Ginger is known to have antiinflammatory and antioxidative effects and has traditionally been used as an herbal supplement in the treatment of various chronic diseases. Here, we report antineutrophil properties of 6-gingerol, the most abundant bioactive compound of ginger root, in models of lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Specifically, we demonstrate that 6-gingerol attenuates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release in response to lupus- and APS-relevant stimuli through a mechanism that is at least partially dependent on inhibition of phosphodiesterases. At the same time, administration of 6-gingerol to mice reduces NET release in various models of lupus and APS, while also improving other disease-relevant endpoints, such as autoantibody formation and large-vein thrombosis. In summary, this study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate a protective role for ginger-derived compounds in the context of lupus. Importantly, it provides a potential mechanism for these effects via phosphodiesterase inhibition and attenuation of neutrophil hyperactivity.
Ramadan A. Ali, Alex A. Gandhi, Lipeng Dai, Julia Weiner, Shanea K. Estes, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Kelsey Gockman, Duxin Sun, Jason S. Knight
Kinetics of 6-gingerol in plasma and neutrophils following injection (i.p.) with 20 mg/kg 6-gingerol.