Background: In this study, we aimed to identify the lipidomic predictors of early type-2 diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression which are currently undefined DKD progression. Methods: This longitudinal study included 92 American Indians with type-2 diabetes. Serum lipids (406 from 18 classes) were quantified using mass spectrometry from baseline samples when iothalamate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was ≥90 mL/min. Affymetrix GeneChip Array was used to measure renal transcript expression. DKD Progression was defined as ≥40% decline in GFR during follow up. Results: Participants had a mean age of 45±9 years and median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 43 (interquartile range 11 to 144). The 32 progressors had significantly higher relative abundance of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (TAG)s and a lower abundance of C16-20 acylcarnitines (AC)s (p<0.001). In a Cox regression model the main effect terms of unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamines and the interaction terms of C16-20 ACs and short, low-double-bond TAGs by categories of albuminuria independently predicted progression of DKD. Renal expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene (ACACA) correlated with serum diacylglycerols in the glomerular compartment (r=0.36, p=0.006), and with low-double-bond TAGs in the tubulointerstitial compartment (r=0.52, p<0.001). Conclusion: Collectively, the findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between lipid markers of impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation and enhanced lipogenesis, with DKD progression, in individuals with preserved GFR. Renal acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation accompanies these lipidomic changes and suggests that it may be the underlying mechanism linking lipid abnormalities to DKD progression. Funding: R24DK082841, K08DK106523, R03DK121941, P30DK089503, P30DK081943, P30DK020572
Farsad Afshinnia, Viji Nair, Jiahe Lin, Thekkelnaycke M. Rajendiran, Tanu Soni, Jaeman Byun, Kumar Sharma, Patrice E. Fort, Thomas W. Gardner, Helen C. Looker, Robert G. Nelson, Frank C. Brosius, Eva L. Feldman, George Michailidis, Matthias Kretzler, Subramaniam Pennathur
BACKGROUND Cytokine biomarkers have already been used to predict acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) onset, nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival in human and mouse models, but the consistency of the consequences between patients and mice has not been evaluated. Furthermore, no study about any biomarker or biomarker panel for aGVHD grading or steroid sensitivity of aGVHD patients simultaneously has been reported.METHODS Here we established an aGVHD mouse model and explored the relation between aGVHD onset and variations of some cytokines. Based on the results and latest progress, we selected 16 cytokines and compared their serum variations in aGVHD patients and non-aGVHD patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Using protein microarray, we explored the relation between the cytokine levels and aGVHD-related events (onset, grading, and steroid sensitivity).RESULTS The increase of chemokine levels in murine aGVHD was very consistent with that of patients. We found obviously higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, Elafin, sST2, TLR4, and TNF-α, and lower levels of TGF-β in both aGVHD mouse models and aGVHD patients. In addition, patients with severe aGVHD showed increased IL-6, TLR4, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), and Elafin and decreased TGF-β. TLR4 and TNFR1 were significantly increased in steroid-refractory aGVHD patients compared with steroid-effective patients (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION A combination of TLR4, TNFR1, TGF-β, and Elafin could be a new 4-biomarker panel to assist aGVHD diagnosis, grading, and evaluation of steroid sensitivity for clinical aGVHD patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1900022292 “Clinical Research of Umbilical Cord–Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in the Prophylaxis of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After HLA-Haploidentical Stem-Cell Transplantation.”FUNDING National Key Research Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chongqing Social Career and People’s Livelihood Security Science and Technology Innovation Project, Fundamental and Frontier Research Program of Chongqing, and Foundation of Xinqiao Hospital.
