BACKGROUND While saturated fat intake leads to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver, Mediterranean-like diets enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may have beneficial effects. This study examined effects of MUFA on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.METHODS A randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study enrolled 16 glucose-tolerant volunteers to receive either oil (OIL, ~1.18 g/kg), rich in MUFA, or vehicle (VCL, water) on 2 occasions. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during preclamp and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions. Ingestion of 2H2O/acetaminophen was combined with [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion and in vivo 13C/31P/1H/ex vivo 2H-magnet resonance spectroscopy to quantify hepatic glucose and energy fluxes.RESULTS OIL increased plasma triglycerides and oleic acid concentrations by 44% and 66% compared with VCL. Upon OIL intervention, preclamp hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity markedly decreased by 28% and 27%, respectively, along with 61% higher rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and 32% lower rates of net glycogenolysis, while hepatic triglyceride and ATP concentrations did not differ from VCL. During insulin stimulation hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity were reduced by 21% and 25%, respectively, after OIL ingestion compared with that in controls.CONCLUSION A single MUFA-load suffices to induce insulin resistance but affects neither hepatic triglycerides nor energy-rich phosphates. These data indicate that amount of ingested fat, rather than its composition, primarily determines the development of acute insulin resistance.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01736202.FUNDING German Diabetes Center, German Federal Ministry of Health, Ministry of Culture and Science of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, German Diabetes Association, German Center for Diabetes Research, Portugal Foundation for Science and Technology, European Regional Development Fund, and Rede Nacional de Ressonancia Magnética Nuclear.
Theresia Sarabhai, Sabine Kahl, Julia Szendroedi, Daniel F. Markgraf, Oana-Patricia Zaharia, Cristina Barosa, Christian Herder, Frithjof Wickrath, Pavel Bobrov, Jong-Hee Hwang, John Griffith Jones, Michael Roden
Background. Malaria pathogenicity is determined, in part, by the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to the microvasculature mediated via specific interactions between PfEMP1 variant domains to host endothelial receptors. Naturally acquired antibodies against specific PfEMP1 variants can play an important role in clinical protection against malaria. Methods. We evaluated IgG responses against a repertoire of PfEMP1 CIDR domain variants to determine the rate and order of variant-specific antibody acquisition and their association with protection against febrile malaria in a prospective cohort study conducted in an area of intense, seasonal malaria transmission. Results. Using longitudinal data, we found that IgG to the pathogenic domain variants CIDRα1.7 and CIDRα1.8 were acquired the earliest. Furthermore, IgG to CIDRγ3 was associated with reduced prospective risk of febrile malaria and recurrent malaria episodes. Conclusion. This study provides evidence that acquisition of IgG antibodies to PfEMP1 variants is ordered and demonstrates that antibodies to CIDRα1 domains are acquired the earliest in children residing in an area of intense, seasonal malaria transmission. Future studies will need to validate these findings in other transmission settings and determine the functional activity of these naturally acquired CIDR variant-specific antibodies. Funding. Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health.
Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Daniel B. Larremore, Louise Turner, Aissata Ongoiba, Shanping Li, Safiatou Doumbo, Takele B. Yazew, Kassoum Kayentao, Louis H Miller, Boubacar Traore, Susan K. Pierce, Caroline O. Buckee, Thomas Lavstsen, Peter D. Crompton, Tuan M. Tran
Introduction: PD-1 and PD-L1 have been studied interchangeably in the clinic as checkpoints to reinvigorate T cells in diverse tumor types. Data for biologic effects of checkpoint blockade in human premalignancy are limited. Methods: We analyzed the immunologic effects of PD-L1 blockade in a clinical trial of atezolizumab in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma (AMM), a precursor to clinical malignancy. Genomic signatures of PD-L1 blockade in purified monocytes and T cells in vivo were also compared to those following PD-1 blockade in lung cancer patients. Effects of PD-L1 blockade on monocyte-derived dendritic cells were analyzed to better understand its effects on myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Results: In contrast to anti-PD-1 therapy, anti-PD-L1 therapy