Inherited and acquired mitochondrial defects have been associated with podocyte dysfunction and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) is one of the main transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We hypothesized that increasing PGC1α expression in podocytes could protect from CKD. We found that PGC1α and mitochondrial transcript levels are lower in podocytes of patients and mouse models with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). To increase PGC1α expression, podocyte-specific inducible PGC1α-transgenic mice were generated by crossing nephrin-rtTA mice with tetO-Ppargc1a animals. Transgene induction resulted in albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of PGC1α in podocytes increased mitochondrial biogenesis and maximal respiratory capacity. PGC1α also shifted podocytes towards fatty acid usage from their baseline glucose preference. RNA sequencing analysis indicated that PGC1α induced podocyte proliferation. Histological lesions of mice with podocyte-specific PGC1α expression resembled collapsing focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. In conclusion, decreased podocyte PGC1α expression and mitochondrial content is a consistent feature of DKD, but excessive PGC1α alters mitochondrial properties and induces podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation, indicating that there is likely a narrow therapeutic window for PGC1α levels in podocytes.
Szu-Yuan Li, Jihwan Park, Chengxiang Qiu, Seung Hyeok Han, Matthew B. Palmer, Zoltan Arany, Katalin Susztak
BACKGROUND. Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention. METHODS. We measured visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes and intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by MRI, and whole body glucose disposal (WBGD) and MVR (using contrast-enhanced ultrasound) responses to a euglycemic insulin clamp in lean (n = 25) and abdominally obese men (n = 52). Abdominally obese men were randomized to dietary weight loss intervention or habitual diet. RESULTS. Obesity-associated increases in VAT, SAT, and IHL, along with the decrease in MVR, contributed independently to insulin resistance. Moreover, a dietary weight loss intervention reduced insulin resistance, and mediation analyses showed that decreased IHL and insulin-induced MVR, but not decreased VAT or SAT volumes, independently contributed to improved insulin resistance seen with weight loss. CONCLUSION. Quantifying the mutually independent contributions of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment reveals distinct targets for treating obesity-associated insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01675401. FUNDING. Funding was from the Top Institute Food and Nutrition.
Yvo H.A.M. Kusters, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, M. Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op ’t Roodt, Peter J. Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P. Mensink, Eugene J. Barrett, Coen D.A. Stehouwer
Magnesium (Mg2+) plays pleiotropic roles in cellular biology, and it is essentially required for all living organisms. Although previous studies demonstrated intracellular Mg2+ levels were regulated by the complex of phosphatase of regenerating liver 2 (PRL2) and Mg2+ transporter of cyclin M (CNNMs), physiological functions of PRL2 in whole animals remain unclear. Interestingly, Mg2+ was recently identified as a regulator of circadian rhythm–dependent metabolism; however, no mechanism was found to explain the clock-dependent Mg2+ oscillation. Herein, we report PRL2 as a missing link between sex and metabolism, as well as clock genes and daily cycles of Mg2+ fluxes. Our results unveil that PRL2-null animals displayed sex-dependent alterations in body composition, and expression of PRLs and CNNMs were sex- and circadian time–dependently regulated in brown adipose tissues. Consistently, PRL2-KO mice showed sex-dependent alterations in thermogenesis and in circadian energy metabolism. These physiological changes were associated with an increased rate of uncoupled respiration with lower intracellular Mg2+ in PRL2-KO cells. Moreover, PRL2 deficiency causes inhibition of the ATP citrate lyase axis, which is involved in fatty acid synthesis. Overall, our findings support that sex- and circadian-dependent PRL2 expression alter intracellular Mg2+ levels, which accordingly controls energy metabolism status.
Noriko Uetani, Serge Hardy, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Silke Kiessling, Adam Pietrobon, Nau Nau Wong, Valérie Chénard, Nicolas Cermakian, Julie St-Pierre, Michel L. Tremblay
Sepsis can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, resulting in organ damage and death. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) negatively regulates signaling by cytokine receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms for SOCS1 activity during polymicrobial sepsis are unknown. To address this, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis; C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP were then treated with a peptide (iKIR) that binds the SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and blocks its activity. Treatment with iKIR increased CLP-induced mortality, bacterial burden, and inflammatory cytokine production. Myeloid cell–specific SOCS1 deletion (Socs1Δmyel) mice were also more susceptible to sepsis, demonstrating increased mortality, higher bacterial loads, and elevated inflammatory cytokines, compared with Socs1fl littermate controls. These effects were accompanied by macrophage metabolic reprograming, as evidenced by increased lactic acid production and elevated expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 in septic Socs1Δmyel mice. Upregulation was dependent on the STAT3/HIF-1α/glycolysis axis, and blocking glycolysis ameliorated increased susceptibility to sepsis in iKIR-treated CLP mice. These results reveal a role of SOCS1 as a regulator of metabolic reprograming that prevents overwhelming inflammatory response and organ damage during sepsis.
Annie Rocio Piñeros Alvarez, Nicole Glosson-Byers, Stephanie Brandt, Soujuan Wang, Hector Wong, Sarah Sturgeon, Brian Paul McCarthy, Paul R. Territo, Jose Carlos Alves-Filho, C. Henrique Serezani
Cancer cells can inhibit effector T cells (Teff) through both immunomodulatory receptors and the impact of cancer metabolism on the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, Teff require high rates of glucose metabolism, and consumption of essential nutrients or generation of waste products by tumor cells may impede essential T cell metabolic pathways. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and altered cancer cell metabolism. Here, we assessed how ccRCC influences the metabolism and activation of primary patient ccRCC tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). CD8 TIL were abundant in ccRCC, but they were phenotypically distinct and both functionally and metabolically impaired. ccRCC CD8 TIL were unable to efficiently uptake glucose or perform glycolysis and had small, fragmented mitochondria that were hyperpolarized and generated large amounts of ROS. Elevated ROS was associated with downregulated mitochondrial SOD2. CD8 T cells with hyperpolarized mitochondria were also visible in the blood of ccRCC patients. Importantly, provision of pyruvate to bypass glycolytic defects or scavengers to neutralize mitochondrial ROS could partially restore TIL activation. Thus, strategies to improve metabolic function of ccRCC CD8 TIL may promote the immune response to ccRCC.
