Osteolytic bone lesions and hypercalcemia are common, serious complications in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive T cell malignancy associated with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The HTLV-1 viral oncogene HBZ has been implicated in ATL tumorigenesis and bone loss. In this study, we evaluated the role of HBZ on ATL-associated bone destruction using HTLV-1 infection and disease progression mouse models. Humanized mice infected with HTLV-1 developed lymphoproliferative disease and continuous, progressive osteolytic bone lesions. HTLV-1 lacking HBZ displayed only modest delays to lymphoproliferative disease but significantly decreased disease-associated bone loss compared with HTLV-1–infected mice. Gene expression array of acute ATL patient samples demonstrated increased expression of RANKL, a critical regulator of osteoclasts. We found that HBZ regulated RANKL in a c-Fos–dependent manner. Treatment of HTLV-1–infected humanized mice with denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against human RANKL, alleviated bone loss. Using patient-derived xenografts from primary human ATL cells to induce lymphoproliferative disease, we also observed profound tumor-induced bone destruction and increased c-Fos and RANKL gene expression. Together, these data show the critical role of HBZ in driving ATL-associated bone loss through RANKL and identify denosumab as a potential treatment to prevent bone complications in ATL patients.
Jingyu Xiang, Daniel A. Rauch, Devra D. Huey, Amanda R. Panfil, Xiaogang Cheng, Alison K. Esser, Xinming Su, John C. Harding, Yalin Xu, Gregory C. Fox, Francesca Fontana, Takayuki Kobayashi, Junyi Su, Hemalatha Sundaramoorthi, Wing Hing Wong, Yizhen Jia, Thomas J. Rosol, Deborah J. Veis, Patrick L. Green, Stefan Niewiesk, Lee Ratner, Katherine N. Weilbaecher
Recently we demonstrated that ablation of the DNA methyltransferase enzyme, Dnmt3b, resulted in catabolism and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in murine articular cartilage through a mechanism involving increased mitochondrial respiration. In this study, we identify 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (Abat) as a downstream target of Dnmt3b. Abat is an enzyme that metabolizes γ-aminobutyric acid to succinate, a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We show that Dnmt3b binds to the Abat promoter, increases methylation of a conserved CpG sequence just upstream of the transcriptional start site, and inhibits Abat expression. Dnmt3b deletion in articular chondrocytes results in reduced methylation of the CpG sequence in the Abat promoter, which subsequently increases expression of Abat. Increased Abat expression in chondrocytes leads to enhanced mitochondrial respiration and elevated expression of catabolic genes. Overexpression of Abat in murine knee joints via lentiviral injection results in accelerated cartilage degradation following surgical induction of OA. In contrast, lentiviral-based knockdown of Abat attenuates the expression of IL-1β–induced catabolic genes in primary murine articular chondrocytes in vitro and also protects against murine articular cartilage degradation in vivo. Strikingly, treatment with the FDA-approved small-molecule Abat inhibitor, vigabatrin, significantly prevents the development of injury-induced OA in mice. In summary, these studies establish Abat as an important new target for therapies to prevent OA.
Jie Shen, Cuicui Wang, Jun Ying, Taotao Xu, Audrey McAlinden, Regis J. O’Keefe
Age is a well-established risk factor for impaired bone fracture healing. Here, we identify a role for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in age-associated impairment of bone fracture healing and osteoblast differentiation, and we investigate the mechanism by which ApoE alters these processes. We identified that, in both humans and mice, circulating ApoE levels increase with age. We assessed bone healing in WT and ApoE–/– mice after performing tibial fracture surgery: bone deposition was higher within fracture calluses from ApoE–/– mice. In vitro recombinant ApoE (rApoE) treatment of differentiating osteoblasts decreased cellular differentiation and matrix mineralization. Moreover, this rApoE treatment decreased osteoblast glycolytic activity while increasing lipid uptake and fatty acid oxidation. Using parabiosis models, we determined that circulating ApoE plays a strong inhibitory role in bone repair. Using an adeno-associated virus–based siRNA system, we decreased circulating ApoE levels in 24-month-old mice and demonstrated that, as a result, fracture calluses from these aged mice displayed enhanced bone deposition and mechanical strength. Our results demonstrate that circulating ApoE as an aging factor inhibits bone fracture healing by altering osteoblast metabolism, thereby identifying ApoE as a new therapeutic target for improving bone repair in the elderly.
