Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes regulate transcription through epigenetic modification of chromatin structure, but their specific functions in the kidney remain elusive. We discovered that the human kidney expresses class I HDACs. Kidney medullary-specific inhibition of class I HDACs in the rat during high salt feeding results in hypertension, polyuria, hypokalemia, and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. Three new, inducible murine models were used to determine that HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the kidney epithelium are necessary for maintaining epithelial integrity and maintaining fluid-electrolyte balance during increased dietary sodium intake. Moreover, single nucleus RNA sequencing determined that epithelial HDAC1 and HDAC2 are necessary for expression of many sodium or water transporters and channels. In performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of serious adverse events associated with clinical HDAC inhibitor use, we found that HDAC inhibitors increased the odds ratio of experiencing fluid-electrolyte disorders such as hypokalemia. This study provides insight on the mechanisms of potential serious adverse events with HDAC inhibitors, which may be fatal to critically ill patients. In conclusion, kidney tubular HDACs provide a link between the environment, such as consumption of high salt diets, with regulation of homeostatic mechanisms to remain in fluid-electrolyte balance.
Kelly A. Hyndman, Joshua S. Speed, Luciano D. Mendoza, John Allan, Jackson Colson, Randee Sedaka, Chunhua Jin, Hyun Jun Jung, Samir El-Dahr, David Pollock, Jennifer Pollock.