BACKGROUND. Lewy body diseases, a family of aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, entail loss of the catecholamine dopamine in the nigrostriatal system and equally severe deficiency of the closely related catecholamine norepinephrine in the heart. The myocardial noradrenergic lesion is associated with major non-motor symptoms and decreased survival. Numerous mechanisms determine norepinephrine stores, and which of these are altered in Lewy body diseases has not been examined in an integrated way. We used a computational modeling approach to assess comprehensively pathways of cardiac norepinephrine synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, and metabolism in Lewy body diseases. Application of a novel kinetic model identified a pattern of dysfunctional steps contributing to norepinephrine deficiency. We then tested predictions from the model in a new cohort of Parkinson disease patients. METHODS. Rate constants were calculated for 17 reactions determining intra-neuronal norepinephrine stores. Model predictions were tested by measuring post-mortem apical ventricular concentrations and concentration ratios of catechols in controls and patients with Parkinson disease. RESULTS. The model identified low rate constants for three types of processes in the Lewy body group—catecholamine biosynthesis via tyrosine hydroxylase and L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase, vesicular storage of dopamine and norepinephrine, and neuronal norepinephrine reuptake via the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter. Post-mortem catechols and catechol ratios confirmed this triad of model-predicted functional abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Denervation-independent impairments of neurotransmitter biosynthesis, vesicular sequestration, and norepinephrine recycling contribute to the myocardial norepinephrine deficiency attending Lewy body diseases. A proportion of cardiac sympathetic nerves are “sick but not dead,” suggesting targeted disease-modification strategies might retard clinical progression. TRIAL REGISTRATION. This study was not a clinical trial. FUNDING. The research reported here was supported by the Division of Intramural Research, NINDS.
David S. Goldstein, Mark J. Pekker, Graeme Eisenhofer, Yehonatan Sharabi
BACKGROUND. Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for R/R B-NHL, while chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy targeting CD19 emerges as an alternative strategy. Here we report a comparative analysis of the two strategies in a single center. METHODS. We performed a prospective single-arm study of CAR-T therapy in 29 patients with R/R B-NHL and compared the outcomes with contemporaneous 27 patients who received ASCT. NHL was diagnosed by histopathological assessments, and the safety and efficacy were compared. RESULTS. The CAR-T group exhibited better rates of CR (48.0% vs. 20.8%, P=0.046) and one-year OS (74.4% vs. 44.5%, P=0.044) compared with the ASCT group. Subpopulation analysis showed that patients with IPI scores ≥ 3 achieved significantly higher ORR and CR rates in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (ORR: 72.0% vs. 10.0%, P=0.002; CR: 38.9% vs 0% P=0.030, respectively). The most common severe adverse events in the CAR-T group were cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and infection compared with cytopenia, gastrointestinal toxicity and infection in the ASCT group. Additionally, the incidence of non-hematologic severe adverse events (SAEs) was markedly lower in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (20.7% vs. 48.1% P=0.030). CONCLUSION. CAR-T therapy exhibited superior clinical outcomes in safety and efficacy over ASCT in patients with R/R B-NHL, suggesting CAR-T may be a recommended alternative to ASCT.
Caixia Li, Ying Zhang, Changfeng Zhang, Jia Chen, Xiaoyan Lou, Xiaochen Chen, Liqing Kang, Nan Xu, Minghao Li, Jingwen Tan, Xiuli Sun, Jin Zhou, Zhen Yang, Xiangping Zong, Pu Wang, Ting Xu, Changju Qu, Haiwen Huang, Zhengming Jin, Lei Yu, Depei Wu
BACKGROUND Statins have pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism. The relationship between these effects and future cardiovascular events is unknown. We characterized the changes in lipids upon pravastatin treatment and defined the relationship with risk reduction for future cardiovascular events.METHODS Plasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in baseline and 1-year follow-up samples from a Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study subcohort (n = 4991). The associations of changes in lipids with treatment and cardiovascular outcomes were investigated using linear and Cox regression. The effect of treatment on future cardiovascular outcomes was examined by the relative risk reduction (RRR).RESULTS Pravastatin treatment was associated with changes in 206 lipids. Species containing arachidonic acid were positively associated while phosphatidylinositol species were negatively associated with pravastatin treatment. The RRR from pravastatin treatment for cardiovascular events decreased from 23.5% to 16.6% after adjustment for clinical risk factors and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and to 3.0% after