M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) is one of the autoantigens associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and is localized in exocrine glands where disease specific inflammation occurs. The inflammatory lesion is characterized by infiltration of CD4+ T cells, including clonally expanded Th17 cells. We undertook this study to identify circulating M3R specific Th17 cells, and to determine functional properties of those cells. Using ELISpot method, we identified M3R reactive Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with primary SS (pSS). Among examined 10 pSS, 10 healthy subjects (HS), and 5 IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) patients, M3R reactive IL-17 secreting cells were significantly increased in five pSS patients specifically. The commonest T cell epitope, which was analyzed and confirmed by co-culture of isolated CD4+ T cells with antigen presenting cells plus M3R peptides in vitro, was peptide 83-95 of M3R. Peptide recognition was partly in HLA DR restricted manner, confirmed by blocking assay. M3R reactive Th17 cells positivity correlated with higher titers of anti-M3R antibodies, whose systemic disease activity score tended to be higher. Our studies highlight the role of tissue specific autoantigen derived circulating Th17 cells in pSS, for which further work might lead to antigen specific targeted therapy.
Saori Abe, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hanae Kudo, Hiromitsu Asashima, Yuko Ono, Fumika Honda, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Mizuki Yagishita, Shinya Hagiwara, Yuya Kondo, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida
Macrolide antibiotics exert anti-inflammatory effects; however, little is known regarding their immunomodulatory mechanisms. In this study, using two distinct mouse models of mucosal inflammatory disease (LPS-induced acute lung injury and ligature-induced periodontitis), we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory action of erythromycin (ERM) is mediated through upregulation of the secreted homeostatic protein DEL-1. Consistent with the anti-neutrophil recruitment action of endothelial cell-derived DEL-1, ERM inhibited neutrophil infiltration in the lungs and the periodontium in a DEL-1-dependent manner. Whereas ERM (but not other antibiotics such as josamycin and penicillin) protected against lethal pulmonary inflammation and inflammatory periodontal bone loss, these protective effects of ERM were abolished in Del1-deficient mice. By interacting with the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and activating JAK2 in human lung microvascular endothelial cells, ERM induced C/EBPβ-dependent DEL-1 transcription, which was mediated by MAPK p38. Moreover, ERM reversed IL-17-induced inhibition of DEL-1 transcription, in a manner that was not only dependent on JAK2 but also on PI3K/AKT signaling. As DEL-1 levels are severely reduced in inflammatory conditions and with aging, the ability of ERM to upregulate DEL-1 may be a novel approach for the treatment of inflammatory and aging-related diseases.
Tomoki Maekawa, Hikaru Tamura, Hisanori Domon, Takumi Hiyoshi, Toshihito Isono, Daisuke Yonezawa, Naoki Hayashi, Naoki Takahashi, Koichi Tabeta, Takeyasu Maeda, Masataka Oda, Athanasios Ziogas, Vasileia Ι. Alexaki, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Yutaka Terao, George Hajishengallis
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor associated antigens. Cross-presentation by DCs in cancer is impaired, which may represent one of the obstacles for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. This effect did not require direct cell-cell contact and was associated with transfer of lipids. Neutrophils (PMN) and PMN-MDSC transferred lipid to DCs equally well, however PMN did not affect DC cross-presentation. PMN-MDSC generate oxidatively truncated lipids previously shown to be involved in impaired cross-presentation by DCs. Accumulation of oxidized lipids in PMN-MDSC was dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO deficient PMN-MDSC did not affect cross-presentation by DCs. Cross-presentation of tumor associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved in MDSC depleted or tumor-bearing MPO KO mice. Pharmacological inhibition of MPO in combination with checkpoint blockade reduced tumor progression in different tumor models. These data suggest MPO-driven lipid peroxidation in PMN-MDSC as a possible non-cell autonomous mechanism of inhibition of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and propose MPO as potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of current immunotherapies for cancer patients.