led to a distinct inflammatory signature in CD14+ monocytes and increase in myeloid-derived cytokines (e.g. IL-18) in vivo. Treatment of AMM patients with atezolizumab led to rapid activation and expansion of circulating myeloid cells which persisted in the bone marrow. Blockade of PD-L1 on purified monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) led to rapid inflammasome activation and synergized with CD40L-driven DC maturation, leading to greater antigen-specific T cell expansion. Conclusions: These data show that PD-L1 blockade leads to distinct systemic immunologic effects compared to PD-1 blockade in vivo in humans, particularly manifest as rapid myeloid activation. These findings also suggest an additional role for PD-L1 as a checkpoint for regulating inflammatory phenotype of myeloid cells and antigen-presentation in DCs, which may be harnessed to improve PD-L1-based combination therapies. Trial Registration: NCT02784483 Funding: NCI CA197603, CA238471, CA208328
Noffar Bar, Federica Costa, Rituparna Das, Alyssa Duffy, Mehmet K. Samur, Samuel S. McCachren, Scott Gettinger, Natalia Neparidze, Terri L. Parker, Jithendra Kini Bailur, Katherine E. Pendleton, Richa Bajpai, Lin Zhang, Mina L. Xu, Tara Anderson, Nicola Giuliani, Ajay K. Nooka, Hearn J. Cho, Aparna Raval, Mala Shanmugam, Kavita M. Dhodapkar, Madhav Dhodapkar
BACKGROUND Obesity has been associated with attenuated vaccine responses and an increased risk of contracting pneumococcal pneumonia, but no study to our knowledge has assessed the impact of obesity and genetics on 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) efficacy. We assessed the relationship of obesity (primary analysis) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING1) genotype (secondary analysis) on PPSV23 efficacy.METHODS Nonobese (BMI 22–25 kg/m2) and obese participants (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were given a single dose of PPSV23. Blood was drawn immediately prior to and 4–6 weeks after vaccination. Serum samples were used to assess PPSV23-specific antibodies. STING1 genotypes were identified using PCR on DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples.RESULTS Forty-six participants were categorized as nonobese (n = 23; 56.5% women; mean BMI 23.3 kg/m2) or obese (n = 23; 65.2% women; mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Obese participants had an elevated fold change in vaccine-specific responses compared with nonobese participants (P < 0.0001). The WT STING1 group (R232/R232) had a significantly higher PPSV23 response than individuals with a single copy of HAQ-STING1 regardless of BMI (P = 0.0025). When WT was assessed alone, obese participants had a higher fold serotype-specific response compared with nonobese participants (P < 0.0001), but no difference was observed between obese and nonobese individuals with 1 HAQ allele (P = 0.693).CONCLUSIONS These observations demonstrate a positive association between obesity and PPSV23 efficacy specifically in participants with the WT STING1 genotype.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02471014.FUNDING This research was supported by the NIH and the University of Florida MD-PhD Training Program.
Mathew Sebastian, Chu J. Hsiao, Hunter S. Futch, Robert S. Eisinger, Leanne Dumeny, Seema Patel, Mesfin Gobena, Divya S. Katikaneni, Joel Cohen, Anne-Marie Carpenter, Lisa Spiryda, Coy D. Heldermon, Lei Jin, Mark L. Brantly
BACKGROUND. The reshaping of the immune landscape by nivolumab (NIVO) and ipilimumab (IPI) and its relation to patient outcomes is not well-described. METHODS. We used high-parameter flow cytometry and a novel computational platform, CytoBrute, to define immunophenotypes of up to 15 markers to assess peripheral blood samples from metastatic melanoma patients receiving sequential NIVO>IPI or IPI>NIVO (CheckMate-064). RESULTS. The two treatments were associated with distinct immunophenotypic changes and had differing profiles associated with response. Only two immunophenotypes were shared but had opposing relationships to response/survival. To understand the impact of sequential treatment on response/survival, phenotypes that changed after the initial treatment and differentiated response in the other cohort were identified. Immunophenotypic changes occurring post-NIVO were predominately associated with response to IPI>NIVO, but changes occurring post-IPI were predominately associated with progression after NIVO>IPI. Among these changes, CD4+CD38+CD39+CD127–GARP– T-cell subsets were increased after IPI treatment and were negatively associated with response/survival for the NIVO>IPI cohort. CONCLUSION. Collectively, these data suggest that the impact of IPI and NIVO on the immunophenotypic landscape of patients is distinct and that the impact of IPI may be associated with resistance to subsequent NIVO therapy, consistent with poor outcomes in the IPI>NIVO cohort of Checkmate-064.
