and SUR2[R1154W], carried by ~30% of patients. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering to introduce the equivalent of human SUR2[R1154Q] mutation to the mouse ABCC9 gene. Along with minimal CS disease features, R1154Q cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle showed much lower KATP current density and pinacidil activation than WT cells. Almost complete loss of SUR2-dependent protein and KATP in homozygous R1154Q ventricles revealed an underlying diazoxide-sensitive SUR1-dependent KATP channel activity. Surprisingly, sequencing of SUR2 cDNA revealed divergent transcripts, one encoding full length SUR2 protein, and the other with in-frame deletion of 93 bases (corresponding to 31 amino acids encoded by exon 28) that was present in ~40% and ~90% of transcripts from hetero- and homozygous R1154Q tissues, respectively. Recombinant expression of SUR2A protein lacking exon 28 resulted in non-functional channels. SUR2[R1154Q] CS patient tissue and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes showed only full length SUR2 transcripts, although further studies will be required to fully test whether SUR2[R1154Q] or other CS mutations might result in aberrant splicing and variable expressivity of disease features in human CS.
Haixia Zhang, Alex M. Hanson, Tobias U. Scherf de Almeida, Christopher H. Emfinger, Conor McClenaghan, Theresa Harter, Zihan Yan, Paige E. Cooper, G. Schuyler Brown, Eric C. Arakel, Robert P. Mecham, Attila Kovacs, Carmen M. Halabi, Blanche Schwappach, Maria S. Remedi, Colin G. Nichols
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in a progressive skeletal myopathy involving atrophy, weakness, and fatigue. Mitochondria have been thought to contribute to skeletal myopathy, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying changes in muscle metabolism in CKD are unknown. This study employed a comprehensive mitochondrial phenotyping platform to elucidate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle mitochondrial impairment in mice with adenine-induced CKD. CKD mice displayed significant reductions in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which was strongly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, suggesting a link between kidney function and muscle mitochondrial health. Biochemical assays uncovered that OXPHOS dysfunction was driven principally by reduced activity of matrix dehydrogenases. Untargeted metabolomics analyses in skeletal muscle revealed a distinct metabolite profile in CKD muscle including accumulation of uremic toxins that strongly associated with the degree of mitochondrial impairment. Additional muscle phenotyping found that CKD mice experienced muscle atrophy and increased muscle protein degradation, but only male CKD mice had lower maximal contractile force. CKD mice also had morphological changes indicative of destabilization in the neuromuscular junction. This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of mitochondrial health in murine CKD muscle and uncovers several unknown uremic metabolites that are strongly associated with the degree of mitochondrial impairment.
Trace Thome, Ravi A. Kumar, Sarah K. Burke, Ram B. Khattri, Zachary R. Salyers, Rachel C. Kelley, Madeline D. Coleman, Demetra D. Christou, Russell T. Hepple, Salvatore T. Scali, Leonardo F. Ferreira, Terence E. Ryan
Cantύ Syndrome (CS), caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in pore-forming (Kir6.1, KCNJ8) and accessory (SUR2, ABCC9) ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunit genes, is frequently accompanied by gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility, and we describe one CS patient who required an implanted intestinal irrigation system for successful stooling. We used gene-modified mice to assess the underlying KATP channel subunits in gut smooth muscle, and to model the consequences of altered KATP channels in CS gut. We show that Kir6.1/SUR2 subunits underlie smooth muscle KATP channels throughout the small intestine and colon. Knock-in mice, carrying human KCNJ8 and ABCC9 CS mutations in the endogenous loci, exhibit reduced intrinsic contractility throughout the intestine, resulting in death when weaned onto solid food in the most severely affected animals. Death is avoided by weaning onto a liquid gel diet, implicating intestinal insufficiency and bowel impaction as the underlying cause, and GI transit is normalized by treatment with the KATP inhibitor glibenclamide. We thus define the molecular basis of intestinal KATP channel activity, the mechanism by which overactivity results in GI insufficiency, and a viable approach to therapy.
Nathaniel W. York, Helen Parker, Zili Xie, David Tyus, Maham A. Waheed, Zihan Yan, Dorothy K. Grange, Maria S. Remedi, Sarah K. England, Hongzhen Hu, Colin G. Nichols
No posts were found with this tag.