Alessio Ugolini, Vladimir Tyurin, Yulia Tyurina, Evgenii Tsyganov, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Valerian E Kagan, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich, Filippo Veglia
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in mouse lungs are activated by the epithelium-derived alarmin IL-33. Activated ILC2s proliferate and produce IL-5 and IL-13 that drive allergic responses. In neonatal lungs, IL-33 is spontaneously released resulting in activation of lung ILC2s. Here we report that neonatal lung ILC2 activation by endogenous IL-33 has significant effects on ILC2 functions in adulthood. Most neonatal lung ILC2s incorporated 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and persisted into adulthood. BrdU+ ILC2s in adult lungs responded more intensely to IL-33 treatment than BrdU- ILC2s. In IL-33 deficient (KO) mice, lung ILC2s develop normally but they are not activated in the neonatal period. Lung ILC2s in KO mice responded less intensely to IL-33 in adulthood compared to wild type (WT) ILC2s. While there was no difference in the number of lung ILC2s, there were fewer IL-13+ ILC2s in KO than WT mice. The impaired responsiveness of ILC2s in KO mice was reversed by intranasal administrations of IL-33 in the neonatal period. These results suggest that activation of lung ILC2s by endogenous IL-33 in the neonatal period may “train” ILC2s seeding the lung after birth to become long-lasting resident cells that respond more efficiently to challenges later in life.
Catherine A. Steer, Laura Mathä, Hanjoo Shim, Fumio Takei
Rituximab, a B cell-depleting therapy, is indicated for treating a growing number of autoantibody-mediated autoimmune disorders. However, relapses can occur after treatment and autoantibody-producing B cell subsets may be found during relapses. It is not understood if these autoantibody-producing B cell subsets emerge from the failed depletion of pre-existing B cells or are generated de novo. To further define the mechanisms that cause post-rituximab relapse, we studied patients with autoantibody-mediated muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG) who relapsed after treatment. We carried out single-cell transcriptional and B cell receptor (BCR) profiling on longitudinal B cell samples. We identified clones present prior to therapy that continued to persist during relapse. Persistent B cell clones included both antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells characterized by gene expression signatures associated with B cell survival. A subset of persistent antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells were specific for the MuSK autoantigen. These results demonstrate that rituximab is not fully effective at eliminating autoantibody-producing B cells and provide a mechanistic understanding of post-rituximab relapse in MuSK MG.
Ruoyi Jiang, Miriam L. Fichtner, Kenneth B. Hoehn, Minh C. Pham, Panos Stathopoulos, Richard J. Nowak, Steven H. Kleinstein, Kevin C. O'Connor
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal malignancy that has no effective treatment. The tumor microenvironment (TME) of PDA employs a multitude of immune derangement strategies to protect PDA from immune elimination. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in pathogenesis of immune suppression of PDA-TME, however, its underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. Using primary patient samples, our studies showed that in comparison with macrophages isolated from normal pancreatic tissues, the phagocytosis activity of PDA-TAM is significantly reduced. We found that the expression of homeobox protein VentX, a master regulator of macrophage plasticity, is significantly decreased in the PDA-TAMs. We demonstrated that VentX is required for phagocytosis and that restoration of VentX expression in PDA-TAMs promotes phagocytosis through regulating the signaling cascades involved in the process. Using an ex-vivo culture model of primary human PDA, we showed that VentX-modulated-TAMs transformed PDA-TME from a pro-tumor milieu to an anti-tumor microenvironment by rectifying differentiation, proliferation and activation of PDA-infiltrating immune cells. Using NSG-PDX models of primary human PDAs, we showed that VentX-modulated-TAMs exert strong inhibition on PDA tumorigenesis in vivo. Taken together, our data revealed a central mechanism underlying immune evasion of PDA and a potential novel venue to improve PDA prognosis.
Yi Le, Hong Gao, William G. Richards, Lei Zhao, Ronald Bleday, Thomas Clancy, Zhenglun Zhu
T follicular helper (Tfh) cell migration into germinal centers (GC) is essential for the generation of GC B cells and antibody responses to T dependent (TD) antigens. This process requires interactions between LFA-1 on Tfh cells and ICAMs on B cells. The mechanisms underlying defective antibody responses to TD antigens in DOCK8 deficiency are incompletely understood. We show that mice selectively lacking DOCK8 in T cells have impaired IgG antibody responses to TD antigens, decreased GC size, and reduced numbers of GC B cells. However, they develop normal numbers of Tfh cells with intact capacity for driving B cell differentiation into a GC phenotype in vitro. Notably, migration of DOCK8 deficient T cells into GCs is defective. Following TCR/CD3 ligation, DOCK8 deficient T cells have impaired LFA-1 activation and reduced binding to ICAM-1. DOCK8 is important for LFA1-dependent positioning of Tfh cells in GCs, and thereby the generation of GC B cells and IgG antibody responses to TD antigen.