Xiaoping Li, Ting Chen, Qiangguo Gao, Wei Zhang, Yunshuo Xiao, Wen Zhu, Lingyu Zeng, Zhenyu Li, Shijie Yang, Rui Wang, Xiaoqi Wang, Yimei Feng, Xi Zhang
Background: Circadian timing of treatments can largely improve tolerability and efficacy in patients. Thus, drug metabolism and cell cycle are controlled by molecular clocks in each cell, and coordinated by the core body temperature 24-hour rhythm, which is generated by the hypothalamic pacemaker. Individual circadian phase is currently estimated with questionnaire-based chronotype, center-of-rest time, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), or timing of CBT maximum (acrophase) or minimum (bathyphase). Methods: We aimed at circadian phase determination and read-out during daily routine in volunteers stratified by sex and age. We measured (i) chronotype; (ii) q1min CBT using two electronic pills swallowed 24-hours apart; (iii) DLMO through hourly salivary samples from 18:00 to bedtime; (iv) q1min accelerations and surface temperature at anterior chest level for seven days, using a tele-transmitting sensor. Circadian phases were computed using cosinor and Hidden-Markov modelling. Multivariate regression identified the combination of biomarkers that best predicted core temperature circadian bathyphase. Results: Amongst the 33 participants, individual circadian phases were spread over 5h10min (DLMO), 7h (CBT bathyphase) and 9h10 min (surface temperature acrophase). CBT bathyphase was accurately predicted, i.e. with an error <1h for 78.8% of the subjects, using a new digital health algorithm (INTime), combining time-invariant sex and chronotype score, with computed center-of-rest time and surface temperature bathyphase (adjusted R-squared = 0.637). Conclusion: INTime provided a continuous and reliable circadian phase estimate in real time. This model helps integrate circadian clocks into precision medicine and will enable treatment timing personalisation following further validation.
Sandra Komarzynski, Matei Bolborea, Qi Huang, Bärbel Finkenstädt, Francis Lévi
Background. HIV-infected patients with poor virologic control and multi-drug resistant virus have limited therapeutic options. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the safety, immunologic effects, and antiviral activity of peripheral lymphocytes transferred from an elite controller, whose immune system is able to control viral replication without antiretroviral medications, to an HLA-B*2705-matched progressor. Methods. Approximately 22 billion cells were collected from an elite controller by lymphaphersis and infused within 6 hours into a recipient with a pre-infusion CD4+ T cell count of 10 cells/μL (1%) and HIV plasma viral load of 114,993 copies/mL. Results. Donor cells were cleared from the recipient's peripheral blood by day 8. A transient decrease in viral load to 58,421 (day 3) was followed by a rebound to 702,972 (day 6) before returning to baseline values by day 8. The decreased viral load was temporally associated with peak levels of donor T cells, including CD8+ T cells that had high levels of expression of Ki67, perforin, and granzyme B. Notably, recipient CD8+ T cells also expressed increased expression of these markers, especially in HIV-specific tetramer positive cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from an HIV-infected elite controller to an HIV-infected patient with progressive disease may be able to perturb the immune system of the recipient in both positive and negative ways.
Stephen A. Migueles, Cheryl Chairez, Siying Lin, Noah V. Gavil, Danielle M. Rosenthal, Milad Pooran, Ven Natarajan, Adam Rupert, Robin Dewar, Tauseef Rehman, Brad T. Sherman, Joseph Adelsberger, Susan Leitman, David Stroncek, Caryn G. Morse, Mark Connors, H. Clifford Lane, Joseph A. Kovacs
BACKGROUND. Aberrant expression of RNA processing genes may drive the alterative RNA profile in lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Thus, we aimed to further stratify LGGs based on the expression of RNA processing genes. METHODS. This study included 446 LGGs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, training set) and 171 LGGs from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA, validation set). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression algorithm was conducted to develop a risk-signature. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to study the prognosis value of the risk-signature. RESULTS. Among the tested 784 RNA processing genes, 276 were significantly correlated with the OS of LGGs. Further LASSO Cox regression identified a 19-gene risk-signature, whose risk score was also an independently prognosis factor (P<0.0001, multiplex Cox regression) in the validation dataset. The signature had better prognostic value than the traditional factors “age”, “grade” and “WHO 2016 classification” for 3‐ and 5‐year survival both two datasets (AUCs > 85%). Importantly, the risk-signature could further stratify the survival of LGGs in specific subgroups of WHO 2016 classification. Furthermore, alternative splicing events for genes such as EGFR and FGFR were found to be associated with the risk score. mRNA expression levels for genes, which participated in cell proliferation and other processes, were significantly correlated to the risk score. CONCLUSIONS. Our results highlight the role of RNA processing genes for further stratifying the survival of patients with LGGs and provide insight into the alternative splicing events underlying this role.