Peter J. Siska, Kathryn E. Beckermann, Frank M. Mason, Gabriela Andrejeva, Allison R. Greenplate, Adam B. Sendor, Yun-Chen J. Chiang, Armando L. Corona, Lelisa F. Gemta, Benjamin G. Vincent, Richard C. Wang, Bumki Kim, Jiyong Hong, Chiu-lan Chen, Timothy N. Bullock, Jonathan M. Irish, W. Kimryn Rathmell, Jeffrey C. Rathmell
Cholesterol accumulation in the liver is an early event in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we demonstrate that E2F1 plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis by regulating cholesterol uptake via proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), an enzyme that promotes low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation upon activation.
Qiuwen Lai, Albert Giralt, Cédric Le May, Lianjun Zhang, Bertrand Cariou, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Lluis Fajas
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a central organ that acts to increase energy expenditure; its regulatory factors could be clinically useful in the treatment of obesity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Although BH4 regulates the known regulatory factors of BAT, such as noradrenaline (NA) and NO, participation of BH4 in BAT function remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the role of BH4 in the regulation of BAT. Hph-1 mice, a mouse model of BH4 deficiency, exhibit obesity, adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired BAT function. Impaired BAT function was ameliorated together with systemic metabolic disturbances by BAT transplantation from BH4-sufficient mice (control mice) into BH4-deficient mice, strongly suggesting that BH4-induced BAT has a critical role in the regulation of systemic energy metabolism. Both NA derived from the sympathetic nerve and NO derived from endothelial NOS in the blood vessels participate in the regulation of BH4. In addition, a direct effect of BH4 in the stimulation of brown adipocytes via NO is implicated. Taken together, BH4 activates BAT and regulates systemic energy metabolism; this suggests an approach for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.
Yasuo Oguri, Yoshihito Fujita, Abulizi Abudukadier, Akiko Ohashi, Tsuyoshi Goto, Futoshi Furuya, Akio Obara, Toru Fukushima, Naomi Matsuo, Minji Kim, Masaya Hosokawa, Teruo Kawada, Hiroyuki Hasegawa, Nobuya Inagaki
The discovery of metabolite-phenotype associations may highlight candidate biomarkers and metabolic pathways altered in disease states. We sought to identify novel metabolites associated with obesity and one of its major complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. In 997 individuals in Framingham Heart Study Generation 3 (FHS Gen 3), we identified an association between anandamide (AEA) and BMI. Further examination revealed that AEA was associated with radiographic hepatic steatosis. In a histologically defined NAFLD cohort, AEA was associated with NAFLD severity, the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. These data highlight AEA as a marker linking cardiometabolic disease and NAFLD severity.
W. Taylor Kimberly, John F. O’Sullivan, Anjali K. Nath, Michelle Keyes, Xu Shi, Martin G. Larson, Qiong Yang, Michelle T. Long, Ramachandran Vasan, Randall T. Peterson, Thomas J. Wang, Kathleen E. Corey, Robert E. Gerszten
Abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to myocardial injury and remodeling. To determine whether accumulation of very long–chain ceramides occurs in human failing myocardium, we analyzed myocardial tissue and serum from patients with severe heart failure (HF) undergoing placement of left ventricular assist devices and controls. Lipidomic analysis revealed increased total and very long–chain ceramides in myocardium and serum of patients with advanced HF. After unloading, these changes showed partial reversibility. Following myocardial infarction (MI), serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pathway of ceramide synthesis, and ceramides were found increased. Blockade of SPT by the specific inhibitor myriocin reduced ceramide accumulation in ischemic cardiomyopathy and decreased C16, C24:1, and C24 ceramides. SPT inhibition also reduced ventricular remodeling, fibrosis, and macrophage content following MI. Further, genetic deletion of the
Ruiping Ji, Hirokazu Akashi, Konstantinos Drosatos, Xianghai Liao, Hongfeng Jiang, Peter J. Kennel, Danielle L. Brunjes, Estibaliz Castillero, Xiaokan Zhang, Lily Y. Deng, Shunichi Homma, Isaac J. George, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Ira J. Goldberg, P. Christian Schulze
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an excess accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, is a growing health epidemic. While ER stress in the liver has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the role of brain ER stress — which is emerging as a key contributor to a number of chronic diseases including obesity — in NAFLD remains unclear. These studies reveal that chemical induction of ER stress in the brain caused hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis in mice. Conversely, pharmacological reductions in brain ER stress in diet-induced obese mice rescued NAFLD independent of body weight, food intake, and adiposity. Evaluation of brain regions involved revealed robust activation of ER stress biomarkers and ER ultrastructural abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a nucleus situated outside of the blood-brain-barrier, in response to high-fat diet. Targeted reductions in SFO-ER stress in obese mice via SFO-specific supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose–regulated protein ameliorated hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis without altering body weight, food intake, adiposity, or obesity-induced hypertension. Overall, these findings indicate a novel role for brain ER stress, notably within the SFO, in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
Julie A. Horwath, Chansol Hurr, Scott D. Butler, Mallikarjun Guruju, Martin D. Cassell, Allyn L. Mark, Robin L. Davisson, Colin N. Young
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