further adjustment for the change in the lipid ratio PI(36:2)/PC(38:4). Change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) mediated 58% of the treatment effect. Stratification of patients into quartiles of change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) indicated no benefit of pravastatin in the fourth quartile.CONCLUSION The change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) predicted benefit from pravastatin, independent of change in LDL-C, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical benefit of statin treatment in secondary prevention.TRIAL REGISTRATION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier ACTRN12616000535471.FUNDING Bristol-Myers Squibb; NHMRC grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754; NHMRC program grant 1149987; NHMRC fellowship 108026; and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
Kaushala S. Jayawardana, Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Corey Giles, Christopher K. Barlow, Paul J. Nestel, Elizabeth H. Barnes, Adrienne Kirby, Peter Thompson, David R. Sullivan, Zahir H. Alshehry, Natalie A. Mellett, Kevin Huynh, Malcolm J. McConville, Sophia Zoungas, Graham S. Hillis, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Ian C. Marschner, Gerard Wong, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, John Simes, Andrew M. Tonkin, Peter J. Meikle, on behalf of the LIPID Study Investigators
BACKGROUND The hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of diseases for which several disease-modifying treatments are now available. Long-term effectiveness of these therapies is not yet fully known. Moreover, the existence of alternative therapies has resulted in an urgent need to identify patient characteristics that predict response to each therapy.METHODS We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 210 patients with hereditary TTR amyloidosis treated with the kinetic stabilizer tafamidis (20 mg qd). These patients were followed for a period of 18–66 months, after which they were classified by an expert as responders, partial responders, or nonresponders. Correlations between baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as plasma biomarkers and response to therapy, were investigated.RESULTS 34% of patients exhibited an almost complete arrest of disease progression (classified by an expert as responders); 36% had a partial to complete arrest in progression of some but not all disease components (partial responders); whereas the remaining 30% continued progressing despite therapy (nonresponders). We determined that disease severity, sex, and native TTR concentration at the outset of treatment were the most relevant predictors of response to tafamidis. Plasma tafamidis concentration after 12 months of therapy was also a predictor of response for male patients. Using these variables, we built a model to predict responsiveness to tafamidis.CONCLUSION Our study indicates long-term effectiveness for tafamidis, a kinetic stabilizer approved for the treatment of hereditary TTR amyloidosis. Moreover, we created a predictive model that can be potentially used in the clinical setting to inform patients and clinicians in their therapeutic decisions.
Cecília Monteiro, Jaleh S. Mesgazardeh, João Anselmo, Joana Fernandes, Marta Novais, Carla Rodrigues, Gabriel J. Brighty, David L. Powers, Evan T. Powers, Teresa Coelho, Jeffery W. Kelly
BACKGROUND Cerebral cavernous angiomas (CAs) with a symptomatic hemorrhage (CASH) have a high risk of recurrent hemorrhage and serious morbidity.METHODS Eighteen plasma molecules with mechanistic roles in CA pathobiology were investigated in 114 patients and 12 healthy subjects. The diagnostic biomarker of a CASH in the prior year was derived as that minimizing the Akaike information criterion and validated using machine learning, and was compared with the prognostic CASH biomarker predicting bleeding in the subsequent year. Biomarkers were longitudinally followed in a subset of cases. The biomarkers were queried in the lesional neurovascular unit (NVU) transcriptome and in plasma miRNAs from CASH and non-CASH patients.RESULTS The diagnostic CASH biomarker included a weighted combination of soluble CD14 (sCD14), VEGF, C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-10 distinguishing CASH patients with 76% sensitivity and 80% specificity (P = 0.0003). The prognostic CASH biomarker (sCD14, VEGF, IL-1β, and sROBO-4) was confirmed to predict a bleed in the subsequent year with 83% sensitivity and 93% specificity (P = 0.001). Genes associated with diagnostic and prognostic CASH biomarkers were differentially expressed in CASH lesional NVUs. Thirteen plasma miRNAs were differentially expressed between CASH and non-CASH patients.CONCLUSION Shared and unique biomarkers of recent symptomatic hemorrhage and of future bleeding in CA are mechanistically linked to lesional transcriptome and miRNA. The biomarkers may be applied for risk stratification in clinical trials and developed as a tool in clinical practice.FUNDING NIH, William and Judith Davis Fund in Neurovascular Surgery Research, Be Brave for Life Foundation, Safadi Translational Fellowship, Pritzker School of Medicine, and Sigrid Jusélius Foundation.