David M. Woods, Andressa S. Laino, Aidan F. Winters, Jason M. Alexandre, Daniel Freeman, Vinay Rao, Santi S. Adavani, Jeffrey S. Weber, Pratip K. Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND. Epidemiologic studies suggest that metformin has antitumor effects. Laboratory studies indicate metformin impacts cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). As part of a phase II trial, we evaluated the impact of metformin on CSC number, and carcinoma associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSC), and clinical outcomes in non-diabetic patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS. Thirty-eight patients with confirmed stage IIC(n = 1)/III(n = 25)/IV(n = 12) EOC were treated with either (i) neoadjuvant metformin, debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy + metformin, or (ii) neoadjuvant chemotherapy and metformin, interval debulking surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy + metformin. Metformin treated tumors, compared to historical controls, were evaluated for CSC number and chemotherapy response. Primary endpoints were (i) a greater than 2-fold reduction in ALDH+CD133+ CSC and (ii) a relapse free survival at 18 months of greater than 50%. RESULTS. Metformin was well-tolerated. Median progression-free survival was 18.0 months (95% CI 14.0–21.6) with relapse-free survival at 18 months of 59.3% (95% CI 38.6–70.5). Median overall survival was 57.9 months (95% CI 28.0 – Not Estimable). Tumors treated with metformin had a 2.4-fold decrease in ALDH+/CD133+ CSC and increased sensitivity to cisplatin ex vivo. Furthermore, metformin altered the methylation signature in CA-MSC which prevented CA-MSC driven chemoresistance in vitro. CONCLUSIONS. Translational studies confirm an impact of metformin on EOC CSC and suggest epigenetic change in the tumor stroma may drive the platinum sensitivity ex vivo. Consistent with this, metformin therapy was associated with better than expected overall survival, supporting the use of metformin in phase-III studies.
Jason R Brown, Daniel K. Chan, Jessica J Shank, Kent A. Griffith, Huihui Fan, Robert Szulawski, Kun Yang, R. Kevin Reynolds, Carolyn Johnston, Karen McLean, Shitanshu Uppal, J. Rebecca Liu, Lourdes Cabrera, Sarah E Taylor, Brian C. Orr, Francesmary Modugno, Pooja Mehta, Michael Bregenzer, Geeta Mehta, Hui Shen, Lan Coffman, Ronald J. Buckanovich
BACKGROUND. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a novel viral pneumonia (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading in the world. The positive result of nucleic acid test is a golden criterion to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the detection features remain unclear. METHODS. We performed a retrospective analysis in 5,630 high-risk individuals receiving SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Wuhan, China, and investigated their characteristics and diagnosis rates. RESULTS. The overall diagnosis rate was 34.7% (1,952/5,630). Male (P = 0.025) and older age (P = 2.525 × 10–39) were two significant risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. People were generally susceptible, and most cases concentrated in people of 30- to 69-years-old. Besides, we investigated the association between diagnosis rate and the number of testing in 501 subjects. Results revealed a 1.27-fold improvement (35.5%/27.9%) of diagnosis rate from testing once to twice (P = 5.847 × 10–9), and a 1.43-fold improvement (39.9%/27.9%) from testing once to three times (P = 7.797 × 10–14). More than three testing times was not helpful for further improvement. However, this improvement was not observed in subjects with pneumonia (P = 0.097). CONCLUSION. All populations are susceptible to SARS-Cov-2 infection, and male and older age are two significant risk factors. Increasing the number of testing could significantly improve diagnosis rates, except for subjects with pneumonia. It is recommended to test twice in those high-risk individuals whose results are negative for the first time, and to perform three testing times is better if available.
