The migrating keratinocyte wound front is required for skin wound closure. Despite significant advances in wound healing research, we do not fully understand the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate collective keratinocyte migration. Here, we show that, in the wound front, the epidermal transcription factor Grainyhead like-3 (GRHL3) mediates decreased expression of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin; this results in relaxed adhesions between suprabasal keratinocytes, thus promoting collective cell migration and wound closure. Wound fronts from mice lacking GRHL3 in epithelial cells (Grhl3-cKO) have lower expression of Fascin-1 (FSCN1), a known negative regulator of E-cadherin. Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) on wounded keratinocytes shows decreased wound-induced chromatin accessibility near the Fscn1 gene in Grhl3-cKO mice, a region enriched for GRHL3 motifs. These data reveal a wound-induced GRHL3/FSCN1/E-cadherin pathway that regulates keratinocyte-keratinocyte adhesion during wound-front migration; this pathway is activated in acute human wounds and is altered in diabetic wounds in mice, suggesting translational relevance.
Ghaidaa Kashgari, Sanan Venkatesh, Samuel Refuerzo, Brandon Pham, Anita Bayat, Rachel Herndon Klein, Raul Ramos, Albert Paul Ta, Maksim V. Plikus, Ping H. Wang, Bogi Andersen