Rong Huang, Xiaohua Zong, Puviindran Nadesan, Janet L. Huebner, Virginia B. Kraus, James P. White, Phillip J. White, Gurpreet S. Baht
Bone provides supportive microenvironments for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is a frequent site of metastasis. While incidences of bone metastases increase with age, the properties of the bone marrow microenvironment that regulate dormancy and reactivation of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the age-associated changes in the bone secretome that trigger proliferation of HSCs, MSCs, and DTCs in the aging bone marrow microenvironment. Remarkably, a bone-specific mechanism involving expansion of pericytes and induction of quiescence-promoting secretome rendered this proliferative microenvironment resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. This bone-specific expansion of pericytes was triggered by an increase in PDGF signaling via remodeling of specialized type H blood vessels in response to therapy. The decline in bone marrow pericytes upon aging provides an explanation for loss of quiescence and expansion of cancer cells in the aged bone marrow microenvironment. Manipulation of blood flow — specifically, reduced blood flow — inhibited pericyte expansion, regulated endothelial PDGF-B expression, and rendered bone metastatic cancer cells susceptible to radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, our study provides a framework to recognize bone marrow vascular niches in age-associated increases in metastasis and to target angiocrine signals in therapeutic strategies to manage bone metastasis.
Amit Singh, Vimal Veeriah, Pengjun Xi, Rossella Labella, Junyu Chen, Sara G. Romeo, Saravana K. Ramasamy, Anjali P. Kusumbe
We induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) with adenine in WT mice, mice with osteocyte-specific deletion of Cyp27b1, encoding the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1(OH)ase [Oct-1(OH)ase–/–], and mice with global deletion of Cyp27b1 [global-1α(OH)ase–/–]; we then compared extraskeletal calcification. After adenine treatment, mice displayed increased blood urea nitrogen, decreased serum 1,25(OH)2D, and severe hyperparathyroidism. Skeletal expression of Cyp27b1 and of sclerostin and serum sclerostin all increased in WT mice but not in Oct-1α(OH)ase–/– mice or global-1α(OH)ase–/– mice. In contrast, skeletal expression of BMP2 and serum BMP2 rose in the Oct-1α(OH)ase–/– mice and in the global-1α(OH)ase–/– mice. Extraskeletal calcification occurred in muscle and blood vessels of mice with CKD and was highest in Oct-1α(OH)ase–/–mice. In vitro, recombinant sclerostin (100 ng/mL) significantly suppressed BMP2-induced osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle A7r5 cells and diminished BMP2-induced mineralization. Our study provides evidence that local osteocytic production of 1,25(OH)2D stimulates sclerostin and inhibits BMP2 production in murine CKD, thus mitigating osteoblastic transdifferentiation and mineralization of soft tissues. Increased osteocytic 1,25(OH)2D production, triggered by renal malfunction, may represent a “primary defensive response” to protect the organism from ectopic calcification by increasing sclerostin and suppressing BMP2 production.
Loan Nguyen-Yamamoto, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Rene St–Arnaud, David Goltzman
Enchondroma and chondrosarcoma are the most common benign and malignant cartilaginous neoplasms. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are present in the majority of these tumors. We performed RNA-seq analysis on chondrocytes from Col2a1Cre;Idh1LSL/+ animals and found that genes implied in cholesterol synthesis pathway were significantly upregulated in the mutant chondrocytes. We examined the phenotypic effect of inhibiting intracellular cholesterol biosynthesis on enchondroma formation by conditionally deleting SCAP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein), a protein activating intracellular cholesterol synthesis, in IDH1 mutant mice. We found fewer enchondromas in animals lacking SCAP. Furthermore, in chondrosarcomas, pharmacological inhibition of intracellular cholesterol synthesis significantly reduced chondrosarcoma cell viability in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that intracellular cholesterol synthesis is a potential therapeutic target for enchondromas and chondrosarcomas.