Erin Janssen, Mira Tohme, Jordan Butts, Sophie S.B. Giguere, Peter T. Sage, Francisco E. Velázquez, Christy Kam, Elena Milin, Mrinmoy Das, Ali Sobh, Salem Al-Tamemi, Francis W. Luscinskas, Facundo Batista, Raif S. Geha
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results from overwhelming pulmonary inflammation. Prior bulk RNA sequencing provided limited insights into ARDS pathogenesis. We used single cell RNA sequencing to probe ARDS at a higher resolution. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with pneumonia and sepsis with early ARDS were compared to that of sepsis patients who did not develop ARDS. Monocyte clusters from ARDS patients revealed multiple distinguishing characteristics in comparison to monocytes from patients without ARDS including down-regulation of SOCS3 expression accompanied by a pro-inflammatory signature with up-regulation of multiple type I IFN-induced genes, especially in CD16+ cells. To generate an ARDS risk score, we identified up-regulation of 29 genes in the monocytes of these patients, and 17 showed a similar profile in cells of patients in independent cohorts. Monocytes had increased expression of RAB11A, known to inhibit neutrophil efferocytosis, ATP2B1, a calcium pump that exports Ca2+ implicated in endothelial barrier disruption, and SPARC, associated with processing of pro-collagen to collagen. These data show that monocytes of ARDS patients up-regulate expression of genes not just restricted to those associated with inflammation. Together, our findings identify molecules that are likely involved in ARDS pathogenesis that may inform biomarker and therapeutic development.
Yale Jiang, Brian R. Rosborough, Jie Chen, Sudipta Das, Georgios D. Kitsios, Bryan J. McVerry, Rama K. Mallampalli, Janet S. Lee, Anuradha Ray, Wei Chen, Prabir Ray
Expression of immune checkpoint ligands (ICLs) is necessary to trigger the inhibitory signal via immune checkpoint receptors (ICRs) in exhausted T cells under tumor immune microenvironment. Nevertheless, ICL expression profile in cancer patients has not been investigated. Using previously reported RNA-seq datasets, we found that expression of ICLs was patient-specific but their co-expression can be patterned in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Since the expressions of PD-L1 and PVR among various ICLs were independently regulated, we could stratify the patients, who were treated with anti-PD-1 later, into four groups according to the expression level of PD-L1 and PVR. Of interest, high PVR and low PVR expressions in PD-L1-expressing patients enriched non-responders and responders to PD-1 blockade, respectively, helping in further selection of responders. Using genetically engineered cancer model, we also found that PVR-deficient and PD-L1-sufficient tumor-bearing mice were highly sensitive to anti-PD-1 therapy, whereas PVR-sufficient and PD-L1-deficient tumor-bearing mice were resistant to anti-PD-1 therapy. Taken together, our study provides a concept that combinatorial expression patterns of PVR and PD-L1 are a key determinant for PD-1 blockade and furthermore suggest a better therapeutic usage of immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs).
Bo Ryeong Lee, Sehyun Chae, Jihyun Moon, Myeong Joon Kim, Hankyu Lee, Hyuk Wan Ko, Byoung Chul Cho, Hyo Sup Shim, Daehee Hwang, Hye Ryun Kim, Sang-Jun Ha
Type I IFN (IFN-I) production by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) occurs during acute HIV-1 infection in response to TLR7 stimulation, but the role of pDC-derived IFN-I in controlling or promoting HIV-1 infection is ambiguous. We report here a sex-biased interferogenic phenotype for a frequent single-nucleotide polymorphism of human TLR7, rs179008, displaying an impact on key parameters of acute HIV-1 infection. We show allele rs179008 T to determine lower TLR7 protein abundance in cells from women, specifically — likely by diminishing TLR7 mRNA translation efficiency through codon usage. The hypomorphic TLR7 phenotype is mirrored by decreased TLR7-driven IFN-I production by female pDCs. Among women from the French ANRS PRIMO cohort of acute HIV-1 patients, carriage of allele rs179008 T associated with lower viremia, cell-associated HIV-1 DNA, and CXCL10 (IP-10) plasma concentrations. RNA viral load was decreased by 0.85 log10 (95% CI, −1.51 to −0.18) among T/T homozygotes, who also exhibited a lower frequency of acute symptoms. TLR7 emerges as an important control locus for acute HIV-1 viremia, and the clinical phenotype for allele rs179008 T, carried by 30%–50% of European women, supports a beneficial effect of toning down TLR7-driven IFN-I production by pDCs during acute HIV-1 infection.
Pascal Azar, José Enrique Mejía, Claire Cenac, Arnoo Shaiykova, Ali Youness, Sophie Laffont, Asma Essat, Jacques Izopet, Caroline Passaes, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Pierre Delobel, Laurence Meyer, Jean-Charles Guéry
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