Seán B. Lyne, Romuald Girard, Janne Koskimäki, Hussein A. Zeineddine, Dongdong Zhang, Ying Cao, Yan Li, Agnieszka Stadnik, Thomas Moore, Rhonda Lightle, Changbin Shi, Robert Shenkar, Julián Carrión-Penagos, Sean P. Polster, Sharbel Romanos, Amy Akers, Miguel Lopez-Ramirez, Kevin J. Whitehead, Mark L. Kahn, Mark H. Ginsberg, Douglas A. Marchuk, Issam A. Awad
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly correlated with obesity and cardiovascular risk, but the importance of dietary carbohydrate independent of weight loss in MetS treatment remains controversial. Here, we test the theory that dietary carbohydrate intolerance (i.e., the inability to process carbohydrate in a healthy manner) rather than obesity per se is a fundamental feature of MetS.METHODS Individuals who were obese with a diagnosis of MetS were fed three 4-week weight-maintenance diets that were low, moderate, and high in carbohydrate. Protein was constant and fat was exchanged isocalorically for carbohydrate across all diets.RESULTS Despite maintaining body mass, low-carbohydrate (LC) intake enhanced fat oxidation and was more effective in reversing MetS, especially high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and the small LDL subclass phenotype. Carbohydrate restriction also improved abnormal fatty acid composition, an emerging MetS feature. Despite containing 2.5 times more saturated fat than the high-carbohydrate diet, an LC diet decreased plasma total saturated fat and palmitoleate and increased arachidonate.CONCLUSION Consistent with the perspective that MetS is a pathologic state that manifests as dietary carbohydrate intolerance, these results show that compared with eucaloric high-carbohydrate intake, LC/high-fat diets benefit MetS independent of whole-body or fat mass.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02918422.FUNDING Dairy Management Inc. and the Dutch Dairy Association.
Parker N. Hyde, Teryn N. Sapper, Christopher D. Crabtree, Richard A. LaFountain, Madison L. Bowling, Alex Buga, Brandon Fell, Fionn T. McSwiney, Ryan M. Dickerson, Vincent J. Miller, Debbie Scandling, Orlando P. Simonetti, Stephen D. Phinney, William J. Kraemer, Sarah A. King, Ronald M. Krauss, Jeff S. Volek
Background: There is growing evidence to suggest that the brain is an important target for insulin action, and that states of insulin resistance may extend to the CNS with detrimental effects on cognitive functioning. Although the effect of systemic insulin resistance on peripheral organs is well-studied, the degree to which insulin impacts brain function in vivo remains unclear. Methods: This randomized, single-blinded, 2-way-crossover, sham-controlled, pilot study determined the effects of hyperinsulinemia on fMRI brain activation during a 2-back working memory task in 9 healthy older adults (aged 57-79 years). Each participant underwent two clamp procedures (an insulin infusion and a saline placebo infusion, with normoglycemia maintained during both conditions), to examine the effects of hyperinsulinemia on task performance and associated blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal using fMRI. Results: Hyperinsulinemia (compared to saline control) was associated with an increase in both the spatial extent and relative strength of task-related BOLD signal during the 2-back task. Further, the degree of increased task-related activation in select brain regions correlated with greater systemic insulin sensitivity, as well as decreased reaction times and performance accuracy between experimental conditions. Conclusion: Together, these findings provide evidence of insulin action in the CNS among older adults during periods of sustained cognitive demand, with the greatest effects noted for individuals with highest systemic insulin sensitivity. Funding: This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (5R21AG051958, 2016).
Victoria J. Williams, Bianca A. Trombetta, Rabab Z. Jafri, Aaron M. Koenig, Chase D. Wennick, Becky C. Carlyle, Laya Ekhlaspour, Rexford S. Ahima, Steven J. Russell, David H. Salat, Steven E. Arnold
BACKGROUND Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe form of skin fragility disorder due to mutations in COL7A1 encoding basement membrane type VII collagen (C7), the main constituent of anchoring fibrils (AFs) in skin. We developed a self-inactivating lentiviral platform encoding a codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA under the control of a human phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for phase I evaluation.METHODS In this single-center, open-label phase I trial, 4 adults with RDEB each received 3 intradermal injections (~1 × 106 cells/cm2 of intact skin) of COL7A1-modified autologous fibroblasts and were followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was safety, including autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Secondary outcomes included C7 expression, AF morphology, and presence of transgene in the injected skin.RESULTS Gene-modified fibroblasts were well tolerated, without serious adverse reactions or autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Regarding efficacy, there was a significant (P < 0.05) 1.26-fold to 26.10-fold increase in C7 mean fluorescence intensity in the injected skin compared with noninjected skin in 3 of 4 subjects, with a sustained increase up to 12 months in 2 of 4 subjects. The presence of transgene (codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA) was demonstrated in the injected skin at month 12 in 1 subject, but no new mature AFs were detected.CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this is the first human study demonstrating safety and potential efficacy of lentiviral fibroblast gene therapy with the presence of COL7A1 transgene and subsequent C7 restoration in vivo in treated skin at 1 year after gene therapy. These data provide a rationale for phase II studies for further clinical evaluation.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClincalTrials.gov NCT02493816.FUNDING Cure EB, Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association (UK), UK NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, and Fondation René Touraine Short-Exchange Award.
