Impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to reduced insulin granule docking, disorganization of the exocytotic site, and impaired glucose-dependent facilitation of insulin exocytosis. We show in β cells from 80 human donors that the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis is disrupted in T2D. Spatial analyses of granule fusion events, visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in 24 of these donors, demonstrated that these events are nonrandom across the surface of β cells from donors with no diabetes. The compartmentalization of events occurs within regions defined by concurrent or recent membrane-resident secretory granules. This organization, and the number of membrane-associated granules, is glucose dependent and notably impaired in T2D β cells. Mechanistically, multichannel Kv2.1 clusters contribute to maintaining the density of membrane-resident granules and the number of fusion “hotspots,” while SUMOylation sites at the channel N- (K145) and C-terminus (K470) determine the relative proportion of fusion events occurring within these regions. Thus, a glucose-dependent compartmentalization of fusion, regulated in part by a structural role for Kv2.1, is disrupted in β cells from donors with T2D.
Jianyang Fu, John Maringa Githaka, Xiaoqing Dai, Gregory Plummer, Kunimasa Suzuki, Aliya F. Spigelman, Austin Bautista, Ryekjang Kim, Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Jocelyn E. Manning Fox, Herbert Y. Gaisano, Patrick E. MacDonald
SUMOylation sites on the Kv2.1 N- and C-termini control β cell exocytosis.