Decreased cortical thickness and increased cortical porosity are the key anatomic changes responsible for osteoporotic fractures in elderly women and men. The cellular basis of these changes is unbalanced endosteal and intracortical osteonal remodeling by the osteoclasts and osteoblasts that comprise the basic multicellular units (BMUs). Like humans, mice lose cortical bone with age, but unlike humans, this loss occurs in the face of sex steroid sufficiency. Mice are therefore an ideal model to dissect age-specific osteoporotic mechanisms. Nevertheless, lack of evidence for endosteal or intracortical remodeling in mice has raised questions about their translational relevance. We show herein that administration of the antiosteoclastogenic cytokine osteoprotegerin to Swiss Webster mice ablated not only osteoclasts, but also endosteal bone formation, demonstrating the occurrence of BMU-based endosteal remodeling. Femoral cortical thickness decreased in aged male and female C57BL/6J mice, as well as F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and BALB/cBy mice. This decrease was greater in C57BL/6J mice, indicating a genetic influence. Moreover, endosteal remodeling became unbalanced because of increased osteoclast and decreased osteoblast numbers. The porosity of the femoral cortex increased with age but was much higher in females of both strains. Notably, the increased cortical porosity resulted from de novo intracortical remodeling by osteon-like structures. Age-dependent cortical bone loss was associated with increased osteocyte DNA damage, cellular senescence, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and increased levels of RANKL. The demonstration of unbalanced endosteal and intracortical remodeling in old mice validates the relevance of this animal model to involutional osteoporosis in humans.
Marilina Piemontese, Maria Almeida, Alexander G. Robling, Ha-Neui Kim, Jinhu Xiong, Jeff D. Thostenson, Robert S. Weinstein, Stavros C. Manolagas, Charles A. O’Brien, Robert L. Jilka
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Radiotracer studies demonstrated that the skeleton accumulates a significant fraction of postprandial fatty acids, which was equal to or in excess of that acquired by skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Female, but not male, Cpt2 mutant mice exhibited significant impairments in postnatal bone acquisition, potentially due to an inability of osteoblasts to modify fuel selection. Intriguingly, suppression of fatty acid utilization by osteoblasts and osteocytes also resulted in the development of dyslipidemia and diet-dependent modifications in body composition. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a requirement for fatty acid oxidation during bone accrual and suggest a role for the skeleton in lipid homeostasis.
Soohyun P. Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L. Zoch, Julie L. Frey, Caitlyn E. Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A. Ryan, Brian C. Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E. Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E. Kershaw, Daniel L. J. Thorek, Thomas L. Clemens, Michael J. Wolfgang, Ryan C. Riddle
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is characterized by the development of numerous benign bony tumors (osteochondromas). Although it has been well established that MHE is caused by mutations in EXT1 and EXT2, which encode glycosyltransferase essential for heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis, the cellular origin and molecular mechanisms of MHE remain elusive. Here, we show that in Ext1 mutant mice, osteochondromas develop from mesenchymal stem cell–like progenitor cells residing in the perichondrium, and we show that enhanced BMP signaling in these cells is the primary signaling defect that leads to osteochondromagenesis. We demonstrate that progenitor cells in the perichondrium, including those in the groove of Ranvier, highly express HS and that Ext1 ablation targeted to the perichondrium results in the development of osteochondromas. Ext1-deficient perichondrial progenitor cells show enhanced BMP signaling and increased chondrogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with the functional role for enhanced BMP signaling in osteochondromagenesis, administration of the small molecule BMP inhibitor LDN-193189 suppresses osteochondroma formation in two MHE mouse models. Together, our results demonstrate a role for enhanced perichondrial BMP signaling in osteochondromagenesis in mice, and they suggest the possibility of pharmacological treatment of MHE with BMP inhibitors.
Toshihiro Inubushi, Satoshi Nozawa, Kazu Matsumoto, Fumitoshi Irie, Yu Yamaguchi
Genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, in particular in osteoprogenitor cells, have been shown to support leukemogenesis. However, it is unclear how leukemia cells alter the BM microenvironment to create a hospitable niche. Here, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, but not normal CD34+ or CD33+ cells, induce osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In addition, AML cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Mechanistic studies identified that AML-derived BMPs activate Smad1/5 signaling to induce osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Gene expression array analysis revealed that AML cells induce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in BM-MSCs irrespective of AML type. Overexpression of CTGF in a transgenic mouse model greatly enhanced leukemia engraftment in vivo. Together, our data suggest that AML cells induce a preosteoblast-rich niche in the BM that in turn enhances AML expansion.