Su M. Lwin, Farhatullah Syed, Wei-Li Di, Tendai Kadiyirire, Lu Liu, Alyson Guy, Anastasia Petrova, Alya Abdul-Wahab, Fiona Reid, Rachel Phillips, Maria Elstad, Christos Georgiadis, Sophia Aristodemou, Patricia A. Lovell, James R. McMillan, John Mee, Snaigune Miskinyte, Matthias Titeux, Linda Ozoemena, Rashida Pramanik, Sonia Serrano, Racheal Rowles, Clarisse Maurin, Elizabeth Orrin, Magdalena Martinez-Queipo, Ellie Rashidghamat, Christos Tziotzios, Alexandros Onoufriadis, Mei Chen, Lucas Chan, Farzin Farzaneh, Marcela Del Rio, Jakub Tolar, Johann W. Bauer, Fernando Larcher, Michael N. Antoniou, Alain Hovnanian, Adrian J. Thrasher, Jemima E. Mellerio, Waseem Qasim, John A. McGrath
BACKGROUND. Black individuals have lower natriuretic peptide levels and greater risk of heart failure (HF) than white individuals. Higher N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is associated with increased risk of incident HF, but little information is available in black individuals. We examined race-specific differences in 1) the association of NT-proBNP with incident HF and 2) the predictive ability of NT-proBNP for incident HF across body mass index (BMI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories. METHODS. In a prospective case-cohort study, baseline NT-proBNP was measured among 687 participants with incident HF and 2,923 (weighted 20,075) non-case randomly selected participants. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the objectives of our study. Global Wald Chi-square score estimated from multivariable Cox models was used to assess predictive ability of NT-proBNP across BMI and eGFR categories. RESULTS. In the multivariable model, a doubling of NT-proBNP concentration was associated with greater risk of incident HF among white individuals [hazard ratio (HR): 1.73; 95% CI: 1.55–1.94] than black individuals (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.34–1.70); Pinteraction by race = 0.024. Higher NT-proBNP was the strongest predictor of incident HF across all BMI and eGFR categories among white individuals. By contrast, among black individuals with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) or eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the predictive ability of NT-proBNP for incident HF was attenuated. CONCLUSIONS. The magnitude of the association of higher NT-proBNP with incident HF risk was greater among white individuals than black individuals. The diminished ability of NT-proBNP to predict the risk of HF in black population with obesity or impaired kidney function highlights the need of further investigations.
Nirav Patel, Mary Cushman, Orlando M. Gutierrez, George Howard, Monika M. Safford, Paul Muntner, Raegan W. Durant, Sumanth D. Prabhu, Garima Arora, Emily B. Levitan, Pankaj Arora
BACKGROUND. Sphingolipids (SPs) are ubiquitous, structurally diverse molecules that include ceramides, sphingomyelins, and sphingosines. They are involved in various pathologies including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, it is likely that perturbations in plasma concentrations of SPs are associated with disease. Identifying these associations may reveal useful biomarkers or provide insight into disease processes. METHODS. We performed a lipidomics evaluation of molecularly-distinct SPs in the plasma of 2,302 ethnically-Chinese Singaporeans using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. SP profiles were compared to clinical and biochemical characteristics, and subjects were evaluated by follow-up visits for 11 years. RESULTS. We found that ceramides correlate positively but hexosylceramides correlate negatively with body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Furthermore, SPs with a d16:1 sphingoid backbone correlate more positively with BMI and HOMA-IR, while d18:2 SPs correlate less positively, relative to canonical d18:1 SPs. We also found that higher concentrations of two distinct sphingomyelins were associated with a higher risk of T2DM (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.18–1.78 for SM d16:1/C18:0; and HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.17–1.68 for SM d18:1/C18:0). CONCLUSION. We identified significant associations between SPs and obesity/T2DM characteristics, specifically, that of hexosylceramides, d16:1 SPs, and d18:2 SPs. This suggests that the balance of SP metabolism, rather than ceramide accumulation, is associated with the pathology of obesity. We further identified two specific SPs that may represent prognostic biomarkers for T2DM. FUNDING. Funding sources are listed in the Acknowledgements section
Wee Siong Chew, Federico Torta, Shanshan Ji, Hyungwon Choi, Husna Begum, Xueling Sim, Chin Meng Khoo, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Wei-Yi Ong, Rob M. Van Dam, Markus R. Wenk, E. Shyong Tai, Deron R. Herr
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