Hongyuan Zhang, Qingxia Wei, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Vijitha Puviindran, Yuning J. Tang, Sinthu Pathmanapan, Raymond Poon, Eyal Ramu, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Jay S. Wunder, Benjamin A. Alman
Breast cancer bone metastases often cause a debilitating non-curable condition with osteolytic lesions, muscle weakness and a high mortality. Current treatment comprises chemotherapy, irradiation, surgery and anti-resorptive drugs that restrict but do not revert bone destruction. In metastatic breast cancer cells, we determined the expression of sclerostin, a soluble Wnt inhibitor that represses osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In mice with breast cancer bone metastases, pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin using an anti-sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) reduced metastases without tumor cell dissemination to other distant sites. Sclerostin inhibition prevented the cancer-induced bone destruction by augmenting osteoblast-mediated bone formation and reducing osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. During advanced disease, NF-κB and p38 signaling was increased in muscles in a TGF-β1-dependent manner, causing muscle fiber atrophy, muscle weakness and tissue regeneration with an increase in Pax7-positive satellite cells. Scl-Ab treatment restored NF-κB and p38 signaling, the abundance of Pax7-positive cells and ultimately muscle function. These effects improved the overall health condition and expanded the life span of cancer-bearing mice. Together, these results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin reduces bone metastatic burden and muscle weakness with a prolongation of the survival time. This might provide novel options for treating musculoskeletal complications in breast cancer patients.
Eric Hesse, Saskia Schröder, Diana Brandt, Jenny Pamperin, Hiroaki Saito, Hanna Taipaleenmäki
During endochondral bone formation, chondrocyte hypertrophy represents a crucial turning point from chondrocyte differentiation to bone formation. Both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Using multiple mouse genetics models, we demonstrate in vivo that HDAC4 is required for the effects of PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. We further show in vivo that PTHrP leads to reduced HDAC4 phosphorylation at the 14-3-3–binding sites and subsequent HDAC4 nuclear translocation. The Hdac4-KO mouse shares a similar but milder phenotype with the Pthrp-KO mouse, indicating the possible existence of other mediators of PTHrP action. We identify HDAC5 as an additional mediator of PTHrP signaling. While the Hdac5-KO mouse has no growth plate phenotype at birth, the KO of Hdac5 in addition to the KO of Hdac4 is required to block fully PTHrP action on chondrocyte differentiation at birth in vivo. Finally, we show that PTHrP suppresses myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) action that allows runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression needed for chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP inhibits chondrocyte hypertrophy and subsequent bone formation in vivo by allowing HDAC4 and HDAC5 to block the Mef2/Runx2 signaling cascade. These results explain the phenotypes of several genetic abnormalities in humans.
Shigeki Nishimori, Forest Lai, Mieno Shiraishi, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Elena Kozhemyakina, Tso-Pang Yao, Andrew B. Lassar, Henry M. Kronenberg
The circadian clock network is an evolutionally conserved system involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis; however, its impacts on skeletal metabolism remain largely unknown. We herein demonstrated that circadian clock network in the intestines plays pivotal roles in skeletal metabolism such that the lack of Bmal1 gene in the intestines (Bmal1Int-/- mice) caused bone loss with bone resorption being activated and bone formation suppressed. Mechanistically, Clock interaction with Vitamin D receptor (Vdr) accelerated its binding to VDR response element by enhancing histone acetylation in a circadian-dependent manner, and this was lost in Bmal1Int-/- mice because nuclear translocation of Clock required the presence of Bmal1. Accordingly, the rhythmic expression of Vdr-target genes involved in transcellular calcium (Ca) absorption was created, and this was not observed in Bmal1Int-/- mice. As a result, transcellular Ca absorption was impaired and bone resorption was activated in Bmal1Int-/- mice. Additionally, sympathetic tone, the activation of which suppresses bone formation, was elevated through afferent vagal nerves in Bmal1Int-/- mice, the blockade of which partially recovered bone loss by increasing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption in Bmal1Int-/- mice. These results demonstrate that the intestinal circadian system regulates skeletal bone homeostasis.
Masanobu Kawai, Saori Kinoshita, Miwa Yamazaki, Keiko Yamamoto, Clifford J. Rosen, Shigeki Shimba, Keiichi Ozono, Toshimi Michigami
Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism. In spite of reduced abundance, residual GMAP variants maintain partial Golgi integrity, normal global protein secretion, and subcellular distribution of IFT20 in ODCD. These functions are lost when GMAP-210 is completely abrogated in ACG1A. However, a similar defect in chondrocyte maturation is observed in both disorders, which produces a cellular achondrogenesis phenotype of different severity, ensuing from aberrant glycan processing and impaired extracellular matrix proteoglycan secretion by the Golgi apparatus.
Anika Wehrle, Tomasz M. Witkos, Sheila Unger, Judith Schneider, John A. Follit, Johannes Hermann, Tim Welting, Virginia Fano, Marja Hietala, Nithiwat Vatanavicharn, Katharina Schoner, Jürgen Spranger, Miriam Schmidts, Bernhard Zabel, Gregory J. Pazour, Agnes Bloch-Zupan, Gen Nishimura, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch
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