V. Lokesh Battula, Phuong M. Le, Jeffrey C. Sun, Khoa Nguyen, Bin Yuan, Ximin Zhou, Sonali Sonnylal, Teresa McQueen, Vivian Ruvolo, Keith A. Michel, Xiaoyang Ling, Rodrigo Jacamo, Elizabeth Shpall, Zhiqiang Wang, Arvind Rao, Gheath Al-Atrash, Marina Konopleva, R. Eric Davis, Melvyn A. Harrington, Catherine W. Cahill, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Michael Andreeff
NELL-1 is a secreted, osteogenic protein first discovered to control ossification of the cranial skeleton. Recently, NELL-1 has been implicated in bone maintenance. However, the cellular determinants of NELL-1’s bone-forming effects are still unknown. Here, recombinant human NELL-1 (rhNELL-1) implantation was examined in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate lumbar spinal fusion model. Prolonged rhNELL-1 protein release was achieved using an apatite-coated β-tricalcium phosphate carrier, resulting in a local influx of stem cell antigen-1–positive (Sca-1+) mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), and complete osseous fusion across all samples (100% spinal fusion rate). Murine studies revealed that
Aaron W. James, Jia Shen, Rebecca Tsuei, Alan Nguyen, Kevork Khadarian, Carolyn A. Meyers, Hsin Chuan Pan, Weiming Li, Jin H. Kwak, Greg Asatrian, Cymbeline T. Culiat, Min Lee, Kang Ting, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis worldwide. It is a complex disease affecting the whole joint but is generally characterized by progressive degradation of articular cartilage. Recent genome-wide association screens have implicated distinct DNA methylation signatures in OA patients. We show that the de novo DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3b, but not Dnmt3a, is present in healthy murine and human articular chondrocytes and its expression decreases in OA mouse models and in chondrocytes from human OA patients. Targeted deletion of Dnmt3b in murine articular chondrocytes results in an early-onset and progressive postnatal OA-like pathology. RNA-Seq and methylC-Seq analyses of Dnmt3b loss-of-function chondrocytes show that cellular metabolic processes are affected. Specifically, TCA metabolites and mitochondrial respiration are elevated. Importantly, a chondroprotective effect was found following Dnmt3b gain of function in murine articular chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that Dnmt3b plays a significant role in regulating postnatal articular cartilage homeostasis. Cellular pathways regulated by Dnmt3b in chondrocytes may provide novel targets for therapeutic approaches to treat OA.
Jie Shen, Cuicui Wang, Daofeng Li, Taotao Xu, Jason Myers, John M. Ashton, Ting Wang, Michael J. Zuscik, Audrey McAlinden, Regis J. O’Keefe
Osteolytic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, are characterized by diminished bone quality and increased fracture risk. The therapeutic challenge remains to maintain bone homeostasis with a balance between osteoclast-mediated resorption and osteoblast-mediated formation. Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of monocyte/macrophage-derived precursors. Here we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) expression in osteoclast precursors and its protein regulation are crucial for osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupled bone formation. In mice, monocyte/macrophage–specific knockdown of RIP140 (mϕRIP140KD) resulted in a cancellous osteopenic phenotype with significantly increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Osteoclast precursors isolated from mϕRIP140KD mice had significantly increased differentiation potential. Furthermore, conditioned media from mϕRIP140KD primary osteoclast cultures significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation. This suppressive activity was effectively and rapidly terminated by specific Syk-stimulated RIP140 protein degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that RIP140 functions primarily by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation through forming a transcription-suppressor complex with testicular receptor 4 (TR4) to repress osteoclastogenic genes. These data reveal that monocyte/macrophage RIP140/TR4 complexes may serve as a critical transcription regulatory complex maintaining homeostasis of osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupling with osteoblast formation. Accordingly, we propose a potentially novel therapeutic strategy, specifically targeting osteoclast precursor RIP140 protein in osteolytic bone diseases.
Bomi Lee, Urszula T. Iwaniec, Russell T. Turner, Yi-Wei Lin, Bart L. Clarke, Anne Gingery, Li-Na Wei
Loss-of-function mutations in stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) impair the activation of Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), resulting in a disease syndrome called CRAC channelopathy that is characterized by severe dental enamel defects. The cause of these enamel defects has remained unclear given a lack of animal models. We generated
Miriam Eckstein, Martin Vaeth, Cinzia Fornai, Manikandan Vinu, Timothy G. Bromage, Meerim K. Nurbaeva, Jessica L. Sorge, Paulo G. Coelho, Youssef Idaghdour, Stefan Feske, Rodrigo S. Lacruz
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, and pain relief with opioid-like drugs is a commonly used therapeutic for osteoarthritic patients. Recent studies published by our group showed that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is highly expressed during human development in joint-forming cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the skeletal system remains elusive. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the role of KOR signaling in synovial and cartilaginous tissues in pathological conditions. Our data demonstrate that KOR null mice exhibit accelerated cartilage degeneration after injury when compared with WT mice. Activation of KOR signaling increased the expression of anabolic enzymes and inhibited cartilage catabolism and degeneration in response to proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. In addition, selective KOR agonists increased joint lubrication via the activation of cAMP/CREB signaling in chondrocytes and synovial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate direct effects of KOR agonists on cartilage and synovial cells and reveals a protective effect of KOR signaling against cartilage degeneration after injury. In addition to pain control, local administration of dynorphin or other KOR agonist represents an attractive therapeutic approach in patients with early stages of osteoarthritis.
Ling Wu, Shu Zhang, Ruzanna Shkhyan, Siyoung Lee, Francesca Gullo, Claire D. Eliasberg, Frank A. Petrigliano, Kai Ba, Jing Wang, Yunfeng Lin, Denis Evseenko
Mutations of the
Toshifumi Fujiwara, Shiqiao Ye, Thiago Castro-Gomes, Caylin G. Winchell, Norma W. Andrews, Daniel E. Voth, Kottayil I. Varughese, Samuel G. Mackintosh, Yunfeng Feng, Nathan Pavlos, Takashi Nakamura, Stavros C. Manolagas, Haibo Zhao
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