Rui-Chao Chai, Yi-Ming Li, Ke-Nan Zhang, Yu-Zhou Chang, Yu-Qing Liu, Zheng Zhao, Zhi-Liang Wang, Yuan-Hao Chang, Guan-Zhang Li, Kuan-Yu Wang, Fan Wu, Yong-Zhi Wang
BACKGROUND Sorafenib has been shown to reduce the extent of immunosuppression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rationale of this investigation was to identify biomarkers that can predict treatment efficacy of sorafenib in HCC patients and to unravel the mechanism by which sorafenib impedes immune suppression mediated by distinct immunosuppressive cell subsets.METHODS With informed consent, blood samples were collected from 30 patients with advanced HCC, at baseline and 2 time points after initiation of sorafenib treatment. The frequency of PD-1+ T cells, ERK2 phosphorylation on flt-3+ Tregs and MDSCs, and T effector cell function were quantified by using flow cytometry.RESULTS Elevated levels of CD8+Ki67+ T cells producing IFN-γ were associated with improved progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). High frequencies of these T cells were correlated with significantly reduced risk of death over time. Patients with an increased pretreatment T effector/Treg ratio showed significant improvement in OS. ERK+flt-3+ Tregs and MDSCs were significantly decreased after sorafenib therapy. Increased numbers of baseline flt-3+p-ERK+ MDSCs were associated with survival benefit of patients.CONCLUSION A high baseline CD4+ T effector/Treg ratio is a potential biomarker of prognostic significance in HCC. CD8+Ki67+ T cells producing IFN-γ are a key biomarker of response to sorafenib therapy resulting in survival benefit. The immune modulation resulted from sorafenib-mediated blockade of signaling through the VEGF/VEGFR/flt-3 pathway, affecting ERK phosphorylation. These insights may help identify patients who likely would benefit from VEGFR antagonism and inform efforts to improve the efficacy of sorafenib in combination with immunotherapy.TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02072486.FUNDING National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Research Program from general research support provided by Bayer US LLC (NCCNSORA0002), National Cancer Institute grant P30CA016056, and pilot funds from Roswell Park Alliance Foundation.
Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Alan Hutson, Joseph Barbi, Renuka Iyer, Yasmin Thanavala
BACKGROUND. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major factor that limits the successful outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Currently there are few validated biomarkers that can help predict the risk of aGvHD in clinical settings. METHODS. We performed an integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics study and identified biomarkers that distinguish alloHSCT recipients with aGvHD from alloHSCT recipients without aGvHD in two separate cohorts. RESULTS. Pathway analysis of 38 significantly altered metabolites and 1148 differentially expressed genes uncovered a distinctly altered glycerophospholipid (GPL) metabolism network. Subsequently, we developed an aGvHD risk score (GRS) based on 5 metabolites markers from GPL metabolism to predict the risk of aGvHD. GRS showed a positive predictive value of 92.2% and 89.6% in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. In addition, high GRS was correlated with poor overall survival. Gene expressions of GPL-related lipases were significantly altered in aGvHD samples, leading to dysregulated GPLs. CONCLUSIONS. Using integrative “Omic” analysis, we unraveled a comprehensive view of the molecular perturbations underlying the pathogenesis of aGvHD. Our work represents an initial investigation of a unique metabolic and transcriptomic network that may help identify aGvHD at an early stage and facilitate preemptive therapy. FUNDING. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC; 81530047, 81870143, 81470321, 81770160, 81270567, 81270638, 81573396, 81703674). Shanghai Sailing Program from Science and Technology Commission Shanghai Municipality (17YF1424700). Scholarship from Shanghai Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission (2017BR012). Special Clinical Research in Health Industry in Shanghai (20184Y0054).
Yue Liu, Aijie Huang, Qi Chen, Xiaofei Chen, Yang Fei, Xiaoming Zhao, Weiping Zhang, Zhanying Hong, Zhenyu Zhu, Jianmin Yang, Yifeng Chai, Jianmin Wang, Xiaoxia Hu
BACKGROUND. Lewy body diseases, a family of aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, entail loss of the catecholamine dopamine in the nigrostriatal system and equally severe deficiency of the closely related catecholamine norepinephrine in the heart. The myocardial noradrenergic lesion is associated with major non-motor symptoms and decreased survival. Numerous mechanisms determine norepinephrine stores, and which of these are altered in Lewy body diseases has not been examined in an integrated way. We used a computational modeling approach to assess comprehensively pathways of cardiac norepinephrine synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, and metabolism in Lewy body diseases. Application of a novel kinetic model identified a pattern of dysfunctional steps contributing to norepinephrine deficiency. We then tested predictions from the model in a new cohort of Parkinson disease patients. METHODS. Rate constants were calculated for 17 reactions determining intra-neuronal norepinephrine stores. Model predictions were tested by measuring post-mortem apical ventricular concentrations and concentration ratios of catechols in controls and patients with Parkinson disease. RESULTS. The model identified low rate constants for three types of processes in the Lewy body group—catecholamine biosynthesis via tyrosine hydroxylase and L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase, vesicular storage of dopamine and norepinephrine, and neuronal norepinephrine reuptake via the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter. Post-mortem catechols and catechol ratios confirmed this triad of model-predicted functional abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Denervation-independent impairments of neurotransmitter biosynthesis, vesicular sequestration, and norepinephrine recycling contribute to the myocardial norepinephrine deficiency attending Lewy body diseases. A proportion of cardiac sympathetic nerves are “sick but not dead,” suggesting targeted disease-modification strategies might retard clinical progression. TRIAL REGISTRATION. This study was not a clinical trial. FUNDING. The research reported here was supported by the Division of Intramural Research, NINDS.