Na Shen, Yaowu Zhu, Xiong Wang, Jing Peng, Weiyong Liu, Feng Wang, Yanjun Lu, Liming Cheng, Ziyong Sun
Background: The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a severe outbreak in China. The host immunity of COVID-19 patients is unknown. Methods: The routine laboratory tests and host immunity in COVID-19 patients with different severity of illness were compared after patient admission. Results: A total of 65 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were classified as mild (n=30), severe (n=20), and extremely severe (n=15) illness. Many routine laboratory tests such as ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer were increased in severe and extremely severe patients. The absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells were all gradually decreased with increased severity of illness. The activation markers such as HLA-DR and CD45RO expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased in severe and extremely severe patients compared with mild patients. The co-stimulatory molecule CD28 had opposite results. The percentage of natural regulatory T cells was decreased in extremely severe patients. The percentage of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells was increased in both severe and extremely severe patients compared with mild patients. The percentage of IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells was increased in extremely severe patients. The IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10 were all increased in extremely severe patients. The activation of DC and B cells was decreased in extremely severe patients. Conclusions: The number and function of T cells are inconsistent in COVID-19 patients. The hyperfunction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is associated with the pathogenesis of extremely severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Feng Wang, Hongyan Hou, Ying Luo, Guoxing Tang, Shiji Wu, Min Huang, Weiyong Liu, Yaowu Zhu, Qun Lin, Liyan Mao, Minghao Fang, Huilan Zhang, Ziyong Sun
Background: Prehospital plasma improves survival in severely injured trauma patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock and transported by air ambulance. We hypothesized that prehospital plasma would be associated with a reduction in immune imbalance and endothelial damage. Methods: We collected blood samples from 405 trauma patients enrolled in the Prehospital Air MedicalPlasma (PAMPer) trial upon hospital admission (0 hours) and 24 hours post admission across 6 U.S. sites(9 level-one trauma centers) with air medical transport services. We assayed samples for 21 inflammatory mediators and 7 markers of endothelial damage. We performed hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) on principal components of these biomarkers of the immune response and endothelial injury. Regression analysis was used to control for known differences across study arms near the time of randomization and to assess any association with prehospital plasma administration. Results: HCA based on inflammatory mediator and endothelial damage marker concentrations distinguished two patient clusters, each with different injury patterns and outcomes. Patients in cluster A had greater injury severity and incidence of blunt trauma, traumatic brain injury, and mortality. Cluster A patients that received prehospital plasma as compared to standard care fluid resuscitation showed improved 30-day survival. Prehospital plasma did not improve survival in cluster B patients. In an adjusted analysis of themost seriously injured patients (ISS>30), plasma was associated with a an increase in circulating levels of adiponectin, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and IL-17E upon admission. One day following admission, prehospital plasmas was associated with a reduction in syndecan-1, TM, VEGF, IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α, and an increase in IL-33, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-17E. Conclusion: This is the first human study to suggest that prehospital plasma may ameliorate the endotheliopathy of trauma and modulate an imbalance between pro-inflammatory (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) and protective (e.g. IL-33 and IL-17E) mediators. These effects of early plasma administration may contribute to improved survival in severely injured patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01818427 Funding: National Institutes of Health T32; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command W81XWH-12-2-0023; National Institutes of Health R35; National Institutes of Health 1R35GM119526-01; the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, through the Defense Medical Research and Development Program W81XWH-18-2-0051 and W81XWH-15-PRORP-OCRCA. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and not necessarily endorsed by the Department of Defense.
Danielle S. Gruen, Joshua B. Brown, Francis X. Guyette, Yoram Vodovotz, Par I. Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, Derek A. Barclay, Jinling Yin, Brian J. Daley, Richard S. Miller, Brian G. Harbrecht, Jeffrey A. Claridge, Herb A. Phelan, Matthew D. Neal, Brian Zuckerbraun, Timothy R. Billiar, Jason L. Sperry
Background: Specific features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) may provide useful prognostic information. We conducted a systematic investigation of the cellular composition and prognostic landscape of TME in gastric cancer. Methods: We evaluated the prognostic significance of major stromal and immune cells within TME. We proposed a composite TME-based risk score and tested it in six independent cohorts of 1,678 patients with gene expression or immunohistochemistry measurements. Further, we devised a new patient classification system based on TME characteristics. Results: We identified natural killer cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells as the most robust prognostic markers. The TME risk score combining these cell types was an independent prognostic factor when adjusted for clinicopathologic variables (gene expression: HR [95% CI]: 1.42 [1.22–1.66]; immunohistochemistry: 1.34 [1.24–1.45], P<0.0001). Higher TME risk scores consistently associated with worse survival within every pathologic stage (HR range: 2.18-3.11, P<0.02) and among patients who received surgery only. The TME risk score provided additional prognostic value beyond stage, and combination of the two improved prognostication accuracy (likelihood-ratio test χ2 = 235.4 vs. 187.6, P<0.0001; net reclassification index: 23%). The TME risk score can predict the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in non-metastatic patients (stage I-III) (interaction test P<0.02). Patients were divided into four TME subtypes that demonstrated distinct genetic and molecular patterns and complemented established genomic and molecular subtypes. Conclusion: We developed and validated a TME-based risk score as an independent prognostic and predictive factor, which has the potential to guide personalized management of gastric cancer.
Bailiang Li, Yuming Jiang, Guoxin Li, George A. Fisher, Ruijiang Li
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