David S. Goldstein, Mark J. Pekker, Graeme Eisenhofer, Yehonatan Sharabi
BACKGROUND. Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for R/R B-NHL, while chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy targeting CD19 emerges as an alternative strategy. Here we report a comparative analysis of the two strategies in a single center. METHODS. We performed a prospective single-arm study of CAR-T therapy in 29 patients with R/R B-NHL and compared the outcomes with contemporaneous 27 patients who received ASCT. NHL was diagnosed by histopathological assessments, and the safety and efficacy were compared. RESULTS. The CAR-T group exhibited better rates of CR (48.0% vs. 20.8%, P=0.046) and one-year OS (74.4% vs. 44.5%, P=0.044) compared with the ASCT group. Subpopulation analysis showed that patients with IPI scores ≥ 3 achieved significantly higher ORR and CR rates in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (ORR: 72.0% vs. 10.0%, P=0.002; CR: 38.9% vs 0% P=0.030, respectively). The most common severe adverse events in the CAR-T group were cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and infection compared with cytopenia, gastrointestinal toxicity and infection in the ASCT group. Additionally, the incidence of non-hematologic severe adverse events (SAEs) was markedly lower in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (20.7% vs. 48.1% P=0.030). CONCLUSION. CAR-T therapy exhibited superior clinical outcomes in safety and efficacy over ASCT in patients with R/R B-NHL, suggesting CAR-T may be a recommended alternative to ASCT.
Caixia Li, Ying Zhang, Changfeng Zhang, Jia Chen, Xiaoyan Lou, Xiaochen Chen, Liqing Kang, Nan Xu, Minghao Li, Jingwen Tan, Xiuli Sun, Jin Zhou, Zhen Yang, Xiangping Zong, Pu Wang, Ting Xu, Changju Qu, Haiwen Huang, Zhengming Jin, Lei Yu, Depei Wu
BACKGROUND Statins have pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism. The relationship between these effects and future cardiovascular events is unknown. We characterized the changes in lipids upon pravastatin treatment and defined the relationship with risk reduction for future cardiovascular events.METHODS Plasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in baseline and 1-year follow-up samples from a Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study subcohort (n = 4991). The associations of changes in lipids with treatment and cardiovascular outcomes were investigated using linear and Cox regression. The effect of treatment on future cardiovascular outcomes was examined by the relative risk reduction (RRR).RESULTS Pravastatin treatment was associated with changes in 206 lipids. Species containing arachidonic acid were positively associated while phosphatidylinositol species were negatively associated with pravastatin treatment. The RRR from pravastatin treatment for cardiovascular events decreased from 23.5% to 16.6% after adjustment for clinical risk factors and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and to 3.0% after further adjustment for the change in the lipid ratio PI(36:2)/PC(38:4). Change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) mediated 58% of the treatment effect. Stratification of patients into quartiles of change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) indicated no benefit of pravastatin in the fourth quartile.CONCLUSION The change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) predicted benefit from pravastatin, independent of change in LDL-C, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical benefit of statin treatment in secondary prevention.TRIAL REGISTRATION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier ACTRN12616000535471.FUNDING Bristol-Myers Squibb; NHMRC grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754; NHMRC program grant 1149987; NHMRC fellowship 108026; and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
Kaushala S. Jayawardana, Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Corey Giles, Christopher K. Barlow, Paul J. Nestel, Elizabeth H. Barnes, Adrienne Kirby, Peter Thompson, David R. Sullivan, Zahir H. Alshehry, Natalie A. Mellett, Kevin Huynh, Malcolm J. McConville, Sophia Zoungas, Graham S. Hillis, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Ian C. Marschner, Gerard Wong, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, John Simes, Andrew M. Tonkin, Peter J. Meikle, on behalf of the LIPID